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PROGRAM:

NAME


icmake - A program maintenance (make) utility using a C-like grammar

SYNOPSIS


icmake [options] source[.im] [dest[.bim]] [-- [args]]

icmun bimfile

DESCRIPTION


Icmake(1) can be used as an alternative to make(1). In its standard operation mode, it
calls the following programs:

o icm-pp to preprocess the icmake file

o icm-comp to byte-code compile the icmake s

o icm-exec to execute the byte-code file

Icmake allows programmers to use a programming language (closely resembling the well-known
C-programming language) to define the actions that are involved in (complex) program
maintenance. For this, icmake offers various special operators as well as a set of support
functions that have proven to be useful in program maintenance.

The program icmun(1) can be used to disassemble the compiled byte-code (.bim) file. Icmun
is primarily used for illustration, education, and debugging.

Traditional make-utilities recompile sources once header files are modified. In the
context of C++ program development this is often a bad idea, as adding a new member to a
class does not normally require you to recompile the class’s sources. To handle class
dependencies icmbuld(1) may inspect CLASSES files that can be used to define dependencies
among classes. By default, class-dependencies are not interpreted. Refer to the icmconf(7)
man-page for further details.

OPTIONS


Icmake uses the following files and options:

o source: icmake script source file (default extension: .im).

o dest: binary icmake script file (default: `source’.bim, called the `.bim file’
below).

o --: icmake arguments separator separating icmake arguments from arguments passed
to the .bim filenl() args: arguments following -- are passed to the .bim file
as-is, and are available from the list argv parameter defined as the icmake
script’s main function’s second parameter (see below at section USER DEFINED
FUNCTIONS). For some options (see below) the -- separator is not required.

Icmake supports various options, described next. The -h option overrules all other
options, the -a option overrules all other options except for -h. Of the remaining action
options (-b, -c, -e, -i, -p and -t) only one may be specified:

o -a
show information about icmake, overruled by -h;

o -b
discontinued: use option -e instead;

o -c
the icmake source file is compiled, generating a .bim file;

o -e
execute the icmake .bim file, given as icmake’s first file argument. Any additional
arguments are passed to the .bim file as-is, and -- should not be specified;

o -F
the filenames and flags as well as an overview of all actions to be performed by
icmake are shown on the standard output stream;

o -h
provide usage info and end icmake;

o -i
the first argument is the icmake source file, the default binary file is
constructed if necessary. Any additional arguments are passed to the .bim file
as-is, and -- should not be specified;

o -p
the icmake source file is only preprocessed, and the preprocessed file is written
to icmake’s second file argument (by default `source’.pim);

o -q
ignored, will be removed in a future icmake version;

o -t
the argument following -t is the name of a temporary .bim file, which is removed
after icmake’s call. When . is specified as the name of the temporary .bim file
then the default temporary directory, followed by icmake’s process-id, followed by
.bim is used.

Following the name of the temporary .bim file the name of the icmake source script
must be specified. Any additional arguments are passed to the .bim file as-is, and
-- should not be specified; After setting the source script file’s executable flag
(chmod +x script), and providing it with an initial line like this:

#!/usr/bin/icmake -t.

the icmake script can directly be called:

script arg1 arg2

in which case the icmake script `script’ is executed while it receives the
arguments script arg1 arg2.

o -T
this option must be provided with the name of a directory which is used to store
temporary files. E.g., when compiling an icmake script, the output of icmake’s
preprocessor is a temporary file which is removed on exit. By default /tmp is used,
unless /tmp is not a writable directory, in which case the current user’s $HOME
directory is used. Implicit temporary filenames always start with the process id of
the current icmake process.

o -v
display icmake’s version number, and end icmake, overruled by -h

Icmun:

bimfile: binary icmake script file.

PREPROCESSOR DIRECTIVES


The following preprocessor directives are available:

o comment:
standard C comment (all between /* and */) as well as comment-to-end-of-line (all
line contents following //) are ignored.

o Shell startup: The first line of the icmake-script may start with #!path, where
path defines the absolute location of the icmake program. By making the script
executable, it can be called without explicitly calling icmake.

E.g., if the first line of an (executable) icmakefile ’icm’ (without extension)
contains

#!/usr/bin/icmake -i

then icm may be issued as a command, thus executing

/usr/bin/icmake -i icm ...

Alternatively,

#!/usr/bin/icmake -t /tmp/icm

may be used, resulting in the execution of

#!/usr/bin/icmake -t /tmp/icm icm ...

In this case the binary file is removed on exit.

o #include "filename"
The file filename is included at the location of the directive

o #include <filename>
The file filename is included at the location of the #include directive; filename
is searched in the colon-separated directories specified by the IM environment
variable. The first occurrence of filename in the directories specified by the IM
environment variable is used.

o #define identifier [definition]
The text identifier will be replaced by definition. The definition may contain
references to already defined identifiers, using the ${identifier} format. If the
${identifier} hasn’t been defined (yet), the text ${identifier} is literally kept.
To prevent infinite recursion at most 100 ${identifier} replacements are allowed.

Definitions continue at the next line if the last character on a line is a
backslash (\). (which is not included in the definition). The preprocessor
concatenates double-quuted strings, and double quoted strings may not span multiple
lines. Multiple blanks (outside of double quoted strings) in definitions are
contracted to a single blank space.

The definition following the #define’s identifier is optional. If omitted, the
macro is defined, so it can be used in #if(n)def directives (see below), but they
are not replaced by any text in icmake code statements.

o #ifdef identifier
If the identifier macro was defined the next block of code (until a matching #else
or #endif directive was read) is byte-compiled. Otherwise, the block of code is
ignored.

o #ifndef identifier
If the identifier macro was not defined the next block of code (until a matching
#else or #endif directive was detected) is byte-compiled. Otherwise, the block of
code is ignored.

o #else
Terminates a #ifdef and #ifndef directive, reversing the acceptance decision about
the following code. Only one #else directive can be associated with #if(n)def
directives.

o #endif
Terminates the preprocessor block starting at the matching #ifdef, #ifndef or #else
directive. The #endif directory and its matching #if(n)def directive must be
specified in the same file.

o #undef identifier
Remove identifier from the set of defined symbols. This does not affect the
specification of any previously defined symbols in which identifier’s definition
has been used. If identifier hasn’t been defined a warning is issued.

DATA TYPES


Icmake supports these data types:

o ASCII character constants
ASCII character constants consist of one character, surrounded by single or double
quotes. Single characters (e.g., ’a’) represent the character itself. Standard
escape sequences (e.g., ’\n’) are supported and represent their standard converted
value (e.g., ’\n’ represents ascii value 10 (decimal)). Non-standard escape
sequences (e.g., ’\x’) represent the ascii character following the escape character
(so ’\x’ equals ’x’). Escape sequences consisting of three octal digits represent
the ascii character corresponding to the octal value modulo 256 (e.g., ’\123’).
Escape sequences consisting of an x followed by two hexadecimal digits represent
the ascii character corresponding to the hexadecimal value (e.g., ’\xa4’).

o int
Integral values, ranging from -0x8000 through 0x7fff. int constants may be
specified as decimal numbers (starting with digits 1 through 9), octal numbers
(starting with 0, followed by one or more octal digits) hexadecimal numbers
(starting with 0x, followed by one or more hexadecimal digits) or as ASCII
character constants.

o string
Text variables. String constants are delimited by double quotes. Multiple string
constants may be concatenated, but a single string constant may not span multiple
lines. String constants separated by white space only (i.e., blanks, newlines,
comment) are concatenated and represent one single string constant. To indicate an
end-of-line in a string constant use the \n escape sequence.

ASCII character constants surrounded by double quotes can also be used in
arithmetic expressions if one of the operands is an int. The single character
string constant must be a constant, and cannot be a string variable.

Likewise, ASCII character constants surrounded by single quotes may be used in
situations where a string operand is expected.

o list
A data structure containing a series of individually accessible string values. When
a list contains elements, its first element is indicated by index 0.

o void
Used with function definitions to indicate that the function does not return a
value.

Variables can be defined at the global level as well as at any local level inside
functions. When defined inside functions, the standard C scoping and visibility rules
apply. E.g., local variables can only be used in their own or in more deeply nested
blocks, their visibility is masked in more deeply nested blocks by defining an identically
named variable inside those more deeply nested blocks. Variables are strongly typed, and
cannot have type void.

Variables may be initialized when they are defined. Initializations are expressions, that
can use pre- or user-defined functions, constant values, and values of variables that are
visible at the point of definition.

PREDEFINED CONSTANTS


The following constants are predefined by icmake. All are constant int values:

─────────────────────────────────
symbol value intended for
─────────────────────────────────
O_ALL 8 makelist
O_DIR 2 makelist
O_FILE 1 makelist
O_SUBDIR 4 makelist
─────────────────────────────────
OFF 0 echo
ON 1 echo
─────────────────────────────────
P_CHECK 0 system calls
P_NOCHECK 1 system calls
─────────────────────────────────
S_IEXEC 32 stat
S_IFCHR 1 stat
S_IFDIR 2 stat
S_IFREG 4 stat
S_IREAD 8 stat
S_IWRITE 16 stat
─────────────────────────────────

The following constants are architecture dependent:

──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
symbol 1 when defined on the platform, otherwise 0
──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
unix Unix, usually with GNU’s gcc compiler
UNIX may alternatively be available
linux x86 running Linux (usually with gcc)
LINUX may alternatively be available
M_SYSV, M_UNIX x86 running SCO/Unix
_POSIX _SOURCE Unix with Posix compliant compiler
__hpux HP-UX, with the native HP compiler
──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────

OPERATORS


int-typed operand(s):

All C operators are available (except for pointer operators, as icmake does not support
pointers). They operate like their C-programming language counterparts.

string-typed operand(s):

For string type variables and/or constants the following operators are available (a and b
represent string variables or constants):

o a + b: returns a new string value containing the concatenation of string values a
and b. Note that string constants may be directly concatetated (without using the +
operator), e.g., the following two lines both define the string "hello world":

"hello " "world"
"hello " + "world"

o a += b: a must be a string variable, to which the string variable or value b is
appended.

o string comparisons: operators == != <= >= < > != and == may be applied to string
values or variables, returning 1 if the comparison succeeds, otherwise 0.
Comparison is case sensitively, and follows the ordering or characters as defined
in the ASCII character set.

o !a: the boolean ! (not) operator returns 1 if the string a is empty, otherwise 0 is
returned.

o a younger b, a newer b: returns 1 if file a is more recent than file b. E.g.,
"source.cc" newer "source.o". The files a and b do not have to exist: if both don’t
exist 0 is returned; if b doesn’t exist, 1 is returned; if a doesn’t exist 0 is
returned; if they are equally old 0 is returned. (the exists() predefined function
(see below, section PREDEFINED FUNCTIONS) can be used to test explicitly whether a
file exists).

o a older b: turns 1 if file a is older than file b. E.g., "libprog.a" older
"source.o". The files a and b do not have to exist: if both don’t exist 0 is
returned; if a doesn’t exist, 1 is returned; if b doesn’t exist 0 is returned; if
they are equally old 0 is returned.

o []: the index operator retrieves a character from a string variable or constant: it
returns a string as an rvalue. Therefore, the following statement compiles OK:

// assume str1 and str2 are strings
str1 = str2[3];

but the following statement won’t compile:

str2[3] = "a";

An empty string is returned if an invalid index value is provided.

o The `backtick` operator (`string cmd`)
A string placed between two backticks is executed by the popen(3) function. The
standard output gererated by the command that is stored in the string argument is
returned as a list. An empty list indicates that the command could not be executed.
A command that could be executed but did not produce any output returns a list
containing one empty element. The command’s standard error stream output is not
collected by the backtick operator. However, standard shell redirection could be
used to collect the standard error stream’s output. Example:

printf(`"ls"`); // prints the elements in
// the current directory

The predefined function eval(string cmd) behaves exactly like the backtick
operator: they are synonyms.

list-typed operand(s):

For list type variables and/or values the following operators are available:

o a + b: returns a new list value containing the concatenation of list values a and
b. This is not a set operation: if an element appears both in a and in b, they will
appear twice in the resulting list (set-addition is provided by the built-in
function listunion).

o a - b: returns a new list value containing the elements in a that are not present
in b. This is a set-difference operation: the returned list contains all elements
in a that are not elements of b.

o a += b: elements in b are added to the elements in a, which must be a list
variable. This is not a set operation.

o a -= b: elements in b are removed from the elements in a, which must be a list
variable. This is a set operation: all elements of a that are found in b are
removed from a.

o list equality comparisons: operators != and == may be applied to list values or
variables. Operator == returns 1 if both lists have element-by-element identical
elements, otherwise 0 is returned. Operator != reverses the result of ==.

o !a: the boolean ! operator returns 1 if the list a is empty, otherwise 0 is
returned.

o []: the index operator retrieves a list element from a list variable: it returns a
string as an rvalue. Therefore, the following statement compiles OK:

// assume lst is a list, str is a string
str = lst[3];

but the following statement won’t compile:

lst[3] = str;

An empty string is returned if an invalid index value is provided.

Casting:

Type-casts may be performed using the standard C cast-operator to cast:

o Strings to ints and vice versa ((int)"123", (string)55)

o Strings to lists (list lst = (list)"hello")

FLOW CONTROL


Icmake offers the following subset of C’s statements. They can be used as in the C
programming language.

o expression ;
The plain expression statement;

o The compound statement
Variables of any type may be defined and initialized anywhere inside any compound
statement. The visibility of a variable starts at its point of definition.

o if (condition) statement
Inside the condition a variable may be defined and initialized. E.g,

if (string str = getText())
process(str);

In this example, process is not called if getText() returns an empty string. The
variable str does not exist either before or after the if statement.

o if (condition) statement else statement
As with the previous statement, inside the condition a variable may be defined and
initialized.

o for (init; condition; increment) statement
Variables (of a single type) may be initialized (and optionally be defined) in the
init section. The init, condition and increment sections may remain empty. The
empty condition section is interpreted as `always true’.

o while (condition) statement
Inside the condition a variable may be defined and initialized.
A complementary do ... while() statement is not available. Note that defining a
variable, using an initialization expression means that the initialization
expressing is executed at each iteration of the while statement. So the following
statement will never end, and will display a never ending stream of values 10:

while (int x = 10)
printf(x--, "\n");

o return;, and return expression;
Plain return statements can be used in void functions, and return expression
statements are used in other type of functions. The function main has return type
void and so in main only plain return statements can be used. By default an icmake
script’s exit value equals 0. Use the built-in function exit (see below) to specify
any other exit value.

Be advised: the behavior of non-void functions not returning values is undefined.

o break
Leaves for and while statements, overruling the statement’s condition.

o continue
Continues with the next iteration of a for or while statement.

o exit(expression)
Ends the execution of an icmake-script. The expression must evaluate to an int
value, which becomes the script’s exit value.

PREDEFINED FUNCTIONS


Icmake offers the following predefined functions, which can be used anywhere in icmake
scripts. The following overview is ordered alphabetically by function name.

o void arghead(string h)
Helper function of exec() (see also below at exec()): defines the `argument head’,
to be used with exec(). By default, the `argument head’ is an empty string.

o void argtail (string t)
Helper function of exec() (see also below at exec()): defines the `argument tail’,
to be used with exec(). By default, the `argument tail’ is an empty string.

o int ascii(string s)
Returns the first character of s as an int; e.g., ascii("A") returns 65;

o string ascii(int i)
Returns i as a string, e.g., ascii(65) returns the string "A";

o string change_base(string file, string newbase)
Changes the basename of file, returns the changed name. E.g,
change_base("/path/demo.im", "out") returns "/path/out.im";

o string change_ext(string file, string newext)
Changes the extension of file, returns the changed name. E.g,
rss_changeExt("source.cc", "o") returns "source.o";

o string change_path(string file, string newpath)
Changes the path specification of file, returns the changed name. E.g,
change_path("tmp/binary", "/usr/bin") returns "/usr/bin/binary". Note that the
/-separator is inserted if required.

o string chdir(string newdir)
Changes the script’s working directory, returns the previous dir as an absolute
path.

Use chdir(".") to obtain the current working directory, chdir("") may be used to
obtain the startup working directory (this functionality was broken in releases
before than 7.00, but is now operational). The function terminates the
icmake-script if the specified newdir does not exist.

o string chdir(int checking, string newdir)
Same functionality as the previous function, but by specifying checking as
P_NOCHECK. the function won’t terminate the script. Rather, it will return the
script’s current working directory.

o cmdhead(string h)
Helper function of exec() (see also below at exec()): Defines a `command head’, to
be used with exec(). By default, the `command head’ is an empty string.

o cmdtail(string t)
Helper function of exec() (see also below at exec()): Defines a `command tail’, to
be used with exec(). By default, the `command tail’ is an empty string.

o echo(int opt)
Controls echoing of called programs (and their arguments), specify OFF if echoing
is not requested. By default echo(ON) is used.

o string element(int index, list (or string) var)
Acts identical to the index operator: refer to the index ([]) operator in the
section OPERATORS.

o list eval(string str)
This function acts identically to the backtick operator. The example provided with
the backtick operator could therefore also have been written like this:

printf(eval("ls")); // prints the elements in the current
// directory

o exec(string cmd, ...)
Executes command with arguments. Each argument will be prefixed by arghead()’s
argument and postfixed by argtail()’s argument. Note that no blanks are inserted
between arghead()’s contents, the argument proper, and argtail()’s argument. All
thus modified arguments are concatenated, this time separated by single blanks, and
then cmdhead()’s contents are inserted between the command and the first argument
(on either side delimited by single blanks) and cmdtail()’s contents are appended
to the arguments (again, separated by a single blank). PATH is searched to locate
cmd. 0 is returned.

o exec(int checkcmd, string cmd, ...)
Same functionality as the previous function, but by specifying checking as
NOT_CHECKED the function won’t terminate the script. Rather, it will return the
called command’s exit status, or 0x7f00 if the command wasn’t found.

o execute(string cmd, string cmdhd, string arghd, ..., string argtl, string cmdtl)
Same as exec(), but command head/tail and argument head/tail must be specified.

The actually executed command starts with cmd, followed by cmdhd. Next is a series
of arguments follows, each enclosed by arghd and argtl. The command terminates with
cmdtl. 0 is returned

o execute(int checking, string cmd, string cmdhd, string arghd, ..., string argtl,
string cmdtl)
Same functionality as the previous function, but by specifying checking as
NOT_CHECKED the function won’t terminate the script. Rather, it will return the
called command’s exit status, or 0x7f00 if the command wasn’t found.

o int exists(string file)
Returns a non-zero value if file exists, otherwise 0 is returned.

o list fgets(string file, list offset)
NOTE: in icmake version 8.00.00 the prototype of this function was changed from
list fgets(string file, int offset) to list fgets(string file, list offset).

The next line found at the offset contained in offset is read from file. Pass an
empty list to fgets to read file from its beginning.

It returns a list containing as its first element the contents of the read line
(without the \n line terminator), as its second element the line’s terminator `\n
(if encountered), and as its third element the string OK if a line was successfully
read, FAIL if reading from file failed. When reading at EOF an empty list is
returned. The returned list may contain additional elements, which are internally
used by fgets when reading the next line.

To read multiple lines, start by passing an empty list as gets’s second argument.
To read subsequent lines, pass the previously returned list to fgets’s second
argument.

Here is an example showing how to read a complete file:

list ret;
while (1)
{
ret = fgets("filename", ret);
if (!ret)
break;
process(ret[0], ret[1]);
}

o int fprintf(string filename, ...)
Appends all (comma separated) arguments to the file filename. Returns the number of
printed arguments.

o int fprintf(string filename, string format, ...)
Appends all (comma separated) arguments to the file filename. Returns the number of
printed arguments.

If format contains placeholders %1 .. %n the output is formatted (see also
strformat). Note that in this case argument counting (also) starts beyond the
format string: the first argument following format is referred to as %1.

o string get_base(string file)
Returns the base name of file. The base name is the file without its path prefix
and without its extension. The extension is all information starting at the final
dot in the filename. If no final dot is found, the file name is the base name.
E.g., the base name of a.b equals a, the base name of a.b.c equals a.b, the base
name of a/b/c equals c.

o string getch()
Returns the next pressed key as a string (pressing `Enter’ is not required).

o string get_dext(string file)
Returns the extension of file, including the separating dot. The extension is all
information starting at the filename’s final dot.

If no final dot is found, an empty string is returned.

o list getenv(string envvar)
Returns the value of environment variable envvar in a list containing two elements:

the first element indicates whether the environment variable was defined (value
"1") or not (value "0");
the second element indicates the value of the environment variable.

Enivironment variables are of the form variable=value, and if defined the list’s
second element contains value. If the value is empty, the variable is defined, but
has no text associated with it.

o string get_ext(string file)
Returns the extension of file, except for the separating dot. The extension is all
information starting at the final dot in the filename.

If no final dot is found, an empty string is returned.

o int getpid()
Returns the process-id of the icmake byte code interpreter icm-exec.

o string gets()
Returns the next line read from the keyboard as a string. The line entered on the
keyboard must be terminated by an `Enter’ key, which is not stored in the returned
string.

o string get_path(string file)
Returns the path-prefix of file. The path prefix is all information up to (and
including) the final directory separator (which is, depending on the operating
system, a forward- or backslash).

If no path is found, an empty strring is returned.

o int listfind(list lst, string str)
Returns the first index in lst where the string str is found, or -1 if lst does not
contain str.

o int listlen(list l)
Returns the number of elements in list.

o list listunion(list lhs, list rhs)
Returns a list containing the union of the elements in lhs and rhs.

o list listunion(list lst, string str)
Returns a list containing the union of the elements in lst and str.

o list makelist(string mask)
Returns a list of all files matching mask. E.g., makelist("*.c") returns a list
containing all files ending in .c.

o list makelist(type, string mask)
Same as the previous function, but the type of the directory elements may be
specified as its first argument:

symbol meaning
IS_ALL obtain all directory entries
IS_DIR obtain all directories, including . and ..
IS_FILE obtain a list of files
IS_SUBDIR obtain all subdirectories

Note that the pattern * will not match hidden entries under Unix-type operating
systems. Use .* for that.

o list makelist(string mask, newer, string comparefile)
Returns list of all files matching mask which are newer than a provided
comparefile. Operator younger may be used instead of newer. Note that newer and
younger are operators, not strings.

o list makelist([int = IS_FILE,] string mask, newer, string comparefile)
Same as the previous function, but type may be specified as in list makelist(type,
string mask).

o makelist(string mask, older, string comparefile)
See above; returns a list of files that are older than the comparefile.

o makelist(type, string mask, older, string comparefile)
Same as the previous function, but type may be specified as in list makelist(type,
string mask).

o int printf(...)
Shows all (comma separated) arguments to screen (i.e., the standard output stream).
Returns the number of printed arguments.

o int printf(string format, ...)
Shows all (comma separated) arguments to screen (i.e., the standard output stream).
Returns the number of printed arguments (the format string counts as one argument).

If format contains placeholders %1 .. %n the output is formatted (see also
strformat).

o int putenv(string envvar)
Adds envvar to the current (icmake) environment Use the format: "VAR=value".
Returns 0.

o string resize(string str, int newlength) Returns a copy of string str, resized to
newlength characters. If newlength is negative then an empty string is returned,
if newlength exceeds str’s length then the newly added characters are initialized
to blank spaces.

o int sizeof(list l)
Deprecated: use listlen.

o int sizeoflist(list l)
Deprecated: use listlen.

o list stat(string entry)
Returns stat(2) information of directory entry entry as a list. The returned list
has two elements: element 0 is the attribute value, element 1 contains the size of
the file.

Attributes are returned as bit-flags, composed from the following predefined
constants:

S_IFCHR S_IFDIR S_IFREG
S_IREAD S_IWRITE S_IEXEC

See the stat(2) manual page for the meanings of these constants.

o list stat(checking, string entry)
Same as the previous function, but by specifying checking as P_NOCHECK the function
won’t terminate the script. Rather, it returns stat(2)’s return value.

o int strchr(string str, string chars)
Returns the first index in str where any of the characters in chars is found, or -1
if str does not contain any of the characters in chars.

o int strlen(string str)
Returns the number of characters in str (not counting the final 0).

o int strfind(string haystack, string needle)
Returns index in haystack where needle is found, or -1 if needle is not contained
in haystack.
This function was called strstr() in versions before 7.00.

o int strformat(string format,...)
Returns a formatted string using placeholders %1 .. %2 to address arguments
following format.
Example:

void main()
{
int i = 10;
int j = 20;
string s1;
string s2;
// traditional approach:
s1 = (string)i + " " + (string)j + " " + (string)i;
// using strformat:
s2 = strformat("%1 %2 %1", i, j);
printf("s1 = %1, s2 = %2\n", s1, s2);
}

o string strlwr(string s)
Returns a lower-case duplicate of s.

o list strtok(string str, string separators)
Returns a list containing all substrings of str separated by one or more
(consecutive) characters in separators. E.g., strtok("hello icmake’s+world", " +")
returns the list containing the three strings "hello", "icmake’s", and "world".

o string strupr(string s)
Returns an upper-case duplicate of s.

o string substr(string text, int offset, int count)
Returns a substring of text, starting at offset, consisting of count characters. If
offset exceeds (or equals) the string’s size or if count <= 0, then an empty string
is returned. If offset is less than 0 then 0 is used.

o int system(string command)
Executes command. The return value indicates the executed command’s exit value. The
string command may contain redirection and/or piping characters.

o int system(int checking, string command)
Same functionality as the previous function, but by specifying checking as
NOT_CHECKED the function won’t terminate the script. Rather, it will return the
called command’s exit status, or 0x7f00 if the command wasn’t found.

o string trim(string s)
Returns a copy of s without leading and trailing white spaces.

o string trimleft(string str)
Returns a copy of s without leading white spaces.

o string trim(string s)
Returns a copy of s without trailing white spaces.

USER DEFINED FUNCTIONS


void main

Icmake scripts must be provided with a user-defined function main. The function main has
three optional parameters, which may be omitted from the last one (envp) to the first
(argc), like in C. Its full prototype is (note: void return type):

void main(int argc, list argv, list envp)

In main(),

o argc represents the number of elements in argv;

o argv contains the arguments, with element 0 being equal to the name of the .bim
file;

o envp contains the `environment’ variables. The function listlen can be used to
determine the number of its elements. Elements in envp have the form
variable=value. Alternatively, the function getenv can be used to retrieve a
specific environment variable immediately. Example:

void main(int argc, list argv)
{
list toCompile;
int idx;

if (argc == 1)
usage(element(0, argv));

if (toCompile = altered("*.cc"))
{
for (idx = length(toCompile); idx--; )
compile(element(idx, toCompile));

if (getenv("dryrun")[0] == "0")
linking(element(2, argv));
}
}

Having initialized all global variables in order of their definitions main is called by
icmake’s run-time support system to perform additional tasks.

Additionally defined user functions

Additional functions may be defined. Once defined, these functions can be called. Forward
referencing of either variables or functions is not supported, but recursively calling
functions is. As function declarations are not supported indirect recursion is not
supported either.

User-defined functions must have the following elements:

o The function’s return type, which must be one of void, int, string or list. There
is no default type.

o The function’s name, e.g., compile.

o A parameter list, defining zero or more comma-separated parameters. The parameters
themselves consist of a type name (int, string, or list) followed by the
parameter’s identifier. E.g., (string outfile, string source).

o A body surrounded by a pair of curly braces ({ and }).

Function bodies may contain (optionally initialized) variable definitions. Variable
definitions start with a type name, followed by one or more comma separated (optionally
initialized) variable identifiers. If a variable is not explicitly initialized it is
initialized by default. By default an int variable is initialized to 0, a string is
initialized to an empty string ("") and a list is initialized to a list of zero elements.

In addition to variable definitions, bodies may contain zero or more statements (cf.
section FLOW CONTROL). Note that variables may be defined (and optionally initialized)
anywhere inside functions, and also in if, for and while statements.

The behavior of icmake-scripts using non-void functions that do not return values is not
defined.

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