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c_incl - determine dependencies
c_incl [ option... ] filename
The c_incl program is used to traverse source files looking for include dependencies
suitable for [collect]ion or #include-cooked-ing by cook.
The filename ``-'' is understood to mean the standard input. When you use this file
name, caching is ignored.
Several input languages are supported, see the options list for details.
The following options are understood.
-C The source file is a C source file. It is assumed that it will have the
dependencies resolved by the cpp(1) command. The same include semantics as the
cpp(1) command will be employed. This is the default. This is short-hand for
This option may be used to specify the language of the source file. Know names
include ``C'', ``M4'', ``optimistic'' and ``roff''.
The ``optimistic'' language will take on almost anything. It accepts an include
keyword in any case, including mixed, with leading white space, but at most one
leading punctuation character. It assumes that the filename follows the include
keyword and does not contain white space, and does not start or end with
punctuation characters (it strips off any it may find). The rest of the line is
ignored. The drawback is that it will sometimes recognise commands and other
text as unintended include directives, hence the name. This is often used to
recognise include directives in a wide variety of assembler input.
-Roff The source file is a *roff source file. It is assumed that it will have the
dependencies resolved by the roffpp(1) command. The same include semantics as
the roffpp(1) command will be employed. This is short-hand for
Tell what is happening.
Specify include path, a la cc(1).
Any directories you specify with -I options before the -I- option are searched
only for the case of #include "file"; they are not searched for #include
If additional directories are specified with -I options after the -I-, these
directories are searched for all #include directives. (Ordinarily all -I
directories are used this way.)
In addition, the -I- option inhibits the use of the current directory (where
the current input file came from) as the first search directory for #include
"file". There is no way to override this effect of -I-. With -I. you can
specify searching the directory which was current when c_incl was invoked. That
is not exactly the same as what the preprocessor does by default, but it is often
The -I- option does not inhibit the use of the standard system directories for
header files. Thus, -I- and -No_System are independent.
This option may be used to allow absolute paths in the output. This is usually
This option may be used to exclude absolute paths from the output.
For files included using a #include ''filename.h'' directive, ignore the file if
it cannot be found.
For files included using a #include ''filename.h'' directive, print the file name
even if the file cannot be found. This is the default (it probably needs to be
For files included using a #include ''filename.h'' directive, print a fatal error
if the file cannot be found.
For files included with a #include <filename.h> directive, ignore the file if it
cannot be found. This is the default (it was probably ifdef'ed out).
For files included with a #include <filename.h> directive, print the file name
even if the file cannot be found.
For files included with a #include <filename.h> directive, print a fatal error if
the file cannot be found.
If the file named on the command line cannot be found, behave as if the file were
found, but was empty.
If the file named on the command line cannot be found, print a fatal error
message. This is the default.
This option may be used to request that newlines in the output are escaped with
backslash (``\'') characters.
Give information on how to use c_incl.
This option may be used to nominate include file names which are not to be used.
Tell what version of c_incl is being run.
This option may be used to tell c_incl about include files which don't exist yet.
This is because they are interior to the dependency graph, but cook(1) hasn't
finished walking it yet. Often used with Cook's [interior-files] function.
(Note: the filename list has an arbitrary number of files; it ends at the next
option or end-of-line, so you need to be careful where you put the input
Do not search the /usr/include directory. By default this is searched last.
This option implies the -No_Absolute_Paths option, unless explicitly
This option may be used to turn caching on. This is the default.
This option may be used to turn caching off.
This option may be used to print a string before any of the filenames are
printed. It will not be printed if no file names are printed.
This option may be used to have c_incl quote filenames. This permits filenames
to contain characters which are special to Cook, including spaces.
This option may be used to print a string after all of the filenames are printed.
It will not be printed if no file names are printed.
This option may be used to specify the output file. Defaults to the standard
output if not set.
This option will give a fatal error if a #include ''filename.h'' directive is
used. This is necessary when you are using Cook's search_list functionality to
stitch together a baseline and a private work area.
This option may be used to specify that nested include files are to be scanned,
so that their includes may also be discovered. This is the default.
This option may be use to specify that nested include files are not to be
scanned. This option is recommended for use with the Cook cascade-for recipes.
This option implies -No_Cache, unless a -Cache option is specified.
This option may be used to remove path prefixes from the included filenames. May
be used more than once. This is necessary when you are using Cook's search_list
functionality to stitch together a baseline and a private work area; usually as
``[prepost "-rlp=" "" [search_list]]''
This option may be used to specify that leading redundant dot directories are to
be removed from paths before processing. This is the default.
This option may be used to specify that leading redundant dot directories need
not be removed from paths before processing. (Some path flattening may still
-Substitute_Leading_Path from to
This option may be used to modify path prefixes from the included filenames. May
be used more than once. This is necessary when you are performing heterogeneous
builds in the same directory tree. By using an ``arch'' variable to hold the
architecture, and placing each architecture's objects in a separate directory
tree, this option may be used as ``-slp [arch] "'[arch]'"'' (The outer quotes
protect from Cook, the inner quotes protect from the shell.) If you need more
intricate editing, used sed(1).
Any other options will generate an error.
All options may be abbreviated; the abbreviation is documented as the upper case letters,
all lower case letters and underscores (_) are optional. You must use consecutive
sequences of optional letters.
All options are case insensitive, you may type them in upper case or lower case or a
combination of both, case is not important.
For example: the arguments "-help", "-HEL" and "-h" are all interpreted to mean the -Help
option. The argument "-hlp" will not be understood, because consecutive optional
characters were not supplied.
Options and other command line arguments may be mixed arbitrarily on the command line.
The GNU long option names are understood. Since all option names for c_incl are long,
this means ignoring the extra leading '-'. The "--option=value" convention is also
The caching mechanism use by the c_incl program caches the results of searching files for
include files (in a file called .c_inclrc in the current directory). The cache is only
refreshed when a file changes.
The use of this cache has been shown to dramatically increase the performance of the
c_incl program. Typically, only a small proportions files in a project change between
builds, resulting in a very high cache hit rate.
When using caching, always use the same command line options, otherwise weird and
wonderful things will happen.
The .c_inclrc file is a binary file. If you wish to rebuild the cache, simply delete
this file with the rm(1) command. Being a binary file, the .c_inclrc file is not
portable across machines or operating systems, so you will need to delete it when you
move your sources. It is a binary file for performance.
Accesses to the .c_inclrc file use file locking, so recipies using c_incl need not use
the single-thread clause.
The c_incl command will exit with a status of 1 on any error. The c_incl command will
only exit with a status of 0 if there are no errors.
c_incl version 2.33
Copyright (C) 1988, 1989, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999,
2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009 Peter Miller
The c_incl program comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY; for details use the 'c_incl
-VERSion License' command. This is free software and you are welcome to redistribute it
under certain conditions; for details use the 'c_incl -VERSion License' command.
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