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PROGRAM:

NAME


dacsauth - authentication check

SYNOPSIS


dacsauth [-m auth-module-spec] [...] [-r roles-module-spec] [...] [-Ddirective=value]
[-aux]
[-fj jurname] [-fn fedname] [-h | -help] [-id] [-ll log_level]
[-p password]
[-pf file] [-prompt] [-q] [{-u | -user} username] [-v]
dacsauth-modules

DESCRIPTION


This program is part of the DACS suite.

The dacsauth utility tests whether given authentication material satisfies authentication
requirements and indicates the outcome through the process's exit status. It is similar to
dacs_authenticate(8)[1] and dacscred(1)[2].

dacsauth provides a way for scripts and other programs to leverage the DACS authentication
infrastructure. They might use successful authentication as a coarse form of
authorization; only a user that provides a correct password might be allowed to run the
program, for instance. Or they might return some type of credentials after successful
authentication, or perhaps use dacs_auth_agent(8)[3] to return DACS credentials.

dacsauth can also be used to retrieve role information associated with a given user.

dacsauth does not read any DACS configuration files. Everything needed to perform the test
must be specified as an argument.

Tip
If dacsauth uses a built-in module to perform authentication, or look up roles, no
server component is required. This means that you can use dacsauth without having to
access or even configure a web server, including Apache.

OPTIONS


The following command line flags are recognized. At least one -m flag (to perform
authentication testing), or at least one -r flag must be specified (to form a role
descriptor string for the identity and print it to stdout). A combination of both flags is
allowed, in which case a role descriptor string is output only if the authentication test
is successful.

-Ddirective=value
This is equivalent to setting directive, a general DACS configuration directive, to
value. See dacs.conf(5)[4].

-aux
The next string provided by the -p, -pf, or -prompt flag will be the value of the
AUXILIARY authentication argument. This provides a secure way to pass sensitive
auxiliary information, such as a PIN, to the program. A flag to obtain the password,
if any, must precede this flag on the command line.

-fj jurname
Use jurname, which must be syntactically valid, as the jurisdiction name. If required
but not provided, a value derived from the host's domain name will be used.

-fn fedname
Use fedname, which must be syntactically valid, as the federation name. If required
but not provided, a value derived from the host's domain name will be used.

-h
-help
Display a help message and exit.

-id
If successful, print the authenticated DACS identity to the standard output.

-ll log_level
Set the debugging output level to log_level (see dacs(1)[5]). The default level is
warn.

-m auth-module-spec
Each type of authentication test that is required is described by an auth-module-spec
that immediately follows the -m flag. Each auth-module-spec is essentially an
alternate representation of an Auth clause[6] and its directives, which are used by
dacs_authenticate(8)[1]. Just as the order in which Auth clauses appear in a DACS
configuration file, the order in which the -m flags appear may be significant,
depending on the control keywords. During processing, successive -m components are
automatically assigned names, auth_module_1, auth_module_2, and so on, mainly for
error reporting purposes.

An auth-module-spec has the following syntax:

The module begins with either the name of a built-in module, or a valid abbreviation
thereof, or the (absolute) URL of an external authentication module (equivalent to
the URL[7] directive). Next must appear a recognized authentication style keyword
specifier (equivalent to the STYLE[8] directive). Next, the control keyword follows,
which is identical to the CONTROL[9] directive in the Auth clause. After the control
keyword, the flags described below may follow, in any order.

An auth-module-spec ends when the first invalid flag (or the end of flags) is
encountered.

The -O flag is equivalent to an OPTION[10] directive.

The -Of flag is followed by an argument that is the name of a file from which to read
options, one per line, in the format name=value. Blank lines and lines beginning with
a '#' are ignored; note that these lines do not begin with "-O" and quotes are simply
copied and not interpreted. The -Of flag can be used to avoid putting passwords on
the command line and makes it easier to write expressions that would otherwise have
to be carefully escaped to prevent interpretation by the shell, for example.

The -expr flag is equivalent to the EXPR[11] directive. The -vfs flag is used to
configure VFS[12] directives required by this module.

-modules
Display a list of built-in authentication modules and roles modules, one per line, and
then exit. The canonical module name is printed, followed by zero or more equivalent
abbreviations. For authentication modules, the authentication style is shown. To list
the available modules, run the command:

% dacsauth -modules

The set of available (enabled) built-in authentication and roles modules is determined
when DACS is built.

-p password
Specify the password to use (equivalent to the PASSWORD argument to
dacs_authenticate).

Security
A password given on the command line may be visible to other users on the same
system.

-pf file
Read the password to use from file (equivalent to the PASSWORD argument to
dacs_authenticate). If file is "-", then the password is read from the standard input
without prompting.

-prompt
Prompt for the password and read it from stdin (equivalent to the PASSWORD argument to
dacs_authenticate). The password is not echoed.

-q
Be more quiet by reducing the debugging output level.

-r role-module-spec
Roles for username can be determined by giving this flag, which is immediately
followed by a roles-module-spec. The -r flag may be repeated, and the resulting roles
are combined. Each roles-module-spec is essentially an alternate representation of a
Roles clause that is used by dacs_authenticate(8)[13]. Successive -r components are
assigned names, roles_module_1, roles_module_2, and so on, mainly for error reporting
purposes.

A roles-module-spec has the following syntax:

The module component is equivalent to the Roles clause's URL[14] directive and is
either the name of an available built-in roles module, a valid abbreviation thereof,
or the (absolute) URL of an external roles module.

Flags may follow the module component, in any order. A roles-module-spec ends when
the first invalid flag (or the end of flags) is encountered.

The -O flag is equivalent to an OPTION[10] directive.

The -Of flag is followed by an argument that is the name of a file from which to read
options, one per line, in the format name=value. Blank lines and lines beginning with
a '#' are ignored; note that these lines do not begin with "-O" and quotes are simply
copied and not interpreted. The -Of flag can be used to avoid putting passwords on
the command line and makes it easier to write expressions that would otherwise have
to be carefully escaped to prevent interpretation by the shell, for example.

The -expr flag is equivalent to the EXPR[11] directive. The -vfs flag is used to
configure VFS[12] directives required by module.

-u username
-user username
The username to authenticate against (equivalent to the USERNAME argument to
dacs_authenticate). This username is implicitly associated with the effective
federation and jurisdiction (see the -fn[15] and -fj[16] flags).

-v
The -v flag bumps the debugging output level to debug or (if repeated) trace.

EXAMPLES


Security
If dacsauth uses a built-in module to perform authentication, it must run setuid or
setgid to obtain sufficient privileges to access the required password file (the same
is true for built-in roles modules). If it uses an external module, that module will
need to execute with sufficient privileges to access DACS cryptographic keys,
specifically federation_keys and possibly DACS or system password files; the external
module will then need to execute with sufficient privileges to access any files it
requires.

Be sure to use the federation_keys that are correct for your federation. Referencing
authentication modules in two or more federations will probably not work.

dacsauth should therefore not ordinarily run as the UID of the user that invokes it
(unless that happens to be root) because it will not be able to access the information
it requires. This will also prevent a user from "cheating" (e.g., by attaching to the
running module with a debugger).

This example authenticates user "bobo" with password "test" against the DACS password file
/usr/local/dacs/conf/passwd:

% dacsauth -m passwd passwd required
-vfs "[passwds]dacs-kwv-fs:/usr/local/dacs/conf/passwd" -q -u bobo -p test

If the command's exit status is zero, the authentication test succeeded, otherwise it
failed.

The following example attempts to authenticate "bobo" against her Unix password file. The
program prompts for the password.

% dacsauth -m unix passwd required -u bobo -prompt

In the next example, dacsauth attempts to authenticate "bobo" via NTLM on
winders.example.com:

% dacsauth -m ntlm passwd suff -OSAMBA_SERVER="winders.example.com" -prompt -u bobo

This example is similar to the previous one, except that an external authentication module
is used and the password is read from a file. Because of the external module, additional
configuration must be provided; in particular, the location of federation_keys and the
federation and jurisdiction names must be specified.

% dacsauth -m https://example.example.com/cgi-bin/dacs/local_ntlm_authenticate \
passwd sufficient -OSAMBA_SERVER="winders.example.com" \
-fn EXAMPLE -fj FEDROOT -u bobo -pf mypass \
-DVFS="[federation_keys]dacs-fs:/usr/local/dacs/federations/example/federation_keys"

To authenticate against the Google[17] account [email protected], one might use:

% dacsauth -m http passwd suff \
-OAUTH_URL="https://www.google.com/accounts/ClientLogin" \
-OUSERNAME_PARAMETER=Email -OPASSWORD_PARAMETER=Passwd \
-Oservice=xapi -Osource=DSS-DACS-1.4 -prompt -u [email protected]

In the following example, an expression is evaluated to determine whether authentication
should succeed. The user ("bobo") is prompted for a password. Only if the string "foo" is
given will authentication succeed. A more realistic example might call another program to
help make the determination, for instance.

% dacsauth -m expr expr suffi \
-expr '${Args::PASSWORD} eq "foo" ? ${Args::USERNAME} : ""' -user bobo -prompt

Authentication against an Apache htdigest password file is performed in the following
example, where the password is read from stdin:

% echo "test" | dacsauth -m apache digest sufficient \
-OAUTH_MODULE=mod_auth_digest \
-OAUTH_FILE=/usr/local/apache2/conf/passwords.digest \
-OAUTH_REALM="DACS Digest Auth Area" \
-u bobo -pf -

Authentication via the PAM module works differently than the other modules - and is more
complicated to use - because dacsauth may need to be run several times, depending on what
information PAM requires. Instead of returning a yes/no decision, dacsauth may print
prompts for more information to stdout. Please review the operational details presented in
dacs_authenticate(8)[18] and pamd(8)[19] before attempting to use this module.

The following example demonstrates use of the module from the command line. Once the basic
ideas are understood, it should be apparent how to write a script to performed the
necessary iterations. Details in the example, such as paths, may need to be adjusted for
your environment. Note that in this example the username is not specified the first time
dacsauth is run, although it could be if it were known.

% dacsauth -m pam prompted suffic \
-vfs "[federation_keys]dacs-fs:/usr/local/dacs/federations/dss/federation_keys" \
-OPAMD_HOST=localhost -OPAMD_PORT=dacs-pamd -fj EXAMPLE -fn TEST
AUTH_PROMPT_VAR1="Login:"
AUTH_TRANSID="10.0.0.124:57849:85748:9997c5588a6239e3"
% dacsauth -m pam prompted suffic \
-vfs "[federation_keys]dacs-fs:/usr/local/dacs/federations/dss/federation_keys" \
-OAUTH_PROMPT_VAR1="bobo" \
-OAUTH_TRANSID="10.0.0.124:57849:85748:9997c5588a6239e3"-fj EXAMPLE -fn TEST
AUTH_PROMPT_VAR2="Password:"
AUTH_TRANSID="10.0.0.124:52188:88417:5ffb0015f21ea546"
% dacsauth -m pam prompted suffic \
-vfs "[federation_keys]dacs-fs:/usr/local/dacs/federations/dss/federation_keys" \
-OAUTH_PROMPT_VAR2="apassword" \
-OAUTH_TRANSID="10.0.0.124:57849:85748:9997c5588a6239e3"-fj EXAMPLE -fn TEST

The first time dacsauth is run in the example it returns a prompt for the username
("Login:") that is associated with the transaction variable AUTH_PROMPT_VAR1 and a
transaction identifier (AUTH_TRANSID). The latter must be passed to the subsequent
executions of dacsauth. The second run of dacsauth passes the username ("bobo") and
returns another prompt ("Password:") that is associated with the transaction variable
AUTH_PROMPT_VAR2. The third run passes the password ("apassword") but no prompt is
returned, indicating that the session is complete and the program's exit status reflects
the outcome of authentication.

Tip
Whether dacsauth requires a password to retrieve roles depends on the particular roles
module being used. For example, a password is not required by local_unix_roles[20] or
local_roles[21] to obtain roles, but local_ldap_roles[22] will probably need a
password to bind to the directory and obtain roles.

This example prints the role string for user "bobo" by calling the built-in
local_unix_roles[20] module:

% dacsauth -r unix -u bobo
bobo,wheel,www,users

The next example is similar to the previous one, except an external roles module is used:

% dacsauth -r https://example.example.com/cgi-bin/dacs/local_unix_roles \
-DVFS="[federation_keys]dacs-fs:/usr/local/dacs/federations/federation_keys" \
-fn EXAMPLE -u bobo
bobo,wheel,www,users

The external roles module might be executed on a different host than the one running
dacsauth. Provided dacsauth has been installed and a matching federation_keys file is
available on the local host, the local host need not be a DACS jurisdiction or have any
other DACS configuration.

The following example prints the role string[23] for user "bobo", known within the
directory by the Common Name "Bobo Baggins", using the (external) local_ldap_roles[22]
module and the "direct" binding method:

% dacsauth -r https://example.example.com/cgi-bin/dacs/local_ldap_roles \
-Of /usr/local/dacs/ldap_roles_options_direct -u "Bobo Baggins" \
-DVFS="[federation_keys]dacs-fs:/usr/local/dacs/federations/federation_keys" \
-fn EXAMPLE -fj FEDROOT -prompt
DnsAdmins,Print_Operators,Domain_Admins,Administrators

Because there are too many flags to easily and correctly place on the command line, the
options that are needed to do this are read from a file that is specified by the -Of flag.
This also provides a more secure way to pass passwords to the program; ensure that access
to the file is restricted appropriately. The file
/usr/local/dacs/ldap_roles_options_direct might contain configuration such as this:

LDAP_BIND_METHOD=direct
LDAP_ADMIN_URL*="ldap://winders.example.com/CN=" . encode(url,${Args::DACS_USERNAME}) . ",CN=Users,DC=example,DC=com"

LDAP_ROLES_SELECTOR*="${LDAP::attrname}" eq "memberOf" ? strtr(ldap(rdn_attrvalue, \
ldap(dn_index, "${LDAP::attrvalue}", 1)), " ", "_") : ""

The following example is like the previous one, except that it uses the "indirect" binding
method and therefore does not need to be given the user's Common Name:

% dacsauth -r https://example.example.com/cgi-bin/dacs/local_ldap_roles \
-Of /usr/local/dacs/ldap_roles_options_indirect -u bobo \
-DVFS="[federation_keys]dacs-fs:/usr/local/dacs/federations/federation_keys" \
-fn EXAMPLE -fj FEDROOT -p bobospassword
DnsAdmins,Print_Operators,Domain_Admins,Administrators

The file /usr/local/dacs/ldap_roles_options_indirect might contain configuration such as
this:

LDAP_BIND_METHOD=indirect
LDAP_ADMIN_URL=ldap://winders.example.com/CN=Administrator,CN=Users,DC=example,DC=com

# Search under Users...
LDAP_SEARCH_ROOT_DN=CN=Users,DC=example,DC=com

LDAP_ADMIN_PASSWORD=theSecretAdminPassword
LDAP_SEARCH_FILTER*="(sAMAccountName=${Args::DACS_USERNAME})"
LDAP_ROLES_SELECTOR*="${LDAP::attrname}" eq "memberOf" ? strtr(ldap(rdn_attrvalue, \
ldap(dn_index, "${LDAP::attrvalue}", 1)), " ", "_") : ""

Suppose one wanted to use dacsauth to authenticate a user via LDAP in a way analogous to
this dacs.conf configuration:

<Auth id="ldap">
URL "http://example.example.com/cgi-bin/dacs/local_ldap_authenticate"
STYLE "password,add_roles"
CONTROL "required"
LDAP_BIND_METHOD "direct"
LDAP_USERNAME_URL* '"ldap://winders.example.com/cn=" . encode(url, ${Args::USERNAME}) . ",cn=Users,dc=example,dc=local"'
LDAP_USERNAME_EXPR* '"${LDAP::sAMAccountName}"'
LDAP_ROLES_SELECTOR* '"${LDAP::attrname}" eq "memberOf" \
? strtr(ldap(rdn_attrvalue, ldap(dn_index, "${LDAP::attrvalue}", 1)), " ", "_") : ""'
</Auth>

A file like this (e.g., /usr/local/dacs/ldap_auth_options_direct) would contain the
following directives:

LDAP_BIND_METHOD=direct
LDAP_USERNAME_URL*="ldap://winders.example.com/cn=" . encode(url, ${Args::USERNAME}) . ",cn=Users,dc=example,dc=local"
LDAP_USERNAME_EXPR*="${LDAP::sAMAccountName}"
LDAP_ROLES_SELECTOR*="${LDAP::attrname}" eq "memberOf" \
? strtr(ldap(rdn_attrvalue, ldap(dn_index, "${LDAP::attrvalue}", 1)), " ", "_") : ""

Authentication could then be performed using a command like this:

% dacsauth -fj FEDROOT -m http://example.example.com/cgi-bin/dacs/local_ldap_authenticate passwd suff \
-Of /usr/local/dacs/ldap_auth_options_direct \
-DVFS="[federation_keys]dacs-fs:/usr/local/dacs/federations/federation_keys" \
-fn EXAMPLE -u bobo -prompt

DIAGNOSTICS


The program exits 0 if authentication was successful or with 1 if authentication failed or
an error occurred.

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