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git-push - Update remote refs along with associated objects


git push [--all | --mirror | --tags] [--follow-tags] [--atomic] [-n | --dry-run] [--receive-pack=<git-receive-pack>]
[--repo=<repository>] [-f | --force] [--prune] [-v | --verbose]
[-u | --set-upstream]
[--no-verify] [<repository> [<refspec>...]]


Updates remote refs using local refs, while sending objects necessary to complete the
given refs.

You can make interesting things happen to a repository every time you push into it, by
setting up hooks there. See documentation for git-receive-pack(1).

When the command line does not specify where to push with the <repository> argument,
branch.*.remote configuration for the current branch is consulted to determine where to
push. If the configuration is missing, it defaults to origin.

When the command line does not specify what to push with <refspec>... arguments or --all,
--mirror, --tags options, the command finds the default <refspec> by consulting
remote.*.push configuration, and if it is not found, honors push.default configuration to
decide what to push (See git-config(1) for the meaning of push.default).

When neither the command-line nor the configuration specify what to push, the default
behavior is used, which corresponds to the simple value for push.default: the current
branch is pushed to the corresponding upstream branch, but as a safety measure, the push
is aborted if the upstream branch does not have the same name as the local one.


The "remote" repository that is destination of a push operation. This parameter can be
either a URL (see the section GIT URLS below) or the name of a remote (see the section
REMOTES below).

Specify what destination ref to update with what source object. The format of a
<refspec> parameter is an optional plus +, followed by the source object <src>,
followed by a colon :, followed by the destination ref <dst>.

The <src> is often the name of the branch you would want to push, but it can be any
arbitrary "SHA-1 expression", such as master~4 or HEAD (see gitrevisions(7)).

The <dst> tells which ref on the remote side is updated with this push. Arbitrary
expressions cannot be used here, an actual ref must be named. If git push
[<repository>] without any <refspec> argument is set to update some ref at the
destination with <src> with remote.<repository>.push configuration variable, :<dst>
part can be omitted—such a push will update a ref that <src> normally updates without
any <refspec> on the command line. Otherwise, missing :<dst> means to update the same
ref as the <src>.

The object referenced by <src> is used to update the <dst> reference on the remote
side. By default this is only allowed if <dst> is not a tag (annotated or
lightweight), and then only if it can fast-forward <dst>. By having the optional
leading +, you can tell Git to update the <dst> ref even if it is not allowed by
default (e.g., it is not a fast-forward.) This does not attempt to merge <src> into
<dst>. See EXAMPLES below for details.

tag <tag> means the same as refs/tags/<tag>:refs/tags/<tag>.

Pushing an empty <src> allows you to delete the <dst> ref from the remote repository.

The special refspec : (or +: to allow non-fast-forward updates) directs Git to push
"matching" branches: for every branch that exists on the local side, the remote side
is updated if a branch of the same name already exists on the remote side.

Push all branches (i.e. refs under refs/heads/); cannot be used with other <refspec>.

Remove remote branches that don’t have a local counterpart. For example a remote
branch tmp will be removed if a local branch with the same name doesn’t exist any
more. This also respects refspecs, e.g. git push --prune remote
refs/heads/*:refs/tmp/* would make sure that remote refs/tmp/foo will be removed if
refs/heads/foo doesn’t exist.

Instead of naming each ref to push, specifies that all refs under refs/ (which
includes but is not limited to refs/heads/, refs/remotes/, and refs/tags/) be mirrored
to the remote repository. Newly created local refs will be pushed to the remote end,
locally updated refs will be force updated on the remote end, and deleted refs will be
removed from the remote end. This is the default if the configuration option
remote.<remote>.mirror is set.

-n, --dry-run
Do everything except actually send the updates.

Produce machine-readable output. The output status line for each ref will be
tab-separated and sent to stdout instead of stderr. The full symbolic names of the
refs will be given.

All listed refs are deleted from the remote repository. This is the same as prefixing
all refs with a colon.

All refs under refs/tags are pushed, in addition to refspecs explicitly listed on the
command line.

Push all the refs that would be pushed without this option, and also push annotated
tags in refs/tags that are missing from the remote but are pointing at commit-ish that
are reachable from the refs being pushed. This can also be specified with
configuration variable push.followTags. For more information, see push.followTags in

--[no-]signed, --sign=(true|false|if-asked)
GPG-sign the push request to update refs on the receiving side, to allow it to be
checked by the hooks and/or be logged. If false or --no-signed, no signing will be
attempted. If true or --signed, the push will fail if the server does not support
signed pushes. If set to if-asked, sign if and only if the server supports signed
pushes. The push will also fail if the actual call to gpg --sign fails. See git-
receive-pack(1) for the details on the receiving end.

Use an atomic transaction on the remote side if available. Either all refs are
updated, or on error, no refs are updated. If the server does not support atomic
pushes the push will fail.

--receive-pack=<git-receive-pack>, --exec=<git-receive-pack>
Path to the git-receive-pack program on the remote end. Sometimes useful when pushing
to a remote repository over ssh, and you do not have the program in a directory on the
default $PATH.

--[no-]force-with-lease, --force-with-lease=<refname>,
Usually, "git push" refuses to update a remote ref that is not an ancestor of the
local ref used to overwrite it.

This option overrides this restriction if the current value of the remote ref is the
expected value. "git push" fails otherwise.

Imagine that you have to rebase what you have already published. You will have to
bypass the "must fast-forward" rule in order to replace the history you originally
published with the rebased history. If somebody else built on top of your original
history while you are rebasing, the tip of the branch at the remote may advance with
her commit, and blindly pushing with --force will lose her work.

This option allows you to say that you expect the history you are updating is what you
rebased and want to replace. If the remote ref still points at the commit you
specified, you can be sure that no other people did anything to the ref. It is like
taking a "lease" on the ref without explicitly locking it, and the remote ref is
updated only if the "lease" is still valid.

--force-with-lease alone, without specifying the details, will protect all remote refs
that are going to be updated by requiring their current value to be the same as the
remote-tracking branch we have for them.

--force-with-lease=<refname>, without specifying the expected value, will protect the
named ref (alone), if it is going to be updated, by requiring its current value to be
the same as the remote-tracking branch we have for it.

--force-with-lease=<refname>:<expect> will protect the named ref (alone), if it is
going to be updated, by requiring its current value to be the same as the specified
value <expect> (which is allowed to be different from the remote-tracking branch we
have for the refname, or we do not even have to have such a remote-tracking branch
when this form is used).

Note that all forms other than --force-with-lease=<refname>:<expect> that specifies
the expected current value of the ref explicitly are still experimental and their
semantics may change as we gain experience with this feature.

"--no-force-with-lease" will cancel all the previous --force-with-lease on the command

-f, --force
Usually, the command refuses to update a remote ref that is not an ancestor of the
local ref used to overwrite it. Also, when --force-with-lease option is used, the
command refuses to update a remote ref whose current value does not match what is

This flag disables these checks, and can cause the remote repository to lose commits;
use it with care.

Note that --force applies to all the refs that are pushed, hence using it with
push.default set to matching or with multiple push destinations configured with
remote.*.push may overwrite refs other than the current branch (including local refs
that are strictly behind their remote counterpart). To force a push to only one
branch, use a + in front of the refspec to push (e.g git push origin +master to force
a push to the master branch). See the <refspec>... section above for details.

This option is equivalent to the <repository> argument. If both are specified, the
command-line argument takes precedence.

-u, --set-upstream
For every branch that is up to date or successfully pushed, add upstream (tracking)
reference, used by argument-less git-pull(1) and other commands. For more information,
see branch.<name>.merge in git-config(1).

These options are passed to git-send-pack(1). A thin transfer significantly reduces
the amount of sent data when the sender and receiver share many of the same objects in
common. The default is --thin.

-q, --quiet
Suppress all output, including the listing of updated refs, unless an error occurs.
Progress is not reported to the standard error stream.

-v, --verbose
Run verbosely.

Progress status is reported on the standard error stream by default when it is
attached to a terminal, unless -q is specified. This flag forces progress status even
if the standard error stream is not directed to a terminal.

--no-recurse-submodules, --recurse-submodules=check|on-demand|no
May be used to make sure all submodule commits used by the revisions to be pushed are
available on a remote-tracking branch. If check is used Git will verify that all
submodule commits that changed in the revisions to be pushed are available on at least
one remote of the submodule. If any commits are missing the push will be aborted and
exit with non-zero status. If on-demand is used all submodules that changed in the
revisions to be pushed will be pushed. If on-demand was not able to push all necessary
revisions it will also be aborted and exit with non-zero status. A value of no or
using --no-recurse-submodules can be used to override the push.recurseSubmodules
configuration variable when no submodule recursion is required.

Toggle the pre-push hook (see githooks(5)). The default is --verify, giving the hook a
chance to prevent the push. With --no-verify, the hook is bypassed completely.


In general, URLs contain information about the transport protocol, the address of the
remote server, and the path to the repository. Depending on the transport protocol, some
of this information may be absent.

Git supports ssh, git, http, and https protocols (in addition, ftp, and ftps can be used
for fetching and rsync can be used for fetching and pushing, but these are inefficient and
deprecated; do not use them).

The native transport (i.e. git:// URL) does no authentication and should be used with
caution on unsecured networks.

The following syntaxes may be used with them:

· ssh://[user@]host.xz[:port]/path/to/repo.git/

· git://host.xz[:port]/path/to/repo.git/

· http[s]://host.xz[:port]/path/to/repo.git/

· ftp[s]://host.xz[:port]/path/to/repo.git/

· rsync://host.xz/path/to/repo.git/

An alternative scp-like syntax may also be used with the ssh protocol:

· [user@]host.xz:path/to/repo.git/

This syntax is only recognized if there are no slashes before the first colon. This helps
differentiate a local path that contains a colon. For example the local path foo:bar could
be specified as an absolute path or ./foo:bar to avoid being misinterpreted as an ssh url.

The ssh and git protocols additionally support ~username expansion:

· ssh://[user@]host.xz[:port]/~[user]/path/to/repo.git/

· git://host.xz[:port]/~[user]/path/to/repo.git/

· [user@]host.xz:/~[user]/path/to/repo.git/

For local repositories, also supported by Git natively, the following syntaxes may be

· /path/to/repo.git/

· file:///path/to/repo.git/

These two syntaxes are mostly equivalent, except when cloning, when the former implies
--local option. See git-clone(1) for details.

When Git doesn’t know how to handle a certain transport protocol, it attempts to use the
remote-<transport> remote helper, if one exists. To explicitly request a remote helper,
the following syntax may be used:

· <transport>::<address>

where <address> may be a path, a server and path, or an arbitrary URL-like string
recognized by the specific remote helper being invoked. See gitremote-helpers(1) for

If there are a large number of similarly-named remote repositories and you want to use a
different format for them (such that the URLs you use will be rewritten into URLs that
work), you can create a configuration section of the form:

[url "<actual url base>"]
insteadOf = <other url base>

For example, with this:

[url "git://git.host.xz/"]
insteadOf = host.xz:/path/to/
insteadOf = work:

a URL like "work:repo.git" or like "host.xz:/path/to/repo.git" will be rewritten in any
context that takes a URL to be "git://git.host.xz/repo.git".

If you want to rewrite URLs for push only, you can create a configuration section of the

[url "<actual url base>"]
pushInsteadOf = <other url base>

For example, with this:

[url "ssh://example.org/"]
pushInsteadOf = git://example.org/

a URL like "git://example.org/path/to/repo.git" will be rewritten to
"ssh://example.org/path/to/repo.git" for pushes, but pulls will still use the original


The name of one of the following can be used instead of a URL as <repository> argument:

· a remote in the Git configuration file: $GIT_DIR/config,

· a file in the $GIT_DIR/remotes directory, or

· a file in the $GIT_DIR/branches directory.

All of these also allow you to omit the refspec from the command line because they each
contain a refspec which git will use by default.

Named remote in configuration file
You can choose to provide the name of a remote which you had previously configured using
git-remote(1), git-config(1) or even by a manual edit to the $GIT_DIR/config file. The URL
of this remote will be used to access the repository. The refspec of this remote will be
used by default when you do not provide a refspec on the command line. The entry in the
config file would appear like this:

[remote "<name>"]
url = <url>
pushurl = <pushurl>
push = <refspec>
fetch = <refspec>

The <pushurl> is used for pushes only. It is optional and defaults to <url>.

Named file in $GIT_DIR/remotes
You can choose to provide the name of a file in $GIT_DIR/remotes. The URL in this file
will be used to access the repository. The refspec in this file will be used as default
when you do not provide a refspec on the command line. This file should have the following

URL: one of the above URL format
Push: <refspec>
Pull: <refspec>

Push: lines are used by git push and Pull: lines are used by git pull and git fetch.
Multiple Push: and Pull: lines may be specified for additional branch mappings.

Named file in $GIT_DIR/branches
You can choose to provide the name of a file in $GIT_DIR/branches. The URL in this file
will be used to access the repository. This file should have the following format:


<url> is required; #<head> is optional.

Depending on the operation, git will use one of the following refspecs, if you don’t
provide one on the command line. <branch> is the name of this file in $GIT_DIR/branches
and <head> defaults to master.

git fetch uses:


git push uses:



The output of "git push" depends on the transport method used; this section describes the
output when pushing over the Git protocol (either locally or via ssh).

The status of the push is output in tabular form, with each line representing the status
of a single ref. Each line is of the form:

<flag> <summary> <from> -> <to> (<reason>)

If --porcelain is used, then each line of the output is of the form:

<flag> \t <from>:<to> \t <summary> (<reason>)

The status of up-to-date refs is shown only if --porcelain or --verbose option is used.

A single character indicating the status of the ref:

for a successfully pushed fast-forward;

for a successful forced update;

for a successfully deleted ref;

for a successfully pushed new ref;

for a ref that was rejected or failed to push; and

for a ref that was up to date and did not need pushing.

For a successfully pushed ref, the summary shows the old and new values of the ref in
a form suitable for using as an argument to git log (this is <old>..<new> in most
cases, and <old>...<new> for forced non-fast-forward updates).

For a failed update, more details are given:

Git did not try to send the ref at all, typically because it is not a fast-forward
and you did not force the update.

remote rejected
The remote end refused the update. Usually caused by a hook on the remote side, or
because the remote repository has one of the following safety options in effect:
receive.denyCurrentBranch (for pushes to the checked out branch),
receive.denyNonFastForwards (for forced non-fast-forward updates),
receive.denyDeletes or receive.denyDeleteCurrent. See git-config(1).

remote failure
The remote end did not report the successful update of the ref, perhaps because of
a temporary error on the remote side, a break in the network connection, or other
transient error.

The name of the local ref being pushed, minus its refs/<type>/ prefix. In the case of
deletion, the name of the local ref is omitted.

The name of the remote ref being updated, minus its refs/<type>/ prefix.

A human-readable explanation. In the case of successfully pushed refs, no explanation
is needed. For a failed ref, the reason for failure is described.


When an update changes a branch (or more in general, a ref) that used to point at commit A
to point at another commit B, it is called a fast-forward update if and only if B is a
descendant of A.

In a fast-forward update from A to B, the set of commits that the original commit A built
on top of is a subset of the commits the new commit B builds on top of. Hence, it does not
lose any history.

In contrast, a non-fast-forward update will lose history. For example, suppose you and
somebody else started at the same commit X, and you built a history leading to commit B
while the other person built a history leading to commit A. The history looks like this:


Further suppose that the other person already pushed changes leading to A back to the
original repository from which you two obtained the original commit X.

The push done by the other person updated the branch that used to point at commit X to
point at commit A. It is a fast-forward.

But if you try to push, you will attempt to update the branch (that now points at A) with
commit B. This does not fast-forward. If you did so, the changes introduced by commit A
will be lost, because everybody will now start building on top of B.

The command by default does not allow an update that is not a fast-forward to prevent such
loss of history.

If you do not want to lose your work (history from X to B) or the work by the other person
(history from X to A), you would need to first fetch the history from the repository,
create a history that contains changes done by both parties, and push the result back.

You can perform "git pull", resolve potential conflicts, and "git push" the result. A "git
pull" will create a merge commit C between commits A and B.

/ /

Updating A with the resulting merge commit will fast-forward and your push will be

Alternatively, you can rebase your change between X and B on top of A, with "git pull
--rebase", and push the result back. The rebase will create a new commit D that builds the
change between X and B on top of A.

/ /

Again, updating A with this commit will fast-forward and your push will be accepted.

There is another common situation where you may encounter non-fast-forward rejection when
you try to push, and it is possible even when you are pushing into a repository nobody
else pushes into. After you push commit A yourself (in the first picture in this section),
replace it with "git commit --amend" to produce commit B, and you try to push it out,
because forgot that you have pushed A out already. In such a case, and only if you are
certain that nobody in the meantime fetched your earlier commit A (and started building on
top of it), you can run "git push --force" to overwrite it. In other words, "git push
--force" is a method reserved for a case where you do mean to lose history.


git push
Works like git push <remote>, where <remote> is the current branch’s remote (or
origin, if no remote is configured for the current branch).

git push origin
Without additional configuration, pushes the current branch to the configured upstream
(remote.origin.merge configuration variable) if it has the same name as the current
branch, and errors out without pushing otherwise.

The default behavior of this command when no <refspec> is given can be configured by
setting the push option of the remote, or the push.default configuration variable.

For example, to default to pushing only the current branch to origin use git config
remote.origin.push HEAD. Any valid <refspec> (like the ones in the examples below) can
be configured as the default for git push origin.

git push origin :
Push "matching" branches to origin. See <refspec> in the OPTIONS section above for a
description of "matching" branches.

git push origin master
Find a ref that matches master in the source repository (most likely, it would find
refs/heads/master), and update the same ref (e.g. refs/heads/master) in origin
repository with it. If master did not exist remotely, it would be created.

git push origin HEAD
A handy way to push the current branch to the same name on the remote.

git push mothership master:satellite/master dev:satellite/dev
Use the source ref that matches master (e.g. refs/heads/master) to update the ref
that matches satellite/master (most probably refs/remotes/satellite/master) in the
mothership repository; do the same for dev and satellite/dev.

This is to emulate git fetch run on the mothership using git push that is run in the
opposite direction in order to integrate the work done on satellite, and is often
necessary when you can only make connection in one way (i.e. satellite can ssh into
mothership but mothership cannot initiate connection to satellite because the latter
is behind a firewall or does not run sshd).

After running this git push on the satellite machine, you would ssh into the
mothership and run git merge there to complete the emulation of git pull that were run
on mothership to pull changes made on satellite.

git push origin HEAD:master
Push the current branch to the remote ref matching master in the origin repository.
This form is convenient to push the current branch without thinking about its local

git push origin master:refs/heads/experimental
Create the branch experimental in the origin repository by copying the current master
branch. This form is only needed to create a new branch or tag in the remote
repository when the local name and the remote name are different; otherwise, the ref
name on its own will work.

git push origin :experimental
Find a ref that matches experimental in the origin repository (e.g.
refs/heads/experimental), and delete it.

git push origin +dev:master
Update the origin repository’s master branch with the dev branch, allowing
non-fast-forward updates. This can leave unreferenced commits dangling in the origin
repository. Consider the following situation, where a fast-forward is not possible:

o---o---o---A---B origin/master
X---Y---Z dev

The above command would change the origin repository to

A---B (unnamed branch)
o---o---o---X---Y---Z master

Commits A and B would no longer belong to a branch with a symbolic name, and so would
be unreachable. As such, these commits would be removed by a git gc command on the
origin repository.


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