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ConicProj -- perform conic projections


ConicProj ( -c | -a ) lat1 lat2 [ -l lon0 ] [ -k k1 ] [ -r ] [ -e a f ] [ -w ] [ -p prec ]
[ --comment-delimiter commentdelim ] [ --version | -h | --help ] [ --input-file infile |
--input-string instring ] [ --line-separator linesep ] [ --output-file outfile ]


Perform one of two conic projections geodesics. Convert geodetic coordinates to either
Lambert conformal conic or Albers equal area coordinates. The standard latitudes lat1 and
lat2 are specified by that the -c option (for Lambert conformal conic) or the -a option
(for Albers equal area). At least one of these options must be given (the last one given
is used). Specify lat1 = lat2, to obtain the case with a single standard parallel. The
central meridian is given by lon0. The longitude of origin is given by the latitude of
minimum (azimuthal) scale for Lambert conformal conic (Albers equal area). The
(azimuthal) scale on the standard parallels is k1.

Geodetic coordinates are provided on standard input as a set of lines containing (blank
separated) latitude and longitude (decimal degrees or degrees, minutes, seconds); for
details on the allowed formats for latitude and longitude, see the "GEOGRAPHIC
COORDINATES" section of GeoConvert(1). For each set of geodetic coordinates, the
corresponding projected easting, x, and northing, y, (meters) are printed on standard
output together with the meridian convergence gamma (degrees) and (azimuthal) scale k.
For Albers equal area, the radial scale is 1/k. The meridian convergence is the bearing
of the y axis measured clockwise from true north.

Special cases of the Lambert conformal projection are the Mercator projection (the
standard latitudes equal and opposite) and the polar stereographic projection (both
standard latitudes correspond to the same pole). Special cases of the Albers equal area
projection are the cylindrical equal area projection (the standard latitudes equal and
opposite), the Lambert azimuthal equal area projection (both standard latitude corresponds
to the same pole), and the Lambert equal area conic projection (one standard parallel is
at a pole).


-c use the Lambert conformal conic projection with standard parallels lat1 and lat2.

-a use the Albers equal area projection with standard parallels lat1 and lat2.

-l specify the longitude of origin lon0 (degrees, default 0).

-k specify the (azimuthal) scale k1 on the standard parallels (default 1).

-r perform the reverse projection. x and y are given on standard input and each line of
standard output gives latitude, longitude, gamma, and k.

-e specify the ellipsoid via a f; the equatorial radius is a and the flattening is f.
Setting f = 0 results in a sphere. Specify f < 0 for a prolate ellipsoid. A simple
fraction, e.g., 1/297, is allowed for f. By default, the WGS84 ellipsoid is used, a =
6378137 m, f = 1/298.257223563.

-w on input and output, longitude precedes latitude (except that, on input, this can be
overridden by a hemisphere designator, N, S, E, W).

-p set the output precision to prec (default 6). prec is the number of digits after the
decimal point for lengths (in meters). For latitudes and longitudes (in degrees), the
number of digits after the decimal point is prec + 5. For the convergence (in
degrees) and scale, the number of digits after the decimal point is prec + 6.

set the comment delimiter to commentdelim (e.g., "#" or "//"). If set, the input
lines will be scanned for this delimiter and, if found, the delimiter and the rest of
the line will be removed prior to processing and subsequently appended to the output
line (separated by a space).

print version and exit.

-h print usage and exit.

print full documentation and exit.

read input from the file infile instead of from standard input; a file name of "-"
stands for standard input.

read input from the string instring instead of from standard input. All occurrences
of the line separator character (default is a semicolon) in instring are converted to
newlines before the reading begins.

set the line separator character to linesep. By default this is a semicolon.

write output to the file outfile instead of to standard output; a file name of "-"
stands for standard output.


echo 39.95N 75.17W | ConicProj -c 40d58 39d56 -l 77d45W
=> 220445 -52372 1.67 1.0
echo 220445 -52372 | ConicProj -c 40d58 39d56 -l 77d45W -r
=> 39.95 -75.17 1.67 1.0


An illegal line of input will print an error message to standard output beginning with
"ERROR:" and causes ConicProj to return an exit code of 1. However, an error does not
cause ConicProj to terminate; following lines will be converted.

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