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mm-delay - Online in the Cloud

Run mm-delay in OnWorks free hosting provider over Ubuntu Online, Fedora Online, Windows online emulator or MAC OS online emulator

This is the command mm-delay that can be run in the OnWorks free hosting provider using one of our multiple free online workstations such as Ubuntu Online, Fedora Online, Windows online emulator or MAC OS online emulator

PROGRAM:

NAME


mahimahi - lightweight, composable network-emulation tools

link emulation: mm-delay, mm-loss, mm-onoff, mm-link

analysis scripts: mm-throughput-graph, mm-delay-graph

observation: mm-meter

record and replay multi-origin websites: mm-webrecord, mm-webreplay

DESCRIPTION


mahimahi is a suite of user-space tools for network emulation and analysis.

Each mahimahi tool spawns a lightweight container, generally connected to the outside via
a synthetic network device that observes packets in transit or emulates a desired
behavior.

The tools are composable so that a series of emulated network effects can be chained
together, with mahimahi containers nested inside each other. Each tool takes an optional
command to execute, so it is possible to create a series of nested containers with one
command line.

LINK EMULATION TOOLS


mm-delay delay [command...]

Every packet is delayed by the specified delay (in milliseconds) entering and
leaving the container.

mm-loss uplink|downlink rate [command...]

Packets are lost at the given rate either when leaving (uplink) or entering
(downlink) the container. rate is a number between 0 and 1.

mm-onoff uplink|downlink mean-on-time mean-off-time [command...]

The uplink or downlink will be intermittent and will switch between connected and
disconnected states according to a Poisson point process with specified average
durations spent "on" and "off".

mm-link [--uplink-log=filename] [--downlink-log=filename] [--meter-uplink] [--meter-
uplink-delay] [--meter-downlink] [--meter-downlink-delay] [--once] uplink-filename
downlink-filename [command...]

mm-throughput-graph
mm-delay-graph

Emulates a throughput-limited link with a specified packet-delivery
schedule and analyzes the resulting performance. See mm-link(1).

OBSERVATION TOOLS


mm-meter [--meter-uplink] [--meter-downlink] [command...]

Displays an animated live plot of the transfer rate entering or leaving the
container.

RECORD AND REPLAY WEBSITES


mm-webrecord directory [command...]

Transparently proxies outgoing HTTP and HTTPS connections, saving the
requests, corresponding responses, and IP address of each Web server
contacted in the given directory. mm-webrecord uses a self-signed TLS
certificate in its HTTPS proxy, causing typical Web browsers to reject it.
For testing or debugging purposes, this behavior can usually be turned off,
e.g.: with the --no-check-certificate option to wget(1) or the --ignore-
certificate-errors option to chromium-browser(1).

mm-webreplay directory [command...]

Replays a saved session from a previous run of mm-webrecord. Unlike most
mahimahi tools, the mm-webreplay container does not have a network connection
to the outside world. Instead, it has dummy network interfaces bound to each
IP address on which a Web server in the saved session had answered a request.
mm-webreplay runs an apache2(8) Web server bound to each such IP address
inside the container. Each Web server emulates the corresponding server from
the saved session. When receiving a request that matches one in the
directory, the corresponding apache2 replies with the same reply as
previously captured.

mm-webreplay can be used to measure the performance of Web browsers on
complex websites and the effect of changes in Web protocols (e.g. HTTP,
HTTP/2, SPDY, QUIC). Unlike tools like web-page-replay, mm-webreplay
preserves the sharded structure of a website, binds to the actual IP
addresses that the real website used, and serves requests from real Web
servers.

ENVIRONMENT


The MAHIMAHI_BASE environment variable is set to an IP address of the host, outside any
container. This can be used to conduct scripted measurements over a series of mahimahi
containers chained together.

EXAMPLES


To spawn a shell with a delayed, lossy link to the Internet:

$ mm-delay 50 mm-loss uplink 0.2
[delay 50 ms] [loss up=0.1] $

To run ping over the same link:

$ mm-delay 50 mm-loss uplink 0.2 sh -c 'ping -c 10 -n $MAHIMAHI_BASE'
PING 100.64.0.1 (100.64.0.1) 56(84) bytes of data.
64 bytes from 100.64.0.1: icmp_seq=1 ttl=63 time=101 ms
64 bytes from 100.64.0.1: icmp_seq=2 ttl=63 time=100 ms
64 bytes from 100.64.0.1: icmp_seq=4 ttl=63 time=101 ms
64 bytes from 100.64.0.1: icmp_seq=5 ttl=63 time=100 ms
64 bytes from 100.64.0.1: icmp_seq=7 ttl=63 time=101 ms
64 bytes from 100.64.0.1: icmp_seq=8 ttl=63 time=101 ms
64 bytes from 100.64.0.1: icmp_seq=9 ttl=63 time=101 ms
64 bytes from 100.64.0.1: icmp_seq=10 ttl=63 time=101 ms

--- 100.64.0.1 ping statistics ---
10 packets transmitted, 8 received, 20% packet loss, time 8999ms
rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 100.910/101.009/101.092/0.279 ms

To record a page load from www.nytimes.com:

$ mm-webrecord /tmp/nytimes chromium-browser --ignore-certificate-errors --user-data-dir=/tmp/nonexistent$(date +%s%N) www.nytimes.com

The use of --user-data-dir=/tmp/nonexistent$(date +%s%N) is to prevent the browser
from reusing an existing chromium-browser process.

To make Chrome retrieve the saved website over a delayed, lossy link whose throughput is
limited to 1 full-sized packet per millisecond:

$ mm-webreplay /tmp/nytimes mm-delay 50 mm-loss uplink 0.1 mm-link <(echo 1) <(echo 1) -- chromium-browser --ignore-certificate-errors --user-data-dir=/tmp/nonexistent$(date +%s%N) www.nytimes.com

To emulate a variable cellular network and visualize a process's use of the network:

$ mm-delay 20 mm-link --meter-all /usr/share/mahimahi/traces/Verizon-LTE-short.up /usr/share/mahimahi/traces/Verizon-LTE-short.down
[delay 20 ms] [link] $

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