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exif - shows EXIF information in JPEG files


exif [ OPTION ] [ file... ]


exif is a small command-line utility to show and change EXIF information in JPEG files.

Most digital cameras produce EXIF files, which are JPEG files with extra tags that contain
information about the image. The exif command-line utility allows you to read EXIF
information from and write EXIF information to those files. exif internally uses the
libexif library.

Each input file given on the command line is acted upon in turn, using all the options
given. Execution will be aborted immediately if one file is not readable or does not
contain EXIF tags.

As EXIF tags are read, any unknown ones are discarded and known ones are automatically
converted into the correct format, if they aren't already. Corrupted MakerNote tags are
also removed, but no format changes are made.


-v, --version
Display the exif version number.

-i, --ids
Show ID numbers instead of tag names.

-t, --tag=TAG
Select only this TAG. TAG is the tag title, the short tag name, or the tag number
(hexadecimal numbers are prefixed with 0x), from the IFD specified with --ifd. The
tag title is dependent on the current locale, whereas name and number are locale-

Select a tag or tags from this IFD. Valid IFDs are "0", "1", "EXIF", "GPS", and
"Interoperability". Defaults to "0".

-l, --list-tags
List all known EXIF tags and IFDs. A JPEG image must be provided, and those tags
which appear in the file are shown with an asterisk in the corresponding position
in the list.

-|, --show-mnote
Show the contents of the MakerNote tag. The contents of this tag are nonstandard
(and often undocumented) and may therefore not be recognized, or if they are
recognized they may not necessarily be interpreted correctly.

Remove the tag or (if no tag is specified) the entire IFD.

-s, --show-description
Show description of tag. The --tag option must also be given.

-e, --extract-thumbnail
Extract the thumbnail, writing the thumbnail image to the file specified with

-r, --remove-thumbnail
Remove the thumbnail from the image, writing the new image to the file specified
with --output.

-n, --insert-thumbnail=FILE
Insert FILE as thumbnail. No attempt is made to ensure that the contents of FILE
are in a valid thumbnail format.

Do not attempt to fix EXIF specification violations when reading tags. When used
in conjunction with --create-exif, this option inhibits the creation of the
mandatory tags. exif will otherwise remove illegal or unknown tags, add some
mandatory tags using default values, and change the data type of some tags to match
that required by the specification.

-o, --output=FILE
Write output image to FILE. If this option is not given and an image file must be
written, the name used is the same as the input file with the suffix

Set the data for the tag specified with --tag and --ifd to VALUE. Compound values
consisting of multiple components are separated with spaces.

-c, --create-exif
Create EXIF data if it does not exist. Mandatory tags are created with default
values unless the --no-fixup option is given. This option can be used instead of
specifying an input file name in most cases, to operate on the default values of
the mandatory set of EXIF tags. In this case, the --output option has no effect
and no file is written.

-m, --machine-readable
Produce output in a machine-readable (tab-delimited) format. The --xml-output and
--machine-readable options are mutually exclusive.

-w, --width=N
Set the maximum width of the output to N characters (default 80). This does not
apply to some output formats (e.g. XML).

-x, --xml-output
Produce output in an XML format (when possible). The --xml-output and
--machine-readable options are mutually exclusive. Note that the XML schema
changes with the locale, and it sometimes produces invalid XML. This option is not

-d, --debug
Show debugging messages. Also, when processing a file that contains corrupted data,
this option causes exif to attempt to continue processing. Normally, corrupted data
causes an abort.

Help options
-?, --help
Show help message.

Display brief usage message.


Display all recognized EXIF tags in an image and the tag contents, with bad tags fixed:

exif image.jpg

Display a table listing all known EXIF tags and whether each one exists in the given

exif --list-tags --no-fixup image.jpg

Display details on all XResolution tags found in the given image:

exif --tag=XResolution --no-fixup image.jpg

Display the raw contents of the "Model" tag in the given image (with a newline character

exif --ifd=0 --tag=Model --machine-readable image.jpg

Extract the thumbnail into the file thumbnail.jpg:

exif --extract-thumbnail --output=thumbnail.jpg image.jpg

Display a list of the numeric values of only the EXIF tags in the thumbnail IFD (IFD 1)
and the tag values:

exif --ids --ifd=1 --no-fixup image.jpg

Display the meaning of tag 0x9209 in the "EXIF" IFD according to the EXIF specification:

exif --show-description --ifd=EXIF --tag=0x9209

Add an Orientation tag with value "bottom - left" to an existing image, leaving the
existing tags untouched:

exif --output=new.jpg --ifd=0 --tag=0x0112 --set-value=4 --no-fixup image.jpg

Add a YCbCr Sub-Sampling tag with value 2,1 (a.k.a YCbCr 4:2:2) to an existing image and
fix the existing tags, if necessary:

exif --output=new.jpg --tag=YCbCrSubSampling --ifd=0 --set-value='2 1' image.jpg

Display a table with all known EXIF tags, highlighting mandatory ones:

exif -cl

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