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PROGRAM:

NAME


pysnmpcmd - options and behaviour common to most of the PySNMP command-line tools

SYNOPSIS


pysnmpcmd [OPTIONS] AGENT [PARAMETERS]

DESCRIPTION


This manual page describes the common options for the PySNMP commands: pysnmpbulkwalk,
pysnmpget, pysnmpset, pysnmptranslate, pysnmpwalk. The command line applications use the
SNMP protocol to communicate with an SNMP capable network entity, an agent. Individual
applications typically (but not necessarily) take additional parameters that are given
after the agent specification. These parameters are documented in the manual pages for
each application.

OPTIONS


-a authProtocol
Set the authentication protocol (MD5 or SHA) used for authenticated SNMPv3
messages.

-A authPassword
Set the authentication pass phrase used for authenticated SNMPv3 messages.

-c community
Set the community string for SNMPv1/v2c transactions.

-d Dump (in hexadecimal) the raw SNMP packets sent and received.

-D TOKEN[,...]
Turn on debugging output for the given TOKEN(s). Try all for extremely verbose
output.

-e engineID
Set the authoritative (security) engineID used for SNMPv3 REQUEST messages. It is
typically not necessary to specify this, as it will usually be discovered
automatically.

-E engineID
Set the context engineID used for SNMPv3 REQUEST messages scopedPdu. If not
specified, this will default to the authoritative engineID.

-h, --help
Display a brief usage message and then exit.

-H Display a list of configuration file directives understood by the command and then
exit.

-I [hu]
Specifies input parsing options. See INPUT OPTIONS below.

-l secLevel
Set the securityLevel used for SNMPv3 messages (noAuthNoPriv|authNoPriv|authPriv).
Appropriate pass phrase(s) must provided when using any level higher than
noAuthNoPriv.

-m MIBLIST
Specifies a colon separated list of MIB modules (not files) to load for this
application.

The special keyword ALL is used to load all MIB modules in the MIB directory search
list. Every file whose name does not begin with "." will be parsed as if it were a
MIB file.

-M DIRLIST
Specifies a colon separated list of directories to search for MIBs. Note that MIBs
specified using the -m option will be loaded from one of the directories listed by
the -M option (or equivalents).

-n contextName
Set the contextName used for SNMPv3 messages. The default contextName is the empty
string "".

-O [abeEfnqQsStTuUvxX]
Specifies output printing options. See OUTPUT OPTIONS below.

-r retries
Specifies the number of retries to be used in the requests. The default is 5.

-t timeout
Specifies the timeout in seconds between retries. The default is 1.

-u secName
Set the securityName used for authenticated SNMPv3 messages.

-v 1 | 2c | 3
Specifies the protocol version to use: 1 (RFCs 1155-1157), 2c (RFCs 1901-1908), or
3 (RFCs 2571-2574). The default is typically version 3.

-V, --version
Display version information for the application and then exit.

-x privProtocol
Set the privacy protocol (DES or AES) used for encrypted SNMPv3 messages.

-X privPassword
Set the privacy pass phrase used for encrypted SNMPv3 messages.

-Z boots,time
Set the engineBoots and engineTime used for authenticated SNMPv3 messages. This
will initialize the local notion of the agents boots/time with an authenticated
value stored in the LCD. It is typically not necessary to specify this option, as
these values will usually be discovered automatically.

AGENT SPECIFICATION


The string AGENT in the SYNOPSIS above specifies the remote SNMP entity with which to
communicate. This specification takes the form:

[<transport-specifier>:]<transport-address>

At its simplest, the AGENT specification may consist of a hostname, or an IPv4 address in
the standard "dotted quad" notation. In this case, communication will be attempted using
UDP/IPv4 to port 161 of the given host. Otherwise, the <transport-address> part of the
specification is parsed according to the following table:

<transport-specifier> <transport-address> format

udp hostname[:port] or IPv4-address[:port]

Note that <transport-specifier> strings are case-insensitive so that, for example, "tcp"
and "TCP" are equivalent. Here are some examples, along with their interpretation:

hostname:161 perform query using UDP/IPv4 datagrams to hostname on port 161.
The ":161" is redundant here since that is the default SNMP port
in any case.

udp:hostname identical to the previous specification. The "udp:" is redundant
here since UDP/IPv4 is the default transport.

OUTPUT OPTIONS


The format of the output from SNMP commands can be controlled using various parameters of
the -O flag. The effects of these sub-options can be seen by comparison with the
following default output (unless otherwise specified):
$ snmpget -c public -v 1 localhost sysUpTime.0
SNMPv2-MIB::sysUpTime.0 = Timeticks: (14096763) 1 day, 15:09:27.63

-Oa Display string values as ASCII strings (unless there is a DISPLAY-HINT defined for
the corresponding MIB object). By default, the library attempts to determine
whether the value is a printable or binary string, and displays it accordingly.

This option does not affect objects that do have a Display Hint.

-Ob Display table indexes numerically, rather than trying to interpret the instance
subidentifiers as string or OID values:
$ snmpgetnext -c public -v 1 localhost vacmSecurityModel
SNMP-VIEW-BASED-ACM-MIB::vacmSecurityModel.0."wes" = xxx
$ snmpgetnext -c public -v 1 -Ob localhost vacmSecurityModel
SNMP-VIEW-BASED-ACM-MIB::vacmSecurityModel.0.3.119.101.115 = xxx

-Oe Removes the symbolic labels from enumeration values:
$ snmpget -c public -v 1 localhost ipForwarding.0
IP-MIB::ipForwarding.0 = INTEGER: forwarding(1)
$ snmpget -c public -v 1 -Oe localhost ipForwarding.0
IP-MIB::ipForwarding.0 = INTEGER: 1

-OE Modifies index strings to escape the quote characters:
$ snmpgetnext -c public -v 1 localhost vacmSecurityModel
SNMP-VIEW-BASED-ACM-MIB::vacmSecurityModel.0."wes" = xxx
$ snmpgetnext -c public -v 1 -OE localhost vacmSecurityModel
SNMP-VIEW-BASED-ACM-MIB::vacmSecurityModel.0.\"wes\" = xxx

This allows the output to be reused in shell commands.

-Of Include the full list of MIB objects when displaying an OID:
.iso.org.dod.internet.mgmt.mib-2.system.sysUpTime.0 =
Timeticks: (14096763) 1 day, 15:09:27.63

-On Displays the OID numerically:
.1.3.6.1.2.1.1.3.0 = Timeticks: (14096763) 1 day, 15:09:27.63

-Oq Removes the equal sign and type information when displaying varbind values:
SNMPv2-MIB::sysUpTime.0 1:15:09:27.63

-OQ Removes the type information when displaying varbind values:
SNMPv2-MIB::sysUpTime.0 = 1:15:09:27.63

-Os Display the MIB object name (plus any instance or other subidentifiers):
sysUpTime.0 = Timeticks: (14096763) 1 day, 15:09:27.63

-OS Display the name of the MIB, as well as the object name:
SNMPv2-MIB::sysUpTime.0 = Timeticks: (14096763) 1 day, 15:09:27.63

This is the default OID output format.

-Ot Display TimeTicks values as raw numbers:
SNMPv2-MIB::sysUpTime.0 = 14096763

-OT If values are printed as Hex strings, display a printable version as well.

-Ou Display the OID in the traditional UCD-style (inherited from the original CMU
code). That means removing a series of "standard" prefixes from the OID, and
displaying the remaining list of MIB object names (plus any other subidentifiers):
system.sysUpTime.0 = Timeticks: (14096763) 1 day, 15:09:27.63

-OU Do not print the UNITS suffix at the end of the value.

-Ov Display the varbind value only, not the OID:
$ snmpget -c public -v 1 -Oe localhost ipForwarding.0
INTEGER: forwarding(1)

-Ox Display string values as Hex strings (unless there is a DISPLAY-HINT defined for
the corresponding MIB object). By default, the library attempts to determine
whether the value is a printable or binary string, and displays it accordingly.

This option does not affect objects that do have a Display Hint.

-OX Display table indexes in a more "program like" output, imitating a traditional
array-style index format:
$ snmpgetnext -c public -v 1 localhost ipv6RouteTable
IPv6-MIB::ipv6RouteIfIndex.63.254.1.0.255.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.64.1 = INTEGER: 2
$ snmpgetnext -c public -v 1 -OE localhost ipv6RouteTable
IPv6-MIB::ipv6RouteIfIndex[3ffe:100:ff00:0:0:0:0:0][64][1] = INTEGER: 2

Most of these options can also be configured via configuration tokens. See the
snmp.conf(5) manual page for details.

INPUT OPTIONS


The interpretation of input object names and the values to be assigned can be controlled
using various parameters of the -I flag. The default behaviour will be described at the
end of this section.

-Ib specifies that the given name should be regarded as a regular expression, to match
(case-insensitively) against object names in the MIB tree. The "best" match will
be used - calculated as the one that matches the closest to the beginning of the
node name and the highest in the tree. For example, the MIB object
vacmSecurityModel could be matched by the expression vacmsecuritymodel (full name,
but different case), or vacm.*model (regexp pattern).

Note that '.' is a special character in regular expression patterns, so the
expression cannot specify instance subidentifiers or more than one object name. A
"best match" expression will only be applied against single MIB object names. For
example, the expression sys*ontact.0 would not match the instance sysContact.0
(although sys*ontact would match sysContact). Similarly, specifying a MIB module
name will not succeed (so SNMPv2-MIB::sys.*ontact would not match either).

-Ih disables the use of DISPLAY-HINT information when assigning values. This would
then require providing the raw value:
snmpset ... HOST-RESOURCES-MIB::hrSystemData.0
x "07 D2 0C 0A 02 04 06 08"
instead of a formatted version:
snmpset ... HOST-RESOURCES-MIB::hrSystemDate.0
= 2002-12-10,2:4:6.8

-Ir disables checking table indexes and the value to be assigned against the relevant
MIB definitions. This will (hopefully) result in the remote agent reporting an
invalid request, rather than checking (and rejecting) this before it is sent to the
remote agent.

Local checks are more efficient (and the diagnostics provided also tend to be more
precise), but disabling this behaviour is particularly useful when testing the
remote agent.

-IR enables "random access" lookup of MIB names. Rather than providing a full OID path
to the desired MIB object (or qualifying this object with an explicit MIB module
name), the MIB tree will be searched for the matching object name. Thus
.iso.org.dod.internet.mib-2.system.sysDescr.0 (or SNMPv2-MIB::sysDescr.0) can be
specified simply as sysDescr.0.

Warning:
Since MIB object names are not globally unique, this approach may return a
different MIB object depending on which MIB files have been loaded.

The MIB-MODULE::objectName syntax has the advantage of uniquely identifying a
particular MIB object, as well as being slightly more efficient (and automatically
loading the necessary MIB file if necessary).

-Is SUFFIX
adds the specified suffix to each textual OID given on the command line. This can
be used to retrieve multiple objects from the same row of a table, by specifying a
common index value.

-IS PREFIX
adds the specified prefix to each textual OID given on the command line. This can
be used to specify an explicit MIB module name for all objects being retrieved (or
for incurably lazy typists).

-Iu enables the traditional UCD-style approach to interpreting input OIDs. This
assumes that OIDs are rooted at the 'mib-2' point in the tree (unless they start
with an explicit '.' or include a MIB module name). So the sysDescr instance above
would be referenced as system.sysDescr.0.

Object names specified with a leading '.' are always interpreted as "fully qualified"
OIDs, listing the sequence of MIB objects from the root of the MIB tree. Such objects and
those qualified by an explicit MIB module name are unaffected by the -Ib, -IR and -Iu
flags.

Otherwise, if none of the above input options are specified, the default behaviour for a
"relative" OID is to try and interpret it as an (implicitly) fully qualified OID, then
apply "random access" lookup (-IR), followed by "best match" pattern matching (-Ib).

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES


PREFIX The standard prefix for object identifiers (when using UCD-style output). Defaults
to .iso.org.dod.internet.mgmt.mib-2

MIBS The list of MIBs to load. Defaults to SNMPv2-TC:SNMPv2-MIB:IF-MIB:IP-MIB:TCP-
MIB:UDP-MIB:SNMP-VACM-MIB. Overridden by the -m option.

MIBDIRS
The list of directories to search for MIBs. Defaults to DATADIR/snmp/mibs.
Overridden by the -M option.

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