EnglishFrenchSpanish

Ad


OnWorks favicon

makepp_build_check - Online in the Cloud

Run makepp_build_check in OnWorks free hosting provider over Ubuntu Online, Fedora Online, Windows online emulator or MAC OS online emulator

This is the command makepp_build_check that can be run in the OnWorks free hosting provider using one of our multiple free online workstations such as Ubuntu Online, Fedora Online, Windows online emulator or MAC OS online emulator

PROGRAM:

NAME


makepp_build_check -- How makepp decides to rebuild files

DESCRIPTION


A: "architecture_independent", E: "exact_match", I: "ignore_action", O: "only_action",
T: "target_newer"

Makepp stores a variety of information about how any given file was built the last time.
This information includes the build command, the architecture, and the signatures of all
the file's dependencies. (All the stored information is in the subdirectory .makepp of
each directory.) If any of this information has changed, makepp usually decides to
rebuild the file. The build check method is what controls makepp's decision to rebuild.
It decides which information to look at, and which to ignore.

Makepp usually picks the correct build check method automatically. However, you can
change the signature method for an individual rule by using :build_check modifier on the
rule, or for all rules in a makefile by using the build_check statement, or for all
makefiles at once using the -m or --build-check-method command line option.

The data used to decide about a rebuild or a repository or build cache import is stored in
the internal build info file. You can display it with makeppinfo, mppi. Below each
method gives an example of how to see its keys.

Build check methods included in the distribution
At present, there are five build check methods included in the distribution:

exact_match
This method uses the modification dates on the file as signatures. It rebuilds the
targets unless all of the following conditions are true:

· The signature of each dependency is the same as it was on the last build.

· The signature of each target is the same as it was on the last build (i.e., no one
has messed with the targets since makepp built them).

· The build command has not changed.

· The machine architecture (or what Perl thinks it is) has not changed.

"exact_match" is the default method unless you are rebuilding a Makefile (see below).
This is a highly reliable way of ensuring correct builds, and is almost always what
you want. However, it does have a few side effects that may be surprising:

· If you've been compiling with the traditional make, and then switch to makepp,
everything is recompiled the first time you run makepp.

· If you damage makepp's information about what happened on the last build (e.g.,
you delete the subdirectory ".makepp", or don't copy it when you copy everything
else), then a rebuild is triggered.

· If you replace a file with an older version, a rebuild is triggered. This is
normally what you want, but it might be surprising.

· If you modify a file outside of the control of makepp (e.g., you run the
compilation command yourself), then makepp will rebuild the file next time. (If
you want to avoid this, check out the "--dont-build" command line option.)

· Architecture-independent files are rebuilt when you switch to a different
architecture. This is usually not a problem, because they often don't take long
to build. The reason why all files are tagged with the architecture, instead of
just binary files, is that often times even ASCII files are architecture-
dependent. For example, output from the Solaris "lex" program won't compile on
Linux (or at least this used to be true the last time I tried it).

Concretely, a file will not be rebuilt, or can be fetched from repository or build
cache, if the following command output stays the same, i.e. matches the signatures of
the dependencies:

mppi -k'COMMAND ARCH SORTED_DEPS DEP_SIGS ENV_{DEP,VAL}S' file

architecture_independent
The "architecture_independent" method is the same as "exact_match" except that it does
not check the architecture. This can be useful for architecture-independent files,
that don't need to be rebuilt when you switch to a different architecture. For
example, you probably don't need to rerun "bison" on Solaris if you already ran it on
Linux.

The "architecture_independent" method is best used by specifying it using the
":build_check architecture_independent" modifier to the each rule that produces
architecture independent files. Makepp by default never assumes any files are
architecture independent, because even .c files can be architecture dependent. For
example, the output of Solaris lex will not compile under Linux, or at least it
wouldn't last time I tried. So you must manually specify this build check method for
any files which are truly architecture-independent.

Concretely, a file will not be rebuilt, or can be fetched from repository or build
cache, if the following command output stays the same, i.e. matches the signatures of
the dependencies:

mppi -k'COMMAND SORTED_DEPS DEP_SIGS ENV_{DEP,VAL}S' file

ignore_action
The "ignore_action" method is the same as "exact_match" except that it does not check
the action string (the command). Sometimes a command can change and you don't want to
force a rebuild.

For example, you might want to explicitly put a date into your command to log when the
build was done, but you don't want to force a rebuild every time the command is
executed. For example,

BUILD_DATE := $(shell date)

my_program : $(MODULES).o
$(CXX) $(inputs) -DBUILD_DATE="\"$(BUILD_DATE)\"" date_stamp.c -o $(output)

This will compile date_stamp.c with the last build date stamp, but won't force a
recompile when the date changes. Unfortunately, if something else about the link
command changes (e.g., you change linker options), it also won't trigger a rebuild.

This is also useful in conjunction with the $(changed_inputs) or $? variable for
actions that merely update a target, rather than rebuilding it from scratch. For
example, you could update a .a file like this:

libmine.a : *.o : build_check ignore_action
$(AR) ru $(output) $(changed_inputs)

This will still mostly work if you forget to specify the ": build_check
ignore_action". However, suppose that none of the .o files have changed. The command
will now be "ar ru libmine.a" which is probably different from what it was last time
(e.g., "ar ru libmine.a buggy_module.o"), so makepp will run the command. In this
case, the command won't do anything except waste time.

Building .a files like this is discouraged, because it can leave stale .o files inside
the archive. If you delete a source file, the .o file is still inside the .a file,
and this can lead to incorrect builds. It's better to build a .a file like this:

libmine.a : *.o
&rm $(output)
$(AR) ru $(output) $(inputs)

Concretely, a file will not be rebuilt, or can be fetched from repository or build
cache, if the following command output stays the same, i.e. matches the signatures of
the dependencies:

mppi -k'ARCH SORTED_DEPS DEP_SIGS ENV_{DEP,VAL}S' file

target_newer
The "target_newer" method looks only at the file date. If any dependency is more
recent than the target, the target is rebuilt. This is the algorithm that the
traditional Unix make utility uses.

The "target_newer" method isn't as safe as the "exact_match" method because it won't
trigger a rebuild if you change the build command, or if you replace a file with an
older version. Sometimes also it can get confused if clocks are not properly
synchronized. For example, if a file somehow gets a date of June 4, 2048, then
between now and 2048, every file that depends on that file will be rebuilt even though
the file doesn't change. Also switching to a different architecture won't trigger a
rebuild. It prevents fetching a rule's target from a build cache, because there is no
unique signature that can be associated to the endless set of pairs fulfilling the
relationship newer than.

But there are a few cases where you may want to use the "target_newer" method:

· When it is reasonable for a user to build a file outside of the control of makepp.
Perhaps the most common example are the commands that generate the makefile
itself, i.e., the autoconfigure procedure. Users commonly issue the configure
command manually, but makefiles often have a way to update themselves
automatically. In this case, we don't want to force the makefile to rebuild
itself if the user typed the command in manually, so the "target_newer" method is
more appropriate than the "exact_match" method. In fact, if makepp is trying to
build a makefile, it makes "target_newer" the default method until it has finished
building the makefile.

· When it is reasonable for a user to modify a file after makepp has built it. For
example, if a file does not exist, you may want to copy it from a central
location, or check it out from a repository; but the user should be allowed to
modify it. If you use the default "exact_match" build check method, makepp will
detect that the user has changed the file and so it will force a fresh copy from
the central location or a fresh checkout, wiping out the user's changes.

If you need to manually check the timestamps, see makeppinfo examples for how to get
the path of each dependency.

only_action
The very specific "only_action" method will only execute the action if the command
string differs from the last time it was executed. For example,

$(ROOT)/include/%.h : %.h
&ln -fr $(input) $(output)

publishes a file, but does not repeat this when the file changes. Note that the &ln
command is builtin and thus cheap, but makepp still has to fork off and monitor a
process to perform the whole action. So if you have lots of files to publish, there
is still a benefit. Actually we did not specify the method, because, when the target
is a symbolic link, this build check gets used automatically. You only need to
specify it for other commands that depend solely on the command (which usually
contains the names of the inputs):

%.list : %.x : build_check only_action
&echo $(inputs) -o $(output)

Concretely, a file will not be rebuilt, or can be fetched from repository or build
cache, if the following command output stays the same, i.e. matches the signatures of
the dependencies:

mppi -kCOMMAND file

Other build check methods are possible. You can write your own build check method by
creating a module "Mpp::BuildCheck::MyMethod". Read the documentation in
Mpp/BuildCheck.pm in the makepp distribution. Most likely, you will want your build check
method to inherit from "Mpp::BuildCheck::exact_match", so read its documentation too.

It's more commonly useful modify the signature mechanism than to modify the build check
mechanism directly. Before you change the build check mechanism, see if your problem is
better served by changing signatures (see makepp_signatures for details).

Here are some reasons why a custom build check method might be useful:

· If you want makepp to ignore part of the command. For example, if you have commands
in your makefile like this:

x.o : x.c
ssh $(REMOTE_MACHINE) cc $< -o $@

you might want makepp not to force a rebuild if "$(REMOTE_MACHINE)" changes. You
could modify the "exact_match" method so it knows about ssh commands and ignores the
machine name. Check :dispatch for another way to achieve that.

Use makepp_build_check online using onworks.net services


Free Servers & Workstations

Download Windows & Linux apps

  • 1
    wxPython
    wxPython
    A set of Python extension modules that
    wrap the cross-platform GUI classes from
    wxWidgets.. Audience: Developers. User
    interface: X Window System (X11), Win32 ...
    Download wxPython
  • 2
    packfilemanager
    packfilemanager
    This is the Total War pack file manager
    project, starting from version 1.7. A
    short introduction into Warscape
    modding: ...
    Download packfilemanager
  • 3
    IPerf2
    IPerf2
    A network traffic tool for measuring
    TCP and UDP performance with metrics
    around both throughput and latency. The
    goals include maintaining an active
    iperf cod...
    Download IPerf2
  • 4
    fre:ac - free audio converter
    fre:ac - free audio converter
    fre:ac is a free audio converter and CD
    ripper for various formats and encoders.
    It features MP3, MP4/M4A, WMA, Ogg
    Vorbis, FLAC, AAC, and Bonk format
    support, ...
    Download fre:ac - free audio converter
  • 5
    Matplotlib
    Matplotlib
    Matplotlib is a comprehensive library
    for creating static, animated, and
    interactive visualizations in Python.
    Matplotlib makes easy things easy and
    hard thing...
    Download Matplotlib
  • 6
    BotMan
    BotMan
    Write your chatbot logic once and
    connect it to one of the available
    messaging services, including Amazon
    Alexa, Facebook Messenger, Slack,
    Telegram or even yo...
    Download BotMan
  • More »

Linux commands

Ad