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PROGRAM:

NAME


makepp_sandboxes -- How to partition a makepp build

DESCRIPTION


D: --do-build,
--dont-build,
--dont-read,
--do-read, I: --in-sandbox,
--inside-sandbox, O: --out-of-sandbox, S: --sandbox,
--sandbox-warn,
--sandbox-warning, V: --virtual-sandbox

There are a couple of reasons that you might want to partition the file tree for a makepp
build:

1. If you know that the majority of the tree is not affected by any changes made to
source files since the previous build, then you can tell makepp to assume that files
in those parts of the tree are already up-to-date, which means not even implicitly
loading their makefiles, let alone computing and checking their dependencies. (Note
that explicitly loaded makefiles are still loaded, however.)

2. If you have multiple makepp processes accessing the same tree, then you want to raise
an error if you detect that two concurrent processes are writing the same part of the
tree, or that one process is reading a part of the tree that a concurrent process is
writing. Either way, you have a race condition in which the relative order of events
in two concurrent processes (which cannot be guaranteed) may affect the result.

Makepp has sandboxing facilities that address both concerns.

Sandboxing Options
The following makepp options may be used to set the sandboxing properties of the subtree
given by path and all of its files and potential files:

--dont-build path
--do-build path
Set or reset the "dont-build" property. Any file with this property set is assumed to
be up-to-date already, and no build checks will be performed. The default is reset
(i.e. "do-build"), except if you have a "RootMakeppfile", in which case everything
outside of its subtree id "dont-build".

--sandbox path
--in-sandbox path
--inside-sandbox path
--out-of-sandbox path
Set or reset the "in-sandbox" property. An error is raised if makepp would otherwise
write a file with this property reset. Build checks are still performed, unless the
"dont-build" property is also set. The default is set (i.e. "in-sandbox"), unless
there are any --sandbox options, in which case the default for all other files is
reset (i.e. "out-of-sandbox").

--sandbox-warn
--sandbox-warning
Downgrade violations of "in-sandbox" and "dont-read" to warnings instead of errors.
This is useful when there are hundreds of violations, so that you can collect all of
them in a single run and take appropriate corrective action. Otherwise, you see only
one violation per makepp invocation, and you don't know how many are left until
they're all fixed.

--dont-read path
--do-read path
Set or reset the "dont-read" property. An error is raised if makepp would otherwise
read a file with this property set. The default is reset (i.e. "do-read").

--virtual-sandbox
Don't rewrite build infos of files that were not created by this makepp process. This
is useful when running concurrent makepp processes with overlapping sandboxes, and you
are certain that no two processes will attempt to build the same target. Makepp will
then refrain from caching additional information about files that it reads, because
there might be other concurrent readers.

Each of these 3 properties applies to the entire subtree, including to files that do not
yet exist. More specific paths override less specific paths. A specified path may be an
individual file, even if the file does not yet exist.

If a property is both set and reset on the exact same path, then the option that appears
furthest to the right on the command line takes precedence.

Sandboxing for Acceleration
If you want to prevent makepp from wasting time processing files that you know are already
up-to-date (in particular, files that are generated by a build tool other than makepp),
then --dont-build is the option for you.

By far the most common case for such an optimization is that you know that everything not
at or below the starting directory is already up-to-date. This can be communicated to
makepp using "--dont-build /. --do-build .".

Sandboxing for Concurrent Processes
One technique that can reduce build latency is to have multiple makepp processes working
on the same tree. This is quite a bit more difficult to manage than using the -j option,
but it can also be substantially more effective because:

· With sandboxing, the processes may be running on multiple hosts, for example, via a job
queuing system. Increasing the -j limit eventually exhausts the CPU resources of a
single host, and can even slow the build due to excessive process forking.

· -j does not currently parallelize some of makepp's time-consuming tasks such as loading
makefiles, scanning, building implicit dependencies while scanning, and checking
dependencies.

The biggest risk with this approach is that the build can become nondeterministic if
processes that might be concurrent interact with one another. This leads to build systems
that produce incorrect results sporadically, and with no simple mechanism to determine why
it happens.

To address this risk, it is advisable to partition the tree among concurrent processes
such that if any process accesses the filesystem improperly, then an error is
deterministically raised immediately. Normally, this is accomplished by assigning to each
concurrent process a "sandbox" in which it is allowed to write, where the sandboxes of no
two concurrent processes may overlap.

In addition, each process marks the sandboxes of any other possibly concurrent processes
as "dont-read." If a process reads a file that another concurrent process is responsible
for writing (and which therefore might not yet be written), then an error is raised
immediately.

Sandboxing for Sequential Processes
When the build is partitioned for concurrent makepp processes, there is also usually a
sequential relationship between various pairs of processes. For example, there may be a
dozen concurrent compile processes, followed by a single link process that cannot begin
until all of the compile processes have completed. Such sequential relationships must be
enforced by whatever mechanism is orchestrating the various makepp processes (for example,
the job queuing system).

When processes have a known sequential relationship, there is normally no need to raise an
error when they access the same part of the tree, because the result is nonetheless
deterministic.

However, it is generally beneficial to specify --dont-build options to the dependent
process (the link process in our example) that notify it of the areas that have already
been updated by the prerequisite processes (the compile jobs in our example). In this
manner, we avoid most of the unnecessary work of null-building targets that were just
updated.

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