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This is the command cutposix that can be run in the OnWorks free hosting provider using one of our multiple free online workstations such as Ubuntu Online, Fedora Online, Windows online emulator or MAC OS online emulator

PROGRAM:

NAME


cut — cut out selected fields of each line of a file

SYNOPSIS


cut −b list [−n] [file...]

cut −c list [file...]

cut −f list [−d delim] [−s] [file...]

DESCRIPTION


The cut utility shall cut out bytes (−b option), characters (−c option), or character-
delimited fields (−f option) from each line in one or more files, concatenate them, and
write them to standard output.

OPTIONS


The cut utility shall conform to the Base Definitions volume of POSIX.1‐2008, Section
12.2, Utility Syntax Guidelines.

The application shall ensure that the option-argument list (see options −b, −c, and −f
below) is a <comma>-separated list or <blank>-separated list of positive numbers and
ranges. Ranges can be in three forms. The first is two positive numbers separated by a
<hyphen> (lowhigh), which represents all fields from the first number to the second
number. The second is a positive number preceded by a <hyphen> (−high), which represents
all fields from field number 1 to that number. The third is a positive number followed by
a <hyphen> (low−), which represents that number to the last field, inclusive. The elements
in list can be repeated, can overlap, and can be specified in any order, but the bytes,
characters, or fields selected shall be written in the order of the input data. If an
element appears in the selection list more than once, it shall be written exactly once.

The following options shall be supported:

−b list Cut based on a list of bytes. Each selected byte shall be output unless the −n
option is also specified. It shall not be an error to select bytes not present
in the input line.

−c list Cut based on a list of characters. Each selected character shall be output. It
shall not be an error to select characters not present in the input line.

−d delim Set the field delimiter to the character delim. The default is the <tab>.

−f list Cut based on a list of fields, assumed to be separated in the file by a
delimiter character (see −d). Each selected field shall be output. Output
fields shall be separated by a single occurrence of the field delimiter
character. Lines with no field delimiters shall be passed through intact, unless
−s is specified. It shall not be an error to select fields not present in the
input line.

−n Do not split characters. When specified with the −b option, each element in list
of the form lowhigh (<hyphen>-separated numbers) shall be modified as follows:

* If the byte selected by low is not the first byte of a character, low shall
be decremented to select the first byte of the character originally selected
by low. If the byte selected by high is not the last byte of a character,
high shall be decremented to select the last byte of the character prior to
the character originally selected by high, or zero if there is no prior
character. If the resulting range element has high equal to zero or low
greater than high, the list element shall be dropped from list for that
input line without causing an error.

Each element in list of the form low− shall be treated as above with high set to
the number of bytes in the current line, not including the terminating
<newline>. Each element in list of the form −high shall be treated as above
with low set to 1. Each element in list of the form num (a single number) shall
be treated as above with low set to num and high set to num.

−s Suppress lines with no delimiter characters, when used with the −f option.
Unless specified, lines with no delimiters shall be passed through untouched.

OPERANDS


The following operand shall be supported:

file A pathname of an input file. If no file operands are specified, or if a file
operand is '−', the standard input shall be used.

STDIN


The standard input shall be used only if no file operands are specified, or if a file
operand is '−'. See the INPUT FILES section.

INPUT FILES


The input files shall be text files, except that line lengths shall be unlimited.

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES


The following environment variables shall affect the execution of cut:

LANG Provide a default value for the internationalization variables that are unset or
null. (See the Base Definitions volume of POSIX.1‐2008, Section 8.2,
Internationalization Variables for the precedence of internationalization
variables used to determine the values of locale categories.)

LC_ALL If set to a non-empty string value, override the values of all the other
internationalization variables.

LC_CTYPE Determine the locale for the interpretation of sequences of bytes of text data
as characters (for example, single-byte as opposed to multi-byte characters in
arguments and input files).

LC_MESSAGES
Determine the locale that should be used to affect the format and contents of
diagnostic messages written to standard error.

NLSPATH Determine the location of message catalogs for the processing of LC_MESSAGES.

ASYNCHRONOUS EVENTS


Default.

STDOUT


The cut utility output shall be a concatenation of the selected bytes, characters, or
fields (one of the following):

"%s\n", <concatenation of bytes>

"%s\n", <concatenation of characters>

"%s\n", <concatenation of fields and field delimiters>

STDERR


The standard error shall be used only for diagnostic messages.

OUTPUT FILES


None.

EXTENDED DESCRIPTION


None.

EXIT STATUS


The following exit values shall be returned:

0 All input files were output successfully.

>0 An error occurred.

CONSEQUENCES OF ERRORS


Default.

The following sections are informative.

APPLICATION USAGE


The cut and fold utilities can be used to create text files out of files with arbitrary
line lengths. The cut utility should be used when the number of lines (or records) needs
to remain constant. The fold utility should be used when the contents of long lines need
to be kept contiguous.

Earlier versions of the cut utility worked in an environment where bytes and characters
were considered equivalent (modulo <backspace> and <tab> processing in some
implementations). In the extended world of multi-byte characters, the new −b option has
been added. The −n option (used with −b) allows it to be used to act on bytes rounded to
character boundaries. The algorithm specified for −n guarantees that:

cut −b 1−500 −n file > file1
cut −b 501− −n file > file2

ends up with all the characters in file appearing exactly once in file1 or file2. (There
is, however, a <newline> in both file1 and file2 for each <newline> in file.)

EXAMPLES


Examples of the option qualifier list:

1,4,7 Select the first, fourth, and seventh bytes, characters, or fields and field
delimiters.

1−3,8 Equivalent to 1,2,3,8.

−5,10 Equivalent to 1,2,3,4,5,10.

3− Equivalent to third to last, inclusive.

The lowhigh forms are not always equivalent when used with −b and −n and multi-byte
characters; see the description of −n.

The following command:

cut −d : −f 1,6 /etc/passwd

reads the System V password file (user database) and produces lines of the form:

<user ID>:<home directory>

Most utilities in this volume of POSIX.1‐2008 work on text files. The cut utility can be
used to turn files with arbitrary line lengths into a set of text files containing the
same data. The paste utility can be used to create (or recreate) files with arbitrary line
lengths. For example, if file contains long lines:

cut −b 1−500 −n file > file1
cut −b 501− −n file > file2

creates file1 (a text file) with lines no longer than 500 bytes (plus the <newline>) and
file2 that contains the remainder of the data from file. (Note that file2 is not a text
file if there are lines in file that are longer than 500 + {LINE_MAX} bytes.) The original
file can be recreated from file1 and file2 using the command:

paste −d "\0" file1 file2 > file

RATIONALE


Some historical implementations do not count <backspace> characters in determining
character counts with the −c option. This may be useful for using cut for processing nroff
output. It was deliberately decided not to have the −c option treat either <backspace> or
<tab> characters in any special fashion. The fold utility does treat these characters
specially.

Unlike other utilities, some historical implementations of cut exit after not finding an
input file, rather than continuing to process the remaining file operands. This behavior
is prohibited by this volume of POSIX.1‐2008, where only the exit status is affected by
this problem.

The behavior of cut when provided with either mutually-exclusive options or options that
do not work logically together has been deliberately left unspecified in favor of global
wording in Section 1.4, Utility Description Defaults.

The OPTIONS section was changed in response to IEEE PASC Interpretation 1003.2 #149. The
change represents historical practice on all known systems. The original standard was
ambiguous on the nature of the output.

The list option-arguments are historically used to select the portions of the line to be
written, but do not affect the order of the data. For example:

echo abcdefghi | cut −c6,2,4−7,1

yields "abdefg".

A proposal to enhance cut with the following option:

−o Preserve the selected field order. When this option is specified, each byte,
character, or field (or ranges of such) shall be written in the order specified by
the list option-argument, even if this requires multiple outputs of the same bytes,
characters, or fields.

was rejected because this type of enhancement is outside the scope of the IEEE P1003.2b
draft standard.

FUTURE DIRECTIONS


None.

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