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PROGRAM:

NAME


SPASS - automated theorem prover for full first-order logic with equality

SYNOPSIS


SPASS [options] [inputfile]

DESCRIPTION


SPASS is an automated theorem prover for full sorted first-order logic with equality that
extends superposition by sorts and a splitting rule for case analysis. SPASS can also be
used as a modal logic and description logic theorem prover.

OPTIONS


Command line options in SPASS are implemented via modifications to the GNU command line
option package for C. Just giving the option sets its value to 1 and means enabling the
option. In order to disable an option the value has to be set to 0 by declaring -Option=0.
The following options are currently supported by SPASS:

-Auto
Enables/disables the auto mode where SPASS configures itself automatically. The
inference/reduction rules, the sort technology, the ordering and precedence as well as
the splitting and selection strategy are set. In auto mode SPASS is complete. Mixing
the auto mode with user defined options may destroy completeness. Default is 1.

-Stdin
Enables/disables input in SPASS via stdin. The file argument is ignored. Default is 0.

-Interactive
Enables/disables the interactive mode. First, SPASS is given a set of axioms and then
the prover accepts subsequent proof tasks. Default is 0.

-Flotter
Enables/disables the CNF translation mode of SPASS. If the option is set, SPASS only
performs a clause normal form translation. If no output file argument is given SPASS
prints the CNF to stdout. Default is 0.

-SOS
Enables/disables the set of support strategy. Default is 0.

-Splits=n
Sets the number of possible splitting applications to n. If n=-1 then the number of
splits is not limited. Default is 0.

-Memory=n
Sets the amount of memory available to SPASS for the proof search to n bytes. The
memory needed to startup SPASS cannot be restricted. Default is -1 meaning that
memory allocations is only restricted by available memory.

-TimeLimit=n
Sets a time limit for the proof search to n seconds. Default is -1 meaning that SPASS
may run forever. The time limit is polled when SPASS selects a new clause for
inferences. If a single inference step causes an explosion to the number of generated
clauses it may therefore happen that a given time limit is significantly exceeded.

-DocSST
Enables/disables documentation output for static soft typing. The used sort theory as
well as the (failed) proof attempt for the sort constraint is printed. Default is 0.

-DocProof
Enables/disables proof documentation. If SPASS finds a proof it is eventually printed.
If SPASS finds a saturation, the saturated set of clauses is eventually printed.
Enabling proof documentation may significantly decrease SPASS's performance, because
the prover must store clauses that can be thrown away otherwise. Default is 0.

-DocSplit
Sets the documentation of split backtracking steps. If set to 1, the current
backtracking level is printed. If set to 2, it also prints in case of a split
backtrack the backtracked clauese. Default is 0.

-Loops
Sets the maximal number of mainloop iterations for SPASS. Default is -1.

-PSub
Enables/disables printing of subsumed clauses. Default is 0.

-PRew
Enables/disables printing of simple rewrite applications. Default is 0.

-PCon
Enables/disables printing of condensation applications. Default is 0.

-PTaut
Enables/disables printing of tautology deletion applications. Default is 0.

-PObv
Enables/disables printing of obvious reduction applications. Default is 0.

-PSSi
Enables/disables printing of sort simplification applications. Default is 0.

-PSST
Enables/disables printing of static soft typing applications. All deleted clauses are
printed. Default is 0.

-PMRR
Enables/disables printing of matching replacement resolution applications. Default is
0.

-PUnC
Enables/disables printing of unit conflict applications. Default is 0.

-PAED
Enables/disables printing of clauses where redundant equations have been removed
(assignment equation deletion).

-PDer
Enables/disables printing of clauses derived by inferences. Default is 0.

-PGiven
Enables/disables printing of the given clause, selected to perform inferences.
Default is 0.

-PLabels
Enables/disables printing of labels. If the -DocProof is set and no labels for
formulae are provided by the input, SPASS generates generic labels that are then
printed by enabling this option. Default is 0.

-PKept
Enables/disables printing of kept clauses. These are clauses generated by inferences
(backtracking) that are not redundant. Clauses derived during input
reduction/saturation are not printed. Default is 0.

-PProblem
Enables/disables printing of the input clause set. Default is 1.

-PEmptyClause
Enables/disables printing of derived empty clauses. Default is 0.

-PStatistic
Enables/disables printing of a final statistics on derived/backtracked/kept clauses,
performed splits, used time and used space. Default is 1.

-FPModel
Enables/disables the output of an eventually found model to a file. If set to 1, all
clauses in the final set are printed. If set to 2, only potentially productive clauses
are printed, that are clauses with no selected negative literal and a maximal positive
one. If <problemfile> is the name of the input problem and the eventually generated
set is saturated, the saturation is printed to the file <problemfile>.model, for
otherwise to <problemfile>.clauses. The latter case may, e.g., be caused by a time
limit. Default is 0.

-FPDFGProof
Enables/disables the output of an eventually found proof to a file. Using this option
requires to set the option -DocProof. If <problemfile> is the name of the input
problem the proof is printed to <problemfile>.prf. Default is 0.

-PFlags
Enables/disables the output of all flag values. The flag settings are printed at the
end of a SPASS run in form of a DFG-Syntax input section. Default is 0.

-POptSkolem
Enables/disables the output of optimized Skolemization applications. Default is 0.

-PStrSkolem
Enables/disables the output of strong Skolemization applications. Default is 0.

-PBDC
Enables/disables the output of clauses deleted because of bound restrictions. Default
is 0.

-PBInc
Enables/disables the output of bound restriction changes. Default is 0.

-PApplyDefs
Enables/disables printing of expansions of atom definitions. Default is 0.

-Select
Sets the selection strategy for SPASS. If set to 0 no selection of negative literals
is done. If set to any other value, at most one negative literal in a clause is
selected. If set to 1 negative literals in clauses with more than one maximal literal
are selected. Either a negative literal with a predicate from the selection list (see
below) is chosen or if no such negative literal is available, a negative literal with
maximal weight is chosen. If set to 2 negative literals are always selected. Again,
either a negative literal with a predicate from the selection list (see below) is
chosen or if no such negative literal is available, a negative literal with maximal
weight is chosen. The latter case results in an ordered hyperresolution like behavior
of ordered resolution. If set to 3 any negative literal with a predicate specified by
the selection list (see below) is selected. Default is 1.

-RInput
Enables/disables the reduction of the initial clause set. Default is 1.

-Sorts
Determines the monadic literals that built the sort constraint for the initial clause
set. If set to 0, no sort constraint is built. If set to 1, all negative monadic
literals with a variable as argument form the sort constraint. If set to 2, all
negative monadic literals form the sort constraint. Setting -Sorts to 2 may harm
completeness, since sort constraints are subject to the basic strategy and to static
soft typing. Default is 1.

-SatInput
Enables/disables input saturation. The saturation is incomplete but is guaranteed to
terminate. Default is 0.

-WDRatio
Sets the ratio between given clauses selected by weight or the depth in the search
space. The weight is the sum of all symbol weights determined by the -FuncWeight and
-VarWeight options. The depth of all initial clauses is 0 and clauses generated by
inferences get the maximal depth of a parent clause plus 1. Default is 5, meaning
that 4 clauses are selected by weight and the fifth clause is selected by depth.

-PrefCon
Sets the ratio to compute the weight for conjecture clauses and therefore allows to
prefer those. Default is 0 meaning that the weight computation for conjecture clauses
is not changed.

-FullRed
Enables/disables full reduction. If set to 0, only the set of worked off clauses is
completely inter-reduced. If set to 1, all currently hold clauses (worked off and
usable) are completely inter-reduced. Default is 1.

-FuncWeight
Sets the weight of function/predicate symbols. The weight of clauses is the sum of all
symbol weights. This weight is considered for the selection of the given clause.
Default is 1.

-VarWeight
Sets the weight of variable symbols (see -FuncWeight). Default is 1.

-PrefVar
Enables/disables the preference for clauses with many variables. While clauses are
selected by weight, if this option is set and two clauses have the same weight, the
clause with more variable occurrences is preferred. Default is 0.

-BoundMode
Selects the mode for bound restrictions. Mode 0 means no restriction, if set to 1 all
newly generated clauses are restricted by weight (see -BoundStart) and if set to 2
clauses are restricted by depth. Default is 0.

-BoundStart
The start restriction of the selected bound mode. For example, if bound mode is 1 and
bound start set to 5, all clauses with a weight larger than 5 are deleted until the
set is saturated. This causes an increase of the used bound value that is determined
by the minimal increase saving a before deleted clause. Default is -1 meaning no bound
restriction.

-BoundLoops
The number of loops applying the actions restrictions/increasing bound. If the number
of loops is exceeded all bound restrictions are cancelled. Default is 1.

-ApplyDefs
Sets the maximal number of applications of atom definitions to input formulae.
Default is 0, meaning no applications at all.

-Ordering
Sets the term ordering. If 0 then KBO is selected, if 1 the RPOS is selected. Default
is 0.

-CNFQuantExch
If set, non-constant Skolem terms in the clausal form of the conjecture are replaced
by constants. Will automatically be set for the optimized functional translation of
modal or description logic formulae. Default is 0.

-CNFOptSkolem
Enables/disables optimized Skolemization. Default is 1.

-CNFStrSkolem
Enables/disables Strong Skolemization. Default is 1.

-CNFProofSteps
Sets the maximal number of proof steps in an optimized Skolemization proof attempt.
Default is 100.

-CNFSub
Enables/disables subsumption on the clauses generated by the CNF procedure. Default
is 1.

-CNFCon
Enables/disables condensing on the clauses generated by the CNF procedure. Default is
1.

-CNFRedTime
Sets the overall amount of time in seconds to be spend on reduction during CNF
transformation. Affected reductions are optimized Skolemization, condensing, and
subsumption. Default is -1 meaning that the reduction time is not limited at all.

-CNFRenaming
Enables/disables formula renaming. If set to 1 optimized renaming is enabled that
minimizes the number of eventually generated clauses. If set to 2 complex renaming is
enabled that introduces a new Skolem predicate for every complex formula, i.e., any
formula that is not a literal. If set to 3 quantification renaming is enabled that
introduces a new Skolem predicate for every subformula starting with a quantifier.
Default is 1.

-CNFRenMatch
If set, renaming variant subformulae are replaced by the same Skolem literal. Default
is 1.

-CNFPRenaming
Enables/disables the printing of formula renaming applications. Default is 0.

-CNFFEqR
Enables/disables certain equality reduction techniques on the formula level. Default
is 1.

-IEmS
Enables/disables the inference rule Empty Sort. Default is 0.

-ISoR
Enables/disables the inference rule Sort Resolution. Default is 0.

-IEqR
Enables/disables the inference rule Equality Resolution. Default is 0.

-IERR
Enables/disables the inference rule Reflexivity Resolution. Default is 0.

-IEqF
Enables/disables the inference rule Equality Factoring. Default is 0.

-IMPm
Enables/disables the inference rule Merging Paramodulation. Default is 0.

-ISpR
Enables/disables the inference rule Superposition Right. Default is 0.

-IOPm
Enables/disables the inference rule Ordered Paramodulation. Default is 0.

-ISPm
Enables/disables the inference rule Standard Paramodulation. Default is 0.

-ISpL
Enables/disables the inference rule Superposition Left. Default is 0.

-IORe
Enables/disables the inference rule Ordered Resolution. If set to 1, Ordered
Resolution is enabled but no resolution inferences with equations are generated. If
set to 2, equations are considered for Ordered Resolution steps as well. Default is
0.

-ISRe
Enables/disables the inference rule Standard Resolution. If set to 1, Standard
Resolution is enabled but no resolution inferences with equations are generated. If
set to 2, equations are considered for Standard Resolution steps as well. Default is
0.

-ISHy
Enables/disables the inference rule Standard Hyper-Resolution. Default is 0.

-IOHy
Enables/disables the inference rule Ordered Hyper-Resolution. Default is 0.

-IURR
Enables/disables the inference rule Unit Resulting Resolution. Default is 0.

-IOFc
Enables/disables the inference rule Ordered Factoring. If set to 1, Ordered Factoring
is enabled but only factoring inferences with positive literals are generated. If set
to 2, negative literals are considered for inferences as well. Default is 0.

-ISFc
Enables/disables the inference rule Standard Factoring. Default is 0.

-IUnR
Enables/disables the inference rule Unit Resolution. Default is 0.

-IBUR
Enables/disables the inference rule Bounded Depth Unit Resolution. Default is 0.

-IDEF
Enables/disables the inference rule Apply Definitions. Currently not supported.
Default is 0.

-RFRew
Enables/disables the reduction rule Forward Rewriting. If set to 1 unit rewriting and
non-unit rewriting based on a subsumption test is activated. If set to 2 in addition
to unit and non-unit rewriting local contextual rewriting is activated. If set to 3
in addition to unit and non-unit rewriting subterm contextual rewriting is
activiated. Subterm contextual rewriting subsumes local contextual rewriting. If set
to 4 in addition of the rewriting rules of 3, subterm contextual rewriting also tests
for negative literal elimination. Default is 0.

-RBRew
Enables/disables the reduction rule Backward Rewriting. Same values and meaning as
for flag -RFRew but used in backward direction. Default is 0.

-RFMRR
Enables/disables the reduction rule Forward Matching Replacement Resolution. Default
is 0.

-RBMRR
Enables/disables the reduction rule Backward Matching Replacement Resolution. Default
is 0.

-RObv
Enables/disables the reduction rule Obvious Reduction. Default is 0.

-RUnC
Enables/disables the reduction rule Unit Conflict. Default is 0.

-RTer
Enables/disables the terminator by setting the maximal number of non-unit clauses to
be used during the search. Default is 0.

-RTaut
Enables/disables the reduction rule Tautology Deletion. If set to 1, only syntactic
tautologies are detected and deleted. If set to 2, additionally semantic tautologies
are removed. Default is 0.

-RSST
Enables/disables the reduction rule Static Soft Typing. Default is 0.

-RSSi
Enables/disables the reduction rule Sort Simplification. Default is 0.

-RFSub
Enables/disables the reduction rule Forward Subsumption Deletion. Default is 0.

-RBSub
Enables/disables the reduction rule Backward Subsumption Deletion. Default is 0.

-RAED
Enables/disables the reduction rule Assignment Equation Deletion. This rule removes
particular occurrences of equations from clauses. If set to 1, the reduction is
guaranteed to be sound. If set to 2, the reduction is only sound if any potential
model of the considered problem has a non-trivial domain. Default is 0.

-RCon
Enables/disables the reduction rule Condensation. Default is 0.

-TDfg2OtterOptions
Enables/disables the inclusion of an Otter options header. This option only applies to
dfg2otter. If set to 1 it includes a setting that makes Otter nearly complete. If set
to 2 it activates auto modus and if set to 3 it activates the auto2 modus. Default is
0.

-EML
A special EML flag for modal logic or description logic formulae. Never needs to be
set explicitly. Is set during parsing.

-EMLAuto
Intended for EML Autonomous mode, as yet not functional. Default is 0.

-EMLTranslation
Determines the translation method used for modal logic or description logic formulae.
If set to 0, the standard relational translation method (which is determined by the
usual Kripke semantics) is used. If set to 1, the functional translation method is
used. If set to 2, the optimised functional translation method is used. If set to 3,
the semi-functional translation method is used. A variation of the optimised
functional translation method is used, when the following settings are specified:
-EMLTranslation=2 -EMLFuncNary=1. The translation will be in terms of n-ary
predicates instead of unary predicates and paths. In the current implementation the
standard relational translation method is most general. Some restrictions apply to the
other methods. The functional translation method and semi-functional translation
methods are available only for the basic multi-modal logic K(m) possibly with serial
(total) modalities (-EMLTheory=1), plus nominals (ABox statements), terminological
axioms and general inclusion and equivalence axioms. The optimised functional
translation methods are implemented only for K(m), possibly with serial modalities.
Default is 0.

-EML2Rel
If set, propositional/Boolean-type formulae are converted to relational formulae
before they are translated to first-order logic. Default is 0.

-EMLTheory
Determines which background theory is assumed. If set to 0, the background theory is
empty. If set to 1, then seriality (the background theory for KD) is added for all
modalities. If set to 2, then reflexivity (the background theory for KT) is added for
all modalities. If set to 3, then symmetry (the background theory for KB) is added
for all modalities. If set to 4, then transitivity (the background theory for K4) is
added for all modalities. If set to 5, then Euclideanness (the background theory for
K5) is added for all modalities. If set to 6, then transitivity and Euclideanness
(the background theory for S4) is added for all modalities. If set to 7, then
reflexivity, transitivity and Euclideanness (the background theory for S5) is added
for all modalities. Default is 0.

-EMLFuncNdeQ
If set, diamond formulae are translated according to tr(dia(phi),s) = nde(s) /\ exists
x tr(phi,[s x]) (a nde / quantifier formula), otherwise the translation is in
accordance with tr(dia(phi),s) = exists x nde(s) /\ tr(phi,[s x]) (a quantifier / nde
formula). The transltion for box formulae is defined dually. Setting this flag is
only meaningful when the flag for the functional or semi functional translation method
is set. Default is 1.

-EMLFuncNary
If set, the functional translation into fluted logic is used. This means n-ary
predicate symbols are used instead of unary predicate symbols and paths. Setting this
flag is only meaningful for testing local satisfiability/validity in multi-modal K.
Default is 0.

-EMLFFSorts
If set, sorts for terms are used. Default is 0.

-EMLElimComp
If set, try to eliminate relational composition in modal parameters. Default is 0.

-EMLPTrans
If set, the EML to first-order logic translation is documented. Default is 0.

-TPTP
If set, SPASS expects an input file in TPTP syntax. Default is 0.

-rf If set, SPASS deletes the input file before termination. Default is 0.

EXAMPLES


To run SPASS on a single file without options:

SPASS I<filename>

To disable all SPASS output except for the final result:

SPASS -PGiven=0 -PProblem=0 I<filename>

NOTES


You can also specify options for SPASS in the input problem. In the DFG syntax, you would
use

list_of_settings(SPASS).
{*
set_flag(DocProof,1).
*}
end_of_list.

to set the DocProof flag.

There are three types of options you can set in the input:

set_flag(<flag>,<value>).
Sets a flag to a value. Valid flags and values are described in the OPTIONS section.

set_precedence(<comma-separated list of function and/or predicate symbols>).
Sets the precedence for the listed symbols. The precedence is decreasing from left to
right, i.e. the leftmost symbol has the highest precedence.

Every entry in the list has the form

SYMBOL | (SYMBOL, WEIGHT [, {l, r, m}])

You can use the second form to assign weights to symbols (for KBO) or a status (for
RPOS). Status is either @t{l} for left-to-right, @t{m} for multiset, or @t{r} for
right-to-left. Weight is given as an integer.

set_DomPred(<comma-separated list of predicate symbols>).
Listed predicate (DomPred for dominant predicate) symbols are first ordered according
to their precedence, not according to their argument lists. Only in case of equal
predicates, the arguments are examined. For example, if we add the option

set_DomPred(P).

then in the clause

-> R(f(x,y),a), P(x,a).

the atom P(x,a) is strictly maximal. Predicates listed by the set_DomPred option are
compared according to the precedence.

set_selection(<comma-separated list of predicate symbols>).
Sets the selection list that can be employed by the Select flag (see above).

set_ClauseFormulaRelation(<comma separated list auf tuples (<clause number>, sequence of
axiom name strings)).
This list is in particular set by FLOTTER and enables SPASS for an eventually found
proof to show the relation between the clauses used in the proof and the input
formulas. If combined with option DocProof, then there needs to be an entry for every
clause number. Otherwise an error is reported.

set_ClauseFormulaRelation((1,ax2),(2,ax1),(3,ax3,ax1)).

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