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2ping - Online in the Cloud

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2ping - A bi-directional ping utility


2ping [options] --listen | host/IP


2ping is a bi-directional ping utility. It uses 3-way pings (akin to TCP SYN, SYN/ACK,
ACK) and after-the-fact state comparison between a 2ping listener and a 2ping client to
determine which direction packet loss occurs.

To use 2ping, start a listener on a known stable network host. The relative network
stability of the 2ping listener host should not be in question, because while 2ping can
determine whether packet loss is occurring inbound or outbound relative to an endpoint,
that will not help you determine the cause if both of the endpoints are in question.

Once the listener is started, start 2ping in client mode and tell it to connect to the
listener. The ends will begin pinging each other and displaying network statistics. If
packet loss occurs, 2ping will wait a few seconds (default 10, configurable with
--inquire-wait) before comparing notes between the two endpoints to determine which
direction the packet loss is occurring.

To quit 2ping on the client or listener ends, enter ^C, and a list of statistics will be
displayed. To get a short inline display of statistics without quitting, enter ^\ or send
the process a QUIT signal.


ping-compatible options (long option names are 2ping-specific):

--audible, -a
Audible ping.

--adaptive, -A
Adaptive ping. A new client ping request is sent as soon as a client ping response
is received. If a ping response is not received within the interval period, a new
ping request is sent. On networks with low rtt this mode is essentially equivalent
to flood mode.

--count=count, -c count
Stop after sending count ping requests.

--flood, -f
Flood ping. For every ping sent a period "." is printed, while for ever ping
received a backspace is printed. This provides a rapid display of how many pings
are being dropped. If interval is not given, it sets interval to zero and outputs
pings as fast as they come back or one hundred times per second, whichever is more.

2ping-specific notes: Detected outbound/inbound loss responses are printed as ">"
and "<", respectively. Receive errors are printed as "E". Due to the asynchronous
nature of 2ping, successful responses (backspaces) may overwrite these loss and
error characters.

--interval=interval, -i interval
Wait interval seconds between sending each ping. The default is to wait for one
second between each ping normally, or not to wait in flood mode.

--interface-address=address, -I address
Set source IP address. When in listener mode, this option may be specified
multiple to bind to multiple IP addresses. When in client mode, this option may
only be specified once, and all outbound pings will be bound to this source IP.

2ping-specific notes: This option only takes an IP address, not a device name.
Note that in listener mode, if the machine has an interface with multiple IP
addresses and an request comes in via a sub IP, the reply still leaves via the
interface's main IP. So this option must be used if you would like to respond via
an interface's sub-IP.

--preload=count, -l count
If specified, 2ping sends that many packets not waiting for reply.

--pattern=hex_bytes, -p hex_bytes
You may specify up to 16 "pad" bytes to fill out the packets you send. This is
useful for diagnosing data-dependent problems in a network. For example,
--pattern=ff will cause the sent packet pad area to be filled with all ones.

2ping-specific notes: This pads the portion of the packet that does not contain the
active payload data. If the active payload data is larger than the minimum packet
size (--min-packet-size), no padding will be sent.

--quiet, -q
Quiet output. Nothing is displayed except the summary lines at startup time and
when finished.

--packetsize-compat=bytes, -s bytes
ping compatibility; this will set --min-packet-size to this plus 8 bytes.

--verbose, -v
Verbose output. In 2ping, this prints decodes of packets that are sent and

--version, -V
Show version and exit.

--deadline=seconds, -w seconds
Specify a timeout, in seconds, before 2ping exits regardless of how many pings have
been sent or received. Due to blocking, this may occur up to one second after the
deadline specified.

2ping-specific options:

--help, -h
Print a synposis and exit.

--ipv4, -4
Limit binds to IPv4. In client mode, this forces resolution of dual-homed
hostnames to the IPv4 address. (Without --ipv4 or --ipv6, the first result will be
used as specified by your operating system, usually the AAAA address on
IPv6-routable machines, or the A address on IPv4-only machines.) In listener mode,
this filters out any non-IPv4 --interface-address binds, either through hostname
resolution or explicit passing.

--ipv6, -6
Limit binds to IPv6. In client mode, this forces resolution of dual-homed
hostnames to the IPv6 address. (Without -4 or -6, the first result will be used as
specified by your operating system, usually the AAAA address on IPv6-routable
machines, or the A address on IPv4-only machines.) In listener mode, this filters
out any non-IPv6 --interface-address binds, either through hostname resolution or
explicit passing.

Set a shared key, send cryptographic hashes with each packet, and require
cryptographic hashes from peer packets signed with the same shared key.

When --auth is used, specify the digest type to compute the cryptographic hash.
Valid options are hmac-md5 (default), hmac-sha1 and hmac-sha256.

Print (lots of) debugging information.

Simulate corruption of incoming packets, with a percent probability each bit will
be flipped. After fuzzing, the packet checksum will be recalculated, and then the
checksum itself will be fuzzed (but at a lower probability).

Wait at least secs seconds before inquiring about a lost packet. Default is 10
seconds. UDP packets can arrive delayed or out of order, so it is best to give it
some time before inquiring about a lost packet.

Start as a listener. The listener will not send out ping requests at regular
intervals, and will instead wait for the far end to initiate ping requests. A
listener is required as the remote end for a client.

Set the minimum total payload size to min bytes, default 128. If the payload is
smaller than min bytes, padding will be added to the end of the packet.

Set the maximum total payload size to max bytes, default 512, absolute minimum 64.
If the payload is larger than max bytes, information will be rearranged and sent in
future packets when possible.

Produce output suitable for use in a Nagios check. If --count is not specified,
defaults to 5 pings. A warning condition (exit code 1) will be returned if average
RTT exceeds wrta or ping loss exceeds wloss%. A critical condition (exit code 2)
will be returned if average RTT exceeds crta or ping loss exceeds closs%.

Do not perform 3-way pings. Used most often when combined with --listen, as the
listener is usually the one to determine whether a ping reply should become a 3-way

Strictly speaking, a 3-way ping is not necessary for determining directional packet
loss between the client and the listener. However, the extra leg of the 3-way ping
allows for extra chances to determine packet loss more efficiently. Also, with
3-way ping disabled, the listener will receive no client performance indicators,
nor will the listener be able to determine directional packet loss that it detects.

When sending replies, 2ping will try to match the packet size of the received
packet by adding padding if necessary, but will not exceed --max-packet-size.
--no-match-packet-size disabled this behavior, always setting the minimum to

Do not send the current running version of 2ping with each packet.

Send arbitrary notice text with each packet. If the remote peer supports it, this
may be displayed to the user.

Simulate random packet loss outbound and inbound. For example, 25:10 means a 25%
chance of not sending a packet, and a 10% chance of ignoring a received packet. A
single number without colon separation means use the same percentage for both
outbound and inbound.

Use UDP port port, either a numeric port number of a service name string. With
--listen, this is the port to bind as, otherwise this is the port to send to.
Default is UDP port 15998.

Send a monotonic clock value with each packet. Peer time (if sent by the peer) can
be viewed with --verbose. Only supported if the system is capable of generating a
monotonic clock.

Send random data to the peer, up to bytes. The number of bytes will be limited by
other factors, up to --max-packet-size. If this data is to be used for trusted
purposes, it should be combined with --auth for HMAC authentication.

Send the host time (wall clock) with each packet. Peer time (if sent by the peer)
can be viewed with --verbose.

--srv In client mode, causes hostnames to be looked up via DNS SRV records. If the SRV
query returns multiple record targets, they will all be pinged in parallel;
priority and weight are not considered. The record's port will be used instead of
--port. This functionality requires the dnspython module to be installed.

Print a line of brief current statistics every interval seconds. The same line can
be printed on demand by entering ^\ or sending the QUIT signal to the 2ping

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