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AS - the portable GNU assembler.
as [-a[cdhlns][=file]] [--alternate] [-D]
[--defsym sym=val] [-f] [-g] [--gstabs]
[--gstabs+] [--gdwarf-2] [--help] [-I dir] [-J]
[-K] [-L] [--listing-lhs-width=NUM]
[--listing-cont-lines=NUM] [--keep-locals] [-o
objfile] [-R] [--reduce-memory-overheads] [--statistics]
[-v] [-version] [--version] [-W] [--warn]
[--fatal-warnings] [-w] [-x] [-Z] [@FILE]
Target Alpha options:
[-mdebug | -no-mdebug]
[-relax] [-g] [-Gsize]
Target ARC options:
Target ARM options:
Target CRIS options:
[--underscore | --no-underscore]
[--emulation=criself | --emulation=crisaout]
[--march=v0_v10 | --march=v10 | --march=v32 | --march=common_v10_v32]
Target D10V options:
Target D30V options:
Target i386 options:
Target i960 options:
Target IA-64 options:
[-x|-xexplicit] [-xauto] [-xdebug]
Target IP2K options:
Target M32C options:
Target M32R options:
Target M680X0 options:
Target M68HC11 options:
Target MCORE options:
[-jsri2bsr] [-sifilter] [-relax]
Target MIPS options:
[-nocpp] [-EL] [-EB] [-O[optimization level]]
[-g[debug level]] [-G num] [-KPIC] [-call_shared]
[-non_shared] [-xgot [-mvxworks-pic]
[-mabi=ABI] [-32] [-n32] [-64] [-mfp32] [-mgp32]
[-march=CPU] [-mtune=CPU] [-mips1] [-mips2]
[-mips3] [-mips4] [-mips5] [-mips32] [-mips32r2]
[-trap] [-no-break] [-break] [-no-trap]
Target MMIX options:
[--gnu-syntax] [--relax] [--no-predefined-symbols]
[--no-expand] [--no-merge-gregs] [-x]
Target PDP11 options:
[-mpic|-mno-pic] [-mall] [-mno-extensions]
Target picoJava options:
Target PowerPC options:
Target SPARC options:
Target TIC54X options:
[-merrors-to-file <filename>|-me <filename>]
Target Z80 options:
[ -ignore-undocumented-instructions] [-Wnud]
[ -ignore-unportable-instructions] [-Wnup]
[ -warn-undocumented-instructions] [-Wud]
[ -warn-unportable-instructions] [-Wup]
[ -forbid-undocumented-instructions] [-Fud]
[ -forbid-unportable-instructions] [-Fup]
Target Xtensa options:
GNU as is really a family of assemblers. If you use (or have used) the GNU assembler on
one architecture, you should find a fairly similar environment when you use it on another
architecture. Each version has much in common with the others, including object file
formats, most assembler directives (often called pseudo-ops) and assembler syntax.
as is primarily intended to assemble the output of the GNU C compiler "gcc" for use by the
linker "ld". Nevertheless, we've tried to make as assemble correctly everything that
other assemblers for the same machine would assemble. Any exceptions are documented
explicitly. This doesn't mean as always uses the same syntax as another assembler for the
same architecture; for example, we know of several incompatible versions of 680x0 assembly
Each time you run as it assembles exactly one source program. The source program is made
up of one or more files. (The standard input is also a file.)
You give as a command line that has zero or more input file names. The input files are
read (from left file name to right). A command line argument (in any position) that has
no special meaning is taken to be an input file name.
If you give as no file names it attempts to read one input file from the as standard
input, which is normally your terminal. You may have to type ctl-D to tell as there is no
more program to assemble.
Use -- if you need to explicitly name the standard input file in your command line.
If the source is empty, as produces a small, empty object file.
as may write warnings and error messages to the standard error file (usually your
terminal). This should not happen when a compiler runs as automatically. Warnings
report an assumption made so that as could keep assembling a flawed program; errors report
a grave problem that stops the assembly.
If you are invoking as via the GNU C compiler, you can use the -Wa option to pass
arguments through to the assembler. The assembler arguments must be separated from each
other (and the -Wa) by commas. For example:
gcc -c -g -O -Wa,-alh,-L file.c
This passes two options to the assembler: -alh (emit a listing to standard output with
high-level and assembly source) and -L (retain local symbols in the symbol table).
Usually you do not need to use this -Wa mechanism, since many compiler command-line
options are automatically passed to the assembler by the compiler. (You can call the GNU
compiler driver with the -v option to see precisely what options it passes to each
compilation pass, including the assembler.)
Read command-line options from file. The options read are inserted in place of the
original @file option. If file does not exist, or cannot be read, then the option
will be treated literally, and not removed.
Options in file are separated by whitespace. A whitespace character may be included
in an option by surrounding the entire option in either single or double quotes. Any
character (including a backslash) may be included by prefixing the character to be
included with a backslash. The file may itself contain additional @file options; any
such options will be processed recursively.
Turn on listings, in any of a variety of ways:
-ac omit false conditionals
-ad omit debugging directives
-ah include high-level source
-al include assembly
-am include macro expansions
-an omit forms processing
-as include symbols
set the name of the listing file
You may combine these options; for example, use -aln for assembly listing without
forms processing. The =file option, if used, must be the last one. By itself, -a
defaults to -ahls.
Begin in alternate macro mode.
-D Ignored. This option is accepted for script compatibility with calls to other
When assembling files in directory old, record debugging information describing them
as in new instead.
Define the symbol sym to be value before assembling the input file. value must be an
integer constant. As in C, a leading 0x indicates a hexadecimal value, and a leading
0 indicates an octal value. The value of the symbol can be overridden inside a source
file via the use of a ".set" pseudo-op.
-f "fast"---skip whitespace and comment preprocessing (assume source is compiler output).
Generate debugging information for each assembler source line using whichever debug
format is preferred by the target. This currently means either STABS, ECOFF or
Generate stabs debugging information for each assembler line. This may help debugging
assembler code, if the debugger can handle it.
Generate stabs debugging information for each assembler line, with GNU extensions that
probably only gdb can handle, and that could make other debuggers crash or refuse to
read your program. This may help debugging assembler code. Currently the only GNU
extension is the location of the current working directory at assembling time.
Generate DWARF2 debugging information for each assembler line. This may help
debugging assembler code, if the debugger can handle it. Note---this option is only
supported by some targets, not all of them.
Print a summary of the command line options and exit.
Print a summary of all target specific options and exit.
Add directory dir to the search list for ".include" directives.
-J Don't warn about signed overflow.
-K Issue warnings when difference tables altered for long displacements.
Keep (in the symbol table) local symbols. These symbols start with system-specific
local label prefixes, typically .L for ELF systems or L for traditional a.out systems.
Set the maximum width, in words, of the output data column for an assembler listing to
Set the maximum width, in words, of the output data column for continuation lines in
an assembler listing to number.
Set the maximum width of an input source line, as displayed in a listing, to number
Set the maximum number of lines printed in a listing for a single line of input to
number + 1.
Name the object-file output from as objfile.
-R Fold the data section into the text section.
Set the default size of GAS's hash tables to a prime number close to number.
Increasing this value can reduce the length of time it takes the assembler to perform
its tasks, at the expense of increasing the assembler's memory requirements.
Similarly reducing this value can reduce the memory requirements at the expense of
This option reduces GAS's memory requirements, at the expense of making the assembly
processes slower. Currently this switch is a synonym for --hash-size=4051, but in the
future it may have other effects as well.
Print the maximum space (in bytes) and total time (in seconds) used by assembly.
Remove local absolute symbols from the outgoing symbol table.
Print the as version.
Print the as version and exit.
Suppress warning messages.
Treat warnings as errors.
Don't suppress warning messages or treat them as errors.
-Z Generate an object file even after errors.
-- | files ...
Standard input, or source files to assemble.
The following options are available when as is configured for an ARC processor.
This option selects the core processor variant.
-EB | -EL
Select either big-endian (-EB) or little-endian (-EL) output.
The following options are available when as is configured for the ARM processor family.
Specify which ARM processor variant is the target.
Specify which ARM architecture variant is used by the target.
Select which Floating Point architecture is the target.
Select which floating point ABI is in use.
Enable Thumb only instruction decoding.
-mapcs-32 | -mapcs-26 | -mapcs-float | -mapcs-reentrant
Select which procedure calling convention is in use.
-EB | -EL
Select either big-endian (-EB) or little-endian (-EL) output.
Specify that the code has been generated with interworking between Thumb and ARM code
-k Specify that PIC code has been generated.
See the info pages for documentation of the CRIS-specific options.
The following options are available when as is configured for a D10V processor.
-O Optimize output by parallelizing instructions.
The following options are available when as is configured for a D30V processor.
-O Optimize output by parallelizing instructions.
-n Warn when nops are generated.
-N Warn when a nop after a 32-bit multiply instruction is generated.
The following options are available when as is configured for the Intel 80960 processor.
-ACA | -ACA_A | -ACB | -ACC | -AKA | -AKB | -AKC | -AMC
Specify which variant of the 960 architecture is the target.
-b Add code to collect statistics about branches taken.
Do not alter compare-and-branch instructions for long displacements; error if
The following options are available when as is configured for the Ubicom IP2K series.
Specifies that the extended IP2022 instructions are allowed.
Restores the default behaviour, which restricts the permitted instructions to just the
basic IP2022 ones.
The following options are available when as is configured for the Renesas M32C and M16C
Assemble M32C instructions.
Assemble M16C instructions (the default).
The following options are available when as is configured for the Renesas M32R (formerly
Mitsubishi M32R) series.
Specify which processor in the M32R family is the target. The default is normally the
M32R, but this option changes it to the M32RX.
--warn-explicit-parallel-conflicts or --Wp
Produce warning messages when questionable parallel constructs are encountered.
--no-warn-explicit-parallel-conflicts or --Wnp
Do not produce warning messages when questionable parallel constructs are encountered.
The following options are available when as is configured for the Motorola 68000 series.
-l Shorten references to undefined symbols, to one word instead of two.
-m68000 | -m68008 | -m68010 | -m68020 | -m68030
| -m68040 | -m68060 | -m68302 | -m68331 | -m68332
| -m68333 | -m68340 | -mcpu32 | -m5200
Specify what processor in the 68000 family is the target. The default is normally the
68020, but this can be changed at configuration time.
-m68881 | -m68882 | -mno-68881 | -mno-68882
The target machine does (or does not) have a floating-point coprocessor. The default
is to assume a coprocessor for 68020, 68030, and cpu32. Although the basic 68000 is
not compatible with the 68881, a combination of the two can be specified, since it's
possible to do emulation of the coprocessor instructions with the main processor.
-m68851 | -mno-68851
The target machine does (or does not) have a memory-management unit coprocessor. The
default is to assume an MMU for 68020 and up.
For details about the PDP-11 machine dependent features options, see PDP-11-Options.
-mpic | -mno-pic
Generate position-independent (or position-dependent) code. The default is -mpic.
Enable all instruction set extensions. This is the default.
Disable all instruction set extensions.
-mextension | -mno-extension
Enable (or disable) a particular instruction set extension.
Enable the instruction set extensions supported by a particular CPU, and disable all
Enable the instruction set extensions supported by a particular machine model, and
disable all other extensions.
The following options are available when as is configured for a picoJava processor.
-mb Generate "big endian" format output.
-ml Generate "little endian" format output.
The following options are available when as is configured for the Motorola 68HC11 or
-m68hc11 | -m68hc12 | -m68hcs12
Specify what processor is the target. The default is defined by the configuration
option when building the assembler.
Specify to use the 16-bit integer ABI.
Specify to use the 32-bit integer ABI.
Specify to use the 32-bit double ABI.
Specify to use the 64-bit double ABI.
Relative branches are turned into absolute ones. This concerns conditional branches,
unconditional branches and branches to a sub routine.
-S | --short-branches
Do not turn relative branches into absolute ones when the offset is out of range.
Do not turn the direct addressing mode into extended addressing mode when the
instruction does not support direct addressing mode.
Print the syntax of instruction in case of error.
print the list of instructions with syntax and then exit.
print an example of instruction for each possible instruction and then exit. This
option is only useful for testing as.
The following options are available when as is configured for the SPARC architecture:
-Av6 | -Av7 | -Av8 | -Asparclet | -Asparclite
-Av8plus | -Av8plusa | -Av9 | -Av9a
Explicitly select a variant of the SPARC architecture.
-Av8plus and -Av8plusa select a 32 bit environment. -Av9 and -Av9a select a 64 bit
-Av8plusa and -Av9a enable the SPARC V9 instruction set with UltraSPARC extensions.
-xarch=v8plus | -xarch=v8plusa
For compatibility with the Solaris v9 assembler. These options are equivalent to
-Av8plus and -Av8plusa, respectively.
Warn when the assembler switches to another architecture.
The following options are available when as is configured for the 'c54x architecture.
Enable extended addressing mode. All addresses and relocations will assume extended
addressing (usually 23 bits).
Sets the CPU version being compiled for.
Redirect error output to a file, for broken systems which don't support such behaviour
in the shell.
The following options are available when as is configured for a MIPS processor.
This option sets the largest size of an object that can be referenced implicitly with
the "gp" register. It is only accepted for targets that use ECOFF format, such as a
DECstation running Ultrix. The default value is 8.
-EB Generate "big endian" format output.
-EL Generate "little endian" format output.
Generate code for a particular MIPS Instruction Set Architecture level. -mips1 is an
alias for -march=r3000, -mips2 is an alias for -march=r6000, -mips3 is an alias for
-march=r4000 and -mips4 is an alias for -march=r8000. -mips5, -mips32, -mips32r2,
-mips64, and -mips64r2 correspond to generic MIPS V, MIPS32, MIPS32 Release 2, MIPS64,
and MIPS64 Release 2 ISA processors, respectively.
Generate code for a particular MIPS cpu.
Schedule and tune for a particular MIPS cpu.
Cause nops to be inserted if the read of the destination register of an mfhi or mflo
instruction occurs in the following two instructions.
Cause stabs-style debugging output to go into an ECOFF-style .mdebug section instead
of the standard ELF .stabs sections.
Control generation of ".pdr" sections.
The register sizes are normally inferred from the ISA and ABI, but these flags force a
certain group of registers to be treated as 32 bits wide at all times. -mgp32
controls the size of general-purpose registers and -mfp32 controls the size of
Generate code for the MIPS 16 processor. This is equivalent to putting ".set mips16"
at the start of the assembly file. -no-mips16 turns off this option.
Enables the SmartMIPS extension to the MIPS32 instruction set. This is equivalent to
putting ".set smartmips" at the start of the assembly file. -mno-smartmips turns off
Generate code for the MIPS-3D Application Specific Extension. This tells the
assembler to accept MIPS-3D instructions. -no-mips3d turns off this option.
Generate code for the MDMX Application Specific Extension. This tells the assembler
to accept MDMX instructions. -no-mdmx turns off this option.
Generate code for the DSP Release 1 Application Specific Extension. This tells the
assembler to accept DSP Release 1 instructions. -mno-dsp turns off this option.
Generate code for the DSP Release 2 Application Specific Extension. This option
implies -mdsp. This tells the assembler to accept DSP Release 2 instructions.
-mno-dspr2 turns off this option.
Generate code for the MT Application Specific Extension. This tells the assembler to
accept MT instructions. -mno-mt turns off this option.
The --no-construct-floats option disables the construction of double width floating
point constants by loading the two halves of the value into the two single width
floating point registers that make up the double width register. By default
--construct-floats is selected, allowing construction of these floating point
This option causes as to emulate as configured for some other target, in all respects,
including output format (choosing between ELF and ECOFF only), handling of pseudo-
opcodes which may generate debugging information or store symbol table information,
and default endianness. The available configuration names are: mipsecoff, mipself,
mipslecoff, mipsbecoff, mipslelf, mipsbelf. The first two do not alter the default
endianness from that of the primary target for which the assembler was configured; the
others change the default to little- or big-endian as indicated by the b or l in the
name. Using -EB or -EL will override the endianness selection in any case.
This option is currently supported only when the primary target as is configured for
is a MIPS ELF or ECOFF target. Furthermore, the primary target or others specified
with --enable-targets=... at configuration time must include support for the other
format, if both are to be available. For example, the Irix 5 configuration includes
support for both.
Eventually, this option will support more configurations, with more fine-grained
control over the assembler's behavior, and will be supported for more processors.
as ignores this option. It is accepted for compatibility with the native tools.
Control how to deal with multiplication overflow and division by zero. --trap or
--no-break (which are synonyms) take a trap exception (and only work for Instruction
Set Architecture level 2 and higher); --break or --no-trap (also synonyms, and the
default) take a break exception.
-n When this option is used, as will issue a warning every time it generates a nop
instruction from a macro.
The following options are available when as is configured for an MCore processor.
Enable or disable the JSRI to BSR transformation. By default this is enabled. The
command line option -nojsri2bsr can be used to disable it.
Enable or disable the silicon filter behaviour. By default this is disabled. The
default can be overridden by the -sifilter command line option.
Alter jump instructions for long displacements.
Select the cpu type on the target hardware. This controls which instructions can be
-EB Assemble for a big endian target.
-EL Assemble for a little endian target.
See the info pages for documentation of the MMIX-specific options.
The following options are available when as is configured for an Xtensa processor.
--text-section-literals | --no-text-section-literals
With --text-section-literals, literal pools are interspersed in the text section. The
default is --no-text-section-literals, which places literals in a separate section in
the output file. These options only affect literals referenced via PC-relative "L32R"
instructions; literals for absolute mode "L32R" instructions are handled separately.
--absolute-literals | --no-absolute-literals
Indicate to the assembler whether "L32R" instructions use absolute or PC-relative
addressing. The default is to assume absolute addressing if the Xtensa processor
includes the absolute "L32R" addressing option. Otherwise, only the PC-relative
"L32R" mode can be used.
--target-align | --no-target-align
Enable or disable automatic alignment to reduce branch penalties at the expense of
some code density. The default is --target-align.
--longcalls | --no-longcalls
Enable or disable transformation of call instructions to allow calls across a greater
range of addresses. The default is --no-longcalls.
--transform | --no-transform
Enable or disable all assembler transformations of Xtensa instructions. The default
is --transform; --no-transform should be used only in the rare cases when the
instructions must be exactly as specified in the assembly source.
The following options are available when as is configured for a Z80 family processor.
Assemble for Z80 processor.
Assemble for R800 processor.
Assemble undocumented Z80 instructions that also work on R800 without warning.
Assemble all undocumented Z80 instructions without warning.
Issue a warning for undocumented Z80 instructions that also work on R800.
Issue a warning for undocumented Z80 instructions that do not work on R800.
Treat all undocumented instructions as errors.
Treat undocumented Z80 instructions that do not work on R800 as errors.
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