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trial - run unit tests


trial [ options ] [ file | package | module | TestCase | testmethod ] ...

trial --help | -h


trial loads and executes a suite of unit tests, obtained from modules, packages and files
listed on the command line.

trial will take either filenames or fully qualified Python names as arguments. Thus
`trial myproject/foo.py', `trial myproject.foo' and `trial
myproject.foo.SomeTestCase.test_method' are all valid ways to invoke trial. Multiple such
arguments are also accepted, and their order will determine the order in which the
corresponding tests are run.

After running the given test suite, the default test reporter prints a summary of the test
run. This consists of the word "PASSED" (if all tests ran as expected) or "FAILED" (if any
test behaved unexpectedly) followed by a count of the different kinds of test results
encountered. The possible kinds of test results includes:

Tests that passed all their assertions and completed without error. These are
marked "PASSED" in the normal test output.

Tests that failed an assertion, called self.fail() or explicitly raised
self.failureException for some reason. These are marked "FAILED" in the normal test

errors Tests that raised an unexpected exception (including AssertionError), tests that
caused the tearDown() method to raise an exception, tests that run for longer than
the timeout interval, tests that caused something to call twisted.python.log.err()
without subsequently calling self.flushLoggedErrors(), tests that leave the reactor
in an unclean state, etc. These are marked "ERROR" in the normal test output.

Note that because errors can be caused after the actual test method returns, it is
possible for a single test to be reported as both an error and a failure, and hence
the total number of test results can be greater than the total number of tests

skips Tests that were skipped, usually because of missing dependencies. These are marked
"SKIPPED" in the normal test output.

Tests that failed, but were expected to fail, usually because the test is for a
feature that hasn't been implemented yet. These are marked "TODO" in the normal
test output.

Tests that should have been listed under expectedFailures, except that for some
reason the test succeeded. These are marked "SUCCESS!?!" in the normal test output.


-j, --jobs number
Set the number of process workers to run. It conflicts with the debug, exitfirst
and profile options.

-b, --debug
Run the tests in a debugger. If that debugger is 'pdb' (which is the default if
unspecified), a `.pdbrc' will be loaded from the current directory if it exists.
Also does post-mortem debugging on exceptions.

-B, --debug-stacktraces
Report Deferred creation and callback stack traces.

Generate coverage information in the `coverage' subdirectory of the trial temp
directory (`_trial_temp' by default). For each Python module touched by the
execution of the given tests, a file will be created in the coverage directory
named for the module's fully-qualified name with the suffix `.cover'. For example,
because the trial test runner is written in Python, the coverage directory will
almost always contain a file named `twisted.trial.runner.cover'.

Each `.cover' file contains a copy of the Python source of the module in question,
with a prefix at the beginning of each line containing coverage information. For
lines that are not executable (blank lines, comments, etc.) the prefix is blank.
For executable lines that were run in the course of the test suite, the prefix is a
number indicating the number of times that line was executed. The string `>>>>>>'
prefixes executable lines that were not executed in the course of the test suite.

Note that this functionality uses Python's sys.settrace() function, so tests that
call sys.settrace() themselves are likely to break trial's coverage functionality.

Specifies the debugger to use when the --debug option is passed. The argument
should be the fully qualified name of an object that implements the same interface
as the standard library's `pdb'.

Disable the garbage collector for the duration of the test run. As each test is
run, trial saves the TestResult objects, which means that Python's garbage
collector has more non-garbage objects to wade through, making each garbage-
collection run slightly slower. Disabling garbage collection entirely will make
some test suites complete faster (contrast --force-gc, below), at the cost of
increasing (possibly greatly) memory consumption. This option also makes tests
slightly more deterministic, which might help debugging in extreme circumstances.

-e, --rterrors
Print tracebacks to standard output as soon as they occur.

Run gc.collect() before and after each test case. This can be used to isolate
errors that occur when objects get collected. This option would be the default,
except it makes tests run about ten times slower.

-h, --help
Print a usage message to standard output, then exit.

Print a list of possible orders that TestCase test methods can be run in, then
exit. The orders can be used with the --order option described below.

Print a list of valid reporters to standard output, then exit. Reporters can be
selected with the --reporter option described below.

Print a list of possible reactors to standard output, then exit. Not all listed
reactors are available on every platform. Reactors can be selected with the
--reactor option described below.

-l, --logfile logfile
Direct the log to a different file. The default file is `test.log'. logfile is
relative to _trial_temp.

-n, --dry-run
Go through all the tests and make them pass without running.

-N, --no-recurse
By default, trial recurses through packages to find every module inside every
subpackage. Unless, that is, you specify this option.

--nopm Don't automatically jump into debugger for post-mortem analysis of exceptions.
Only usable in conjunction with --debug.

--order order
Specify what order to run the individual test methods within the given TestCases.
By default, they are run alphabetically. See --help-order for a list of other valid

Run tests under the Python profiler.

-r, --reactor reactor
Choose which reactor to use. See --help-reactors for a list.

--recursionlimit limit
Set Python's recursion limit. See sys.setrecursionlimit().

--reporter reporter
Select the reporter to use for trial's output. Use the --help-reporters option to
see a list of valid reporters.

-x, --exitfirst
Stop the test run after the first test which does not succeed. This includes
failures, errors, or unexpected successes. Won't work with the --jobs option

--spew Print an insanely verbose log of everything that happens. Useful when debugging
freezes or locks in complex code.

--tbformat format
Format to display tracebacks with. Acceptable values are `default', `brief' and
`verbose'. `brief' produces tracebacks that play nicely with Emacs' GUD.

--temp-directory directory
WARNING: Do not use this option unless you know what you are doing. By default,
trial creates a directory called _trial_temp under the current working directory.
When trial runs, it first deletes this directory, then creates it, then changes
into the directory to run the tests. The log file and any coverage files are stored
here. Use this option if you wish to have trial run in a directory other than
_trial_temp. Be warned, trial will delete the directory before re-creating it.

--testmodule filename
Ask trial to look into filename and run any tests specified using the Emacs-style
buffer variable `test-case-name'.

As of Twisted 8.0, trial will report an error if the reactor is left unclean at the
end of the test. This option is provided to assist in migrating from Twisted 2.5 to
Twisted 8.0 and later. Enabling this option will turn the errors into warnings.

-u, --until-failure
Keep looping the tests until one of them raises an error or a failure. This is
particularly useful for reproducing intermittent failures.

Prints the Twisted version number and exit.

--without-module modulenames
Simulate the lack of the specified comma-separated list of modules. This makes it
look like the modules are not present in the system, causing tests to check the
behavior for that configuration.

-z, --random seed
Run the tests in random order using the specified seed. Don't pass this option if
you also are passing --order.

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