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PROGRAM:

NAME


cal — print a calendar

SYNOPSIS


cal [[month] year]

DESCRIPTION


The cal utility shall write a calendar to standard output using the Julian calendar for
dates from January 1, 1 through September 2, 1752 and the Gregorian calendar for dates
from September 14, 1752 through December 31, 9999 as though the Gregorian calendar had
been adopted on September 14, 1752.

If no operands are given, cal shall produce a one-month calendar for the current month in
the current year. If only the year operand is given, cal shall produce a calendar for all
twelve months in the given calendar year. If both month and year operands are given, cal
shall produce a one-month calendar for the given month in the given year.

OPTIONS


None.

OPERANDS


The following operands shall be supported:

month Specify the month to be displayed, represented as a decimal integer from 1
(January) to 12 (December).

year Specify the year for which the calendar is displayed, represented as a decimal
integer from 1 to 9999.

STDIN


Not used.

INPUT FILES


None.

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES


The following environment variables shall affect the execution of cal:

LANG Provide a default value for the internationalization variables that are unset or
null. (See the Base Definitions volume of POSIX.1‐2008, Section 8.2,
Internationalization Variables for the precedence of internationalization
variables used to determine the values of locale categories.)

LC_ALL If set to a non-empty string value, override the values of all the other
internationalization variables.

LC_CTYPE Determine the locale for the interpretation of sequences of bytes of text data
as characters (for example, single-byte as opposed to multi-byte characters in
arguments).

LC_MESSAGES
Determine the locale that should be used to affect the format and contents of
diagnostic messages written to standard error, and informative messages written
to standard output.

LC_TIME Determine the format and contents of the calendar.

NLSPATH Determine the location of message catalogs for the processing of LC_MESSAGES.

TZ Determine the timezone used to calculate the value of the current month.

ASYNCHRONOUS EVENTS


Default.

STDOUT


The standard output shall be used to display the calendar, in an unspecified format.

STDERR


The standard error shall be used only for diagnostic messages.

OUTPUT FILES


None.

EXTENDED DESCRIPTION


None.

EXIT STATUS


The following exit values shall be returned:

0 Successful completion.

>0 An error occurred.

CONSEQUENCES OF ERRORS


Default.

The following sections are informative.

APPLICATION USAGE


Note that:

cal 83

refers to A.D. 83, not 1983.

EXAMPLES


None.

RATIONALE


Earlier versions of this standard incorrectly required that the command:

cal 2000

write a one-month calendar for the current calendar month (no matter what the current year
is) in the year 2000 to standard output. This did not match historic practice in any known
version of the cal utility. The description has been updated to match historic practice.
When only the year operand is given, cal writes a twelve-month calendar for the specified
year.

FUTURE DIRECTIONS


A future version of this standard may support locale-specific recognition of the date of
adoption of the Gregorian calendar.

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