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konwert - interface for various character encoding conversions


konwert FILTER [FILE]... [-o DEST | -O]


Konwert allows filtering multiple files through multiple filters. It filters the
specified FILEs, or stdin if none are given.

Simple FILTER is the name of an executable file from the directory ~/.konwert/filters or
the system-wide one, normally /usr/share/konwert/filters. Such program itself filters
stdin to stdout.

The filtering rule can be more complex:

konwert FILTER1+FILTER2 means konwert FILTER1 | konwert FILTER2.

konwert FORMAT1-FORMAT2, unless such filter exists, tries to find a common FORMAT3, such
that both filters FORMAT1-FORMAT3 and FORMAT3-FORMAT1 do exist.

konwert FILTER/ARG/... passes arguments to the filter. Arguments can also be specified
here: FORMAT1/ARGS-FORMAT2. The meaning of arguments depends on the particular filter.

konwert '(COMMAND ARGS...)' executes this arbitrary shell command. This is useful with -o
or -O options. The command cannot contain the string )+, which will terminate this
filter's specification.

-o DEST output goes to this file/directory instead of stdout

-O every input file is replaced with its translation

--help display help and exit

--version output version information and exit

Redirecting output to one of the source files with either -o or > instead of -O will
corrupt it! Option -O creates a temporary file in /tmp and later copies it back onto the


You can convert text between any two charsets, for example konwert cp437-iso2.

Characters unavailable in the target charset will be substituted with approximations with
available ones. The approximations need not be single characters.

The following character sets are currently supported:

ascii 7bit ASCII

utf8 = unicode Unicode UTF-8

iso1 = isolatin1
ISO-8859-1 aka ISO Latin 1 (Western European)
iso2 = isolatin2
ISO-8859-2 aka ISO Latin 2 (Central European)
iso3 = isolatin3
ISO-8859-3 aka ISO Latin 3 (Esperanto)
iso4 = isolatin4
ISO-8859-4 aka ISO Latin 4 (Baltic)
iso5 = isolatincyr
ISO-8859-5 (Cyrillic)
iso6 = isolatinarabic
ISO-8859-6 (Arabic)
iso7 = isolatingreek
ISO-8859-7 (Greek)
iso8 = isolatinhebrew
ISO-8859-8 (Hebrew)
iso9 = isolatin5 = isolatintur
ISO-8859-9 aka ISO Latin 5 (Turkish)
iso10 = isolatin6 = isolatinnordic
ISO-8859-10 aka ISO Latin 6 (Nordic)
iso12 = isolatin7 = isolatinceltic
ISO-8859-12 aka ISO Latin 6 (Celtic) - Draft
iso13 = isolatin8 = isolatinbaltic
ISO-8859-13 aka ISO Latin 6 (Baltic) - Draft
iso14 = isolatin9 = isolatinsami
ISO-8859-14 aka ISO Latin 6 (Sámi) - Draft
iso15 ISO-8859-15 - Draft

koi8r KOI8-R (Russian)
koi8u KOI8-U (Ukrainian, Byelorussian)
koi8uni KOI8-Uni (Cyrillic)

cp1250 = wince = winlatin2 Windows CP-1250 aka Win Latin 2 (Central European)
cp1251 = wincyr Windows CP-1251 (Cyrillic)
cp1252 = winwest = winlatin1 Windows CP-1252 aka Win Latin 1 (Western European)
cp1253 = wingr Windows CP-1253 (Greek)
cp1254 = wintur Windows CP-1254 (Turkish)
cp1255 = winhebrew Windows CP-1255 (Hebrew)
cp1256 = winarabic Windows CP-1256 (Arabic)
cp1257 = winbaltic Windows CP-1257 (Baltic)
cp1258 = winviet Windows CP-1258 (Vietnamese)

cp437 = icmeng DOS CP-437 (English)
cp737 = dosgreek DOS CP-737 (Greek)
cp775 = dosbaltic DOS CP-775 (Baltic)
cp850 = doswest = doslatin1 DOS CP-850 aka DOS Latin 1 (Western European)
cp852 = dosce = doslatin2 DOS CP-852 aka DOS Latin 2 (Central European)
cp855 = doscyr DOS CP-855 (Cyrillic)
cp857 = dostur DOS CP-857 (Turkish)
cp860 = dosportugal DOS CP-860 (Portugal)
cp861 = dosiceland DOS CP-861 (Icelandic)
cp862 = doshebrew DOS CP-862 (Hebrew)
cp863 = doscanadfr DOS CP-863 (Canadian French)
cp864 = dosarabic DOS CP-864 (Arabic)
cp865 = dosnordic DOS CP-865 (Nordic)
cp866 = dosrussian DOS CP-866 (Russian)
cp869 = dosgreek2 DOS CP-869 (Greek2)
cp874 = dosthai DOS CP-874 (Thai)

mac Macintosh Roman (Western European)
macce Macintosh Central European
maccyr Macintosh Cyrillic
macgreek Macintosh Greek
maciceland Macintosh Icelandic
mactur Macintosh Turkish

microvex DOS charsets for Polish

xjp Amiga charsets for Polish

kamenicky DOS charset for Czech and Slovak

wingreek WinGreek (Windows font-based encoding for ancient Greek)

babelpl TeX [polish]{babel}: "a"c"e"l"n"o"s"z"r
ciachy TeX \prefixing: /a/c/e/l/n/o/s/x/z

xmetodo Esperanto: cx gx hx jx sx ux (vx w)
hmetodo Esperanto: ch gh hh jh sh u
antauxcxap Esperanto: ^c ^g ^h ^j ^s ^u (~u)
postcxap Esperanto: c^ g^ h^ j^ s^ u^ (u~)
apostrofoj Esperanto: c' g' h' j' s' u'
malapostrofoj Esperanto: c` g` h` j` s` u`

viscii VISCII (Vietnamese)
viqri Vietnamese Quoted Readable Implicit

htmldec SGML/HTML character references (decimal): Æ ě →
htmlhex SGML/HTML character references (hexadecimal): Æ ě →
htmlent SGML/HTML character entities (names): Æ &ecaron →
html All three above (only as input format)

tex TeX with some LaTeX or AMS-TeX extensions. There is no distinction between normal
and math mode - you will probably have to insert some $'s manually.

mnemonic RFC 1345 mnemonics preceded by &
mnemonic1 RFC 1345 mnemonics preceded by `

any/LANGUAGE (e.g. any/pl-iso2)
This special input format will detect the encoding automatically, basing on the
frequencies of characters found in text. Every language is associated with a set of
possible encodings used for it and average frequencies of its letters (excluding
ASCII letters). The best fitting encoding is used for conversion. Currently
supported languages are cs (Czech), de (German), el (Greek), eo (Esperanto), es
(Spanish), fr (French), he (Hebrew), it (Italian), pl (Polish), pt (Portuguese), ru
(Russian), and sv (Swedish).

varpl Mixed Polish ISO-8859-2, CP-1250, and UTF-8. If you are reading Polish newsgroups I
suggest putting it as a filter in your newsreader (for speed improvement it's
better to call it directly, rather than through konwert).

vareo Mixed various Esperanto encodings.


/1 (e.g. konwert iso2-ascii/1)
Each unavailable character will be replaced only with a single approximate char,
not string. This is useful with the filterm program or with preformatted text. This
option is automatically turned on when a filter is used as output for filterm.

/html Text is assumed to be HTML. The characters " & < > resulting from other characters'
approximations will be properly escaped as &quot; &amp; &lt; &gt;. The <META http-
equiv="content-type" content="text/html; charset=..."> header will be fixed if

Convert META as above. Unavailable characters will be encoded in &#Unicode;.

Convert META as above. Unavailable characters will be encoded in hexadecimal

/tex Unavailable characters will be described in TeX. Characters # $ % & \ ^ _ { | } ~
resulting from some characters' approximations will be properly escaped into \# \$
\% \& $\backslash$ \^{} \_ \{ $|$ \} \~{}.

Recognizes some ASCII representations of characters, e.g. (c) ... 1/2 >=.

Russian text will be replaced with its Polish phonetic transcription.

Some output filters can use the language information for choosing better approximations of
unavailable letters, for example /de (German): äae instead of a.


Detects the encoding, but instead of text conversion only shows the encoding's
name. The additional option /all shows all possible encodings, sorted from better
to worse ones.

crlf Force specific end-of-line marker convention. cr = Macintosh, lf = Unix and Amiga,
crlf = Windows and DOS. The input convention is detected automatically.

expand Expands tabs into spaces (uses the textutils program expand).

Compresses spaces into tabs (uses the textutils program unexpand).

Removes spaces and tabs at end of line.

MIME Quoted Printable encoding: =A3=F3d=BC.

Rich Text Format: \'a3\'f3d\'9f.

Escapes " & < > into SGML/HTML entities &quot; &amp; &lt; &gt;. Useful for
including a text file inside HTML <PRE> </PRE> tags.


rot13 Guvf vf n qrzbafgengvba bs ebg13.

Self-explanatory. Currently ASCII only.

prn7pl Converts polish chars to control sequences for EPSON-compatible printer. Using only
7-bit chars, backspacing printer's head and vertical positioning chars ,.'` it
creates pseudo-polish gryphs. You can specify options: /nlq (default) which
optimalizes output for better quality printers and /draft - useful for ex. for
9-nails printer.

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