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xorriso - creates, loads, manipulates and writes ISO 9660 filesystem images with Rock
Ridge extensions.


xorriso [settings|actions]


xorriso is a program which copies file objects from POSIX compliant filesystems into Rock
Ridge enhanced ISO 9660 filesystems and performs session-wise manipulation of such
filesystems. It can load the management information of existing ISO images and it writes
the session results to optical media or to filesystem objects.
Vice versa xorriso is able to copy file objects out of ISO 9660 filesystems.

A special property of xorriso is that it needs neither an external ISO 9660 formatter
program nor an external burn program for CD, DVD or BD but rather incorporates the
libraries of libburnia-project.org .

Overview of features:
Operates on an existing ISO image or creates a new one.
Copies files from disk filesystem into the ISO image.
Copies files from ISO image to disk filesystem (see osirrox).
Renames or deletes file objects in the ISO image.
Changes file properties in the ISO image.
Updates ISO subtrees incrementally to match given disk subtrees.
Writes result either as completely new image or as add-on session to optical media or
filesystem objects.
Can activate ISOLINUX and GRUB boot images via El Torito and MBR.
Can perform multi-session tasks as emulation of mkisofs and cdrecord.
Can record and restore hard links and ACL.
Content may get zisofs compressed or filtered by external processes.
Can issue commands to mount older sessions on GNU/Linux or FreeBSD.
Can check media for damages and copy readable blocks to disk.
Can attach MD5 checksums to each data file and the whole session.
Scans for optical drives, blanks re-useable optical media.
Reads its instructions from command line arguments, dialog, and files.
Provides navigation commands for interactive ISO image manipulation.
Adjustable thresholds for abort, exit value, and problem reporting.

Note that xorriso does not write audio CDs and that it does not produce UDF filesystems
which are specified for official video DVD or BD.

General information paragraphs:
Session model
Media types and states
Creating, Growing, Modifying, Blind Growing
Libburn drives
Rock Ridge, POSIX, X/Open, El Torito, ACL, xattr
Command processing
Dialog, Readline, Result pager

Maybe you first want to have a look at section EXAMPLES near the end of this text before
reading the next few hundred lines of background information.

Session model:
Unlike other filesystems, ISO 9660 (aka ECMA-119) is not intended for read-write operation
but rather for being generated in a single sweep and being written to media as a session.
The data content of the session is called filesystem image.

The written image in its session can then be mounted by the operating system for being
used read-only. GNU/Linux is able to mount ISO images from block devices, which may
represent optical media, other media or via a loop device even from regular disk files.
FreeBSD mounts ISO images from devices that represent arbitrary media or from regular disk

This session usage model has been extended on CD media by the concept of multi-session ,
which adds information to the CD and gives the mount programs of the operating systems the
addresses of the entry points of each session. The mount programs recognize block devices
which represent CD media and will by default mount the image in the last session.
This session usually contains an updated directory tree for the whole medium which governs
the data contents in all recorded sessions. So in the view of the mount program all
sessions of a particular medium together form a single filesystem image.
Adding a session to an existing ISO image is in this text referred as growing.
The multi-session model of the MMC standard does not apply to all media types. But program
growisofs by Andy Polyakov showed how to extend this functionality to overwriteable media
or disk files which carry valid ISO 9660 filesystems.

xorriso provides growing as well as an own method named modifying which produces a
completely new ISO image from the old one and the modifications. See paragraph Creating,
Growing, Modifying, Blind Growing below.

xorriso adopts the concept of multi-session by loading an image directory tree if present,
by offering to manipulate it by several actions, and by writing the new image to the
target medium.
The first session of a xorriso run begins by the definition of the input drive with the
ISO image or by the definition of an output drive. The session ends by command -commit
which triggers writing. A -commit is done automatically when the program ends regularly.

After -commit a new session begins with the freshly written one as input. A new input
drive can only be chosen as long as the loaded ISO image was not altered. Pending
alteration can be revoked by command -rollback.

Writing a session to the target is supposed to be very expensive in terms of time and of
consumed space on appendable or write-once media. Therefore all intended manipulations of
a particular ISO image should be done in a single session. But in principle it is possible
to store intermediate states and to continue with image manipulations.

Media types and states:
There are two families of media in the MMC standard:
Multi-session media are CD-R, CD-RW, DVD-R, DVD+R, DVD+R/DL, BD-R, and unformatted DVD-RW.
These media provide a table of content which describes their existing sessions. See
command -toc.
Similar to multi-session media are DVD-R DL and minimally blanked DVD-RW. They record
only a single session of which the size must be known in advance. xorriso will write onto
them only if command -close is set to "on".
Overwriteable media are DVD-RAM, DVD+RW, BD-RE, and formatted DVD-RW. They offer random
write access but do not provide information about their session history. If they contain
one or more ISO 9660 sessions and if the first session was written by xorriso, then a
table of content can be emulated. Else only a single overall session will be visible.
DVD-RW media can be formatted by -format "full". They can be made unformatted by -blank
Regular files and block devices are handled as overwriteable media. Pipes and other
writeable file types are handled as blank multi-session media.

These media can assume several states in which they offer different capabilities.
Blank media can be written from scratch. They contain no ISO image suitable for xorriso.
Blank is the state of newly purchased optical media. With used CD-RW and DVD-RW it can be
achieved by action -blank "as_needed". Overwriteable media are considered blank if they
are new or if they have been marked as blank by xorriso. Action -blank "as_needed" can be
used to do this marking on overwriteable media, or to apply mandatory formatting to new
media if necessary.
Appendable media accept further sessions. Either they are MMC multi-session media in
appendable state, or they are overwriteable media which contain an ISO image suitable for
Appendable is the state after writing a session with command -close off.
Closed media cannot be written. They may contain an ISO image suitable for xorriso.
Closed is the state of DVD-ROM media and of multi-session media which were written with
command -close on. If the drive is read-only hardware then it will probably show any media
as closed CD-ROM or DVD-ROM.
Overwriteable media assume this state in such read-only drives or if they contain
unrecognizable data in the first 32 data blocks.
Read-only drives may or may not show session histories of multi-session media. Often only
the first and the last session are visible. Sometimes not even that. Command -rom_toc_scan
might or might not help in such cases.

Creating, Growing, Modifying, Blind Growing:
A new empty ISO image gets created if there is no input drive with a valid ISO 9660 image
when the first time an output drive is defined. This is achieved by command -dev on blank
media or by command -outdev on media in any state.
The new empty image can be populated with directories and files. Before it can be
written, the medium in the output drive must get into blank state if it was not blank

If there is a input drive with a valid ISO image, then this image gets loaded as
foundation for manipulations and extension. The constellation of input and output drive
determines which write method will be used. They have quite different capabilities and

The method of growing adds new data to the existing data on the medium. These data
comprise of new file content and they override the existing ISO 9660 + Rock Ridge
directory tree. It is possible to hide files from previous sessions but they still exist
on the medium and with many types of optical media it is quite easy to recover them by
mounting older sessions.
Growing is achieved by command -dev.

The write method of modifying produces compact filesystem images with no outdated files or
directory trees. Modifying can write its images to target media which are completely
unsuitable for multi-session operations. E.g. DVD-RW which were treated with -blank
deformat_quickest, DVD-R DL, named pipes, character devices, sockets. On the other hand
modified sessions cannot be written to appendable media but to blank media only.
So for this method one needs either two optical drives or has to work with filesystem
objects as source and/or target medium.
Modifying takes place if input drive and output drive are not the same and if command
-grow_blindly is set to its default "off". This is achieved by commands -indev and

If command -grow_blindly is set to a non-negative number and if -indev and -outdev are
both set to different drives, then blind growing is performed. It produces an add-on
session which is ready for being written to the given block address. This is the usage
model of
mkisofs -M $indev -C $msc1,$msc2 -o $outdev
which gives much room for wrong parameter combinations and should thus only be employed if
a strict distinction between ISO formatter xorriso and the burn program is desired. -C
$msc1,$msc2 is equivalent to:
-load sbsector $msc1 -grow_blindly $msc2

Libburn drives:
Input drive, i.e. source of an existing or empty ISO image, can be any random access
readable libburn drive: optical media with readable data, blank optical media, regular
files, block devices.
Output drive, i.e. target for writing, can be any libburn drive. Some drive types do not
support the method of growing but only the methods of modifying and blind growing. They
all are suitable for newly created images.

All drive file objects have to offer rw-permission to the user of xorriso. Even those
which will not be useable for reading an ISO image.
With any type of drive object, the data are considered to be organized in blocks of 2 KiB.
Access happens in terms of Logical Block Address (LBA) which gives the number of a
particular data block.

MMC compliant (i.e. optical) drives on GNU/Linux usually get addressed by the path of
their block device or of their generic character device. E.g.
-dev /dev/sr0
-dev /dev/hdc
-dev /dev/sg2
On FreeBSD the device files have names like
-dev /dev/cd0
On NetBSD:
-dev /dev/rcd0d
On OpenSolaris:
-dev /dev/rdsk/c4t0d0s2
Get a list of accessible drives by command
It might be necessary to do this as superuser in order to see all drives and to then allow
rw-access for the intended users. Consider to bundle the authorized users in a group like
old "floppy".

Filesystem objects of nearly any type can be addressed by prefix "stdio:" and their path
in the filesystem. E.g.:
-dev stdio:/dev/sdc
The default setting of -drive_class allows the user to address files outside the /dev tree
without that prefix. E.g.:
-dev /tmp/pseudo_drive
If path leads to a regular file or to a block device then the emulated drive is random
access readable and can be used for the method of growing if it already contains a valid
ISO 9660 image. Any other file type is not readable via "stdio:" and can only be used as
target for the method of modifying or blind growing. Non-existing paths in existing
directories are handled as empty regular files.

A very special kind of pseudo drive are open file descriptors. They are depicted by
"stdio:/dev/fd/" and descriptor number (see man 2 open).
Addresses "-" or "stdio:/dev/fd/1" depict standard output, which normally is the output
channel for result texts. To prevent a fatal intermingling of ISO image and text
messages, all result texts get redirected to stderr if -*dev "-" or "stdio:/dev/fd/1" is
among the start arguments of the program.
Standard output is currently suitable for creating one session per program run without
dialog. Use in other situations is discouraged and several restrictions apply:
It is not allowed to use standard output as pseudo drive if it was not among the start
arguments. Do not try to fool this ban via backdoor addresses to stdout.
If stdout is used as drive, then -use_readline is permanently disabled. Use of backdoors
can cause severe memory and/or tty corruption.

Be aware that especially the superuser can write into any accessible file or device by
using its path with the "stdio:" prefix. By default any address in the /dev tree without
prefix "stdio:" will work only if it leads to a MMC drive.
One may use command -ban_stdio_write to surely prevent this risk and to restrict drive
usage to MMC drives.
One may prepend "mmc:" to a path to surely disallow any automatic "stdio:".
By command -drive_class one may ban certain paths or allow access without prefix "stdio:"
to other paths.

Rock Ridge, POSIX, X/Open, El Torito, ACL, xattr:
Rock Ridge is the name of a set of additional information which enhance an ISO 9660
filesystem so that it can represent a POSIX compliant filesystem with ownership, access
permissions, symbolic links, and other attributes.
This is what xorriso uses for a decent representation of the disk files within the ISO
image. xorriso produces Rock Ridge information by default. It is strongly discouraged to
disable this feature.

xorriso is not named "porriso" because POSIX only guarantees 14 characters of filename
length. It is the X/Open System Interface standard XSI which demands a file name length of
up to 255 characters and paths of up to 1024 characters. Rock Ridge fulfills this demand.

An El Torito boot record points the BIOS bootstrapping facility to one or more boot
images, which are binary program files stored in the ISO image. The content of the boot
image files is not in the scope of El Torito.
Most bootable GNU/Linux CDs are equipped with ISOLINUX or GRUB boot images. xorriso is
able to create or maintain an El Torito object which makes such an image bootable. For
details see command -boot_image.
It is possible to make ISO images bootable from USB stick or other hard-disk-like media.
Several options install a MBR (Master Boot Record), It may get adjusted according to the
needs of the intended boot firmware and the involved boot loaders, e.g. GRUB2 or ISOLINUX.
A MBR contains boot code and a partition table. The new MBR of a follow-up session can
get in effect only on overwriteable media.
MBR is read by PC-BIOS when booting from USB stick or hard disk, and by PowerPC CHRP or
PReP when booting. An MBR partiton with type 0xee indicates the presence of GPT.
Emulation -as mkisofs supports the example options out of the ISOLINUX wiki, the options
used in GRUB script grub-mkrescue, and the example in the FreeBSD AvgLiveCD wiki.
A GPT (GUID Partition Table) marks partitions in a more modern way. It is read by EFI
when booting from USB stick or hard disk, and may be used for finding and mounting a HFS+
partition inside the ISO image.
An APM (Apple Partition Map) marks the HFS+ partition. It is read by Macs for booting and
for mounting.
MBR, GPT and APM are combinable. APM occupies the first 8 bytes of MBR boot code. All
three do not hamper El Torito booting from CDROM.
There is support for further facilities: MIPS Big Endian (SGI), MIPS Little Endian (DEC),
SUN SPARC, HP-PA. Those are mutually not combinable and also not combinable with MBR,
GPT, or APM.

ACL are an advanced way of controlling access permissions to file objects. Neither ISO
9660 nor Rock Ridge specify a way to record ACLs. So libisofs has introduced a standard
conformant extension named AAIP for that purpose. It uses this extension if enabled by
command -acl.
AAIP enhanced images are supposed to be mountable normally, but one cannot expect that the
mounted filesystem will show and respect the ACLs. For now, only xorriso is able to
retrieve those ACLs. It can bring them into effect when files get restored to an ACL
enabled file system or it can print them in a format suitable for tool setfacl.
Files with ACL show as group permissions the setting of entry "mask::" if that entry
exists. Nevertheless the non-listed group members get handled according to entry
"group::". When removing ACL from a file, xorriso brings "group::" into effect.
Recording and restoring of ACLs from and to local files works currently only on GNU/Linux
and FreeBSD.

xattr (aka EA, or extattr) are pairs of name and value which can be attached to file
objects. AAIP is able to represent them and xorriso can record and restore pairs which
have names out of the user namespace. I.e. those which begin with "user.", like "user.x"
or "user.whatever". Name has to be a 0 terminated string. Value may be any array of bytes
which does not exceed the size of 4095 bytes. xattr processing happens only if it is
enabled by command -xattr.
As with ACL, currently only xorriso is able to retrieve xattr from AAIP enhanced images,
to restore them to xattr capable file systems, or to print them.
Recording and restoring of xattr from and to local files works currently only on GNU/Linux
and FreeBSD, where they are known as extattr.

Command processing:
Commands are either actions which happen immediately or settings which influence following
actions. So their sequence does matter, unless they are given as program arguments and
command -x is among them.
Commands consist of a command word, followed by zero or more parameter words. If the list
of parameter words is of variable length (indicated by "[...]" or "[***]") then it must be
terminated by either the list delimiter, occur at the end of the argument list, or occur
at the end of an input line.

At program start the list delimiter is the string "--". This may be changed with the
-list_delimiter command in order to allow "--" as parameter in a variable length list.
However, it is advised to reset the delimiter to "--" immediately afterwards.
For brevity the list delimiter is referred as "--" throughout this text.
The list delimiter is silently ignored if it appears after the parameters of a command
with a fixed list length. It is handled as normal text if it appears among the parameters
of such a command.

Pattern expansion converts a list of pattern words into a list of existing file addresses.
Unmatched pattern words will appear unaltered in that result list.
Pattern matching supports the usual shell parser wildcards '*' '?' '[xyz]' and respects
'/' as the path separator, which may only be matched literally.
Pattern expansion is a property of some particular commands and not a general feature. It
is controlled by commands -iso_rr_pattern and -disk_pattern. Commands which use pattern
expansion all have variable parameter lists which are specified in this text by "[***]"
rather than "[...]".
Some other commands perform pattern matching unconditionally.

Command and parameter words are either read from the program arguments, where one argument
is one word, or from quoted input lines where words are recognized similar to the
quotation rules of a shell parser.
xorriso is not a shell, although it might appear so at first glimpse. Be aware that the
interaction of quotation marks and pattern symbols like "*" differs from the usual shell
parsers. In xorriso, a quotation mark does not make a pattern symbol literal.

Quoted input converts whitespace-separated text into words. The double quotation mark "
and the single quotation mark ' can be used to enclose whitespace and make it part of
words (e.g. of file names). Each mark type can enclose the marks of the other type. A
trailing backslash \ outside quotations or an open quotation cause the next input line to
be appended.
Quoted input accepts any 8-bit character except NUL (0) as the content of the quotes.
Nevertheless it can be cumbersome for the user to produce those characters directly.
Therefore quoted input and program arguments offer optional Backslash Interpretation which
can represent all 8-bit characters except NUL (0) via backslash codes as in $'...' of
This is not enabled by default. See command -backslash_codes.

When the program starts then it first looks for argument -no_rc. If this is not present
then it looks for its startup files and reads their content as command input lines. Then
it interprets the program arguments as commands and parameters. Finally it enters dialog
mode if command -dialog "on" has been executed by this point.

The program ends either by command -end, or by the end of program arguments if dialog mode
has not been enabled at that point, or by a problem event which triggers the threshold of
command -abort_on.

Dialog, Readline, Result pager:
Dialog mode prompts for a quoted input line, parses it into words, and performs them as
commands with their parameters. It provides assisting services to make dialog more

Readline is an enhancement for the input line. You may already know it from the bash
shell. Whether it is available in xorriso depends on the availability of package
readline-dev at the time when xorriso was built from its sourcecode.
Readline lets the user move the cursor over the text in the line by help of the Left and
the Right arrow keys. Text may be inserted at the cursor position. The Delete key removes
the character under the cursor. Up and Down arrow keys navigate through the history of
previous input lines.
See man readline for more info about libreadline.

Command -page activates a built-in result text pager which may be convenient in dialog
mode. After an action has output the given number of terminal lines, the pager prompts the
user for a line of input.
An empty line lets xorriso resume work until the next page is output.
The single character "@" disables paging for the current action.
"@@@", "x", "q", "X", or "Q" request that the current action aborts and suppress further
result output.
Any other line input will be interpreted as new dialog line. The current action is
requested to abort. Afterwards, the input line is executed.

Some actions apply paging to their info output, too.
The request to abort may or may not be obeyed by the current action. All actions try to
abort as soon as possible.


All command words are shown with a leading dash although this dash is not mandatory for
the command to be recognized. Nevertheless within command -as the dashes of the emulated
commands are mandatory.
Normally any number of leading dashes is ignored with command words and inner dashes are
interpreted as underscores.

Execution order of program arguments:

By default the program arguments of a xorriso run are interpreted as a sequence of
commands which get performed exactly in the given order. This requires the user to write
commands for desired settings before the commands which shall be influenced by those
Many other programs support program arguments in an arbitrary ordering and perform
settings and actions in a sequence at their own discretion. xorriso provides an option to
enable such a behavior at the cost of loss of expressivity.

-x Enable automatic sorting of program arguments into a sequence that (most likely) is
sensible. This command may be given at any position among the commands which are
handed over as program arguments.
Note: It works only if it is given as program argument and with a single dash (i.e.
"-x"). It will not work in startup files, nor with -options_from_file, nor in
dialog mode, nor as "x" and finally not as "--x". It affects only the commands
given as program arguments.

List all xorriso commands in the order which applies if command -x is in effect.
This list may also be helpful without -x for a user who ponders over the sequence
in which to put commands. Deviations from the listed sorting order may well make
sense, though.

Acquiring source and target drive:

The effect of acquiring a drive may depend on several commands in the next paragraph
"Influencing the behavior of image loading". If desired, their enabling commands have to
be performed before the commands which acquire the drive.

-dev address
Set input and output drive to the same address and load an ISO image if it is
present. If there is no ISO image then create a blank one. Set the image
expansion method to growing.
This is only allowed as long as no changes are pending in the currently loaded ISO
image. If changes are pending, then one has to perform -commit or -rollback first.
Special address string "-" means standard output, to which several restrictions
apply. See above paragraph "Libburn drives".
An empty address string "" gives up the current device without acquiring a new one.

-indev address
Set input drive and load an ISO image if present. If the new input drive differs
from -outdev then switch from growing to modifying or to blind growing. It depends
on the setting of -grow_blindly which of both gets activated. The same rules and
restrictions apply as with -dev.

-outdev address
Set output drive and if it differs from the input drive then switch from growing to
modifying or to blind growing. Unlike -dev and -indev this action does not load a
new ISO image. So it can be performed even if there are pending changes.
-outdev can be performed without previous -dev or -indev. In that case an empty ISO
image with no changes pending is created. It can either be populated by help of
-map, -add et.al. or it can be discarded silently if -dev or -indev are performed
Special address string "-" means standard output, to which several restrictions
apply. See above paragraph "Libburn drives".
An empty address string "" gives up the current output drive without acquiring a
new one. No writing is possible without an output drive.

-grow_blindly "off"|predicted_nwa
If predicted_nwa is a non-negative number then perform blind growing rather than
modifying if -indev and -outdev are set to different drives. "off" or "-1" switch
to modifying, which is the default.
predicted_nwa is the block address where the add-on session of blind growing will
finally end up. It is the responsibility of the user to ensure this final position
and the presence of the older sessions. Else the overall ISO image will not be
mountable or will produce read errors when accessing file content. xorriso will
write the session to the address as obtained from examining -outdev and not
necessarily to predicted_nwa.
During a run of blind growing, the input drive is given up before output begins.
The output drive is given up when writing is done.

Influencing the behavior of image loading:

The following commands should normally be performed before loading an image by acquiring
an input drive. In rare cases it is desirable to activate them only after image loading.

-read_speed code|number[k|m|c|d|b]
Set the speed for reading. Default is "none", which avoids to send a speed setting
command to the drive before reading begins.
Further special speed codes are:
"max" (or "0") selects maximum speed as announced by the drive.
"min" (or "-1") selects minimum speed as announced by the drive.
Speed can be given in media dependent numbers or as a desired throughput per second
in MMC compliant kB (= 1000) or MB (= 1000 kB). Media x-speed factor can be set
explicity by "c" for CD, "d" for DVD, "b" for BD, "x" is optional.
Example speeds:
706k = 706kB/s = 4c = 4xCD
5540k = 5540kB/s = 4d = 4xDVD
If there is no hint about the speed unit attached, then the medium in the -indev
will decide. Default unit is CD = 176.4k.
Depending on the drive, the reported read speeds can be deceivingly low or high.
Therefore "min" cannot become higher than 1x speed of the involved medium type.
Read speed "max" cannot become lower than 52xCD, 24xDVD, or 20xBD, depending on the
medium type.
MMC drives usually activate their own idea of speed and take the speed value given
by the burn program only as hint for their own decision.

-load entity id
Load a particular (possibly outdated) ISO session from -dev or -indev. Usually all
available sessions are shown with command -toc.
entity depicts the kind of addressing. id depicts the particular address. The
following entities are defined:
"auto" with any id addresses the last session in -toc. This is the default.
"session" with id being a number as of a line "ISO session", column "Idx".
"track" with id being a number as of a line "ISO track", column "Idx".
"lba" or "sbsector" with a number as of a line "ISO ...", column "sbsector".
"volid" with a search pattern for a text as of a line "ISO ...", column "Volume
Adressing a non-existing entity or one which does not represent an ISO image will
either abandon -indev or at least lead to a blank image.
If an input drive is set at the moment when -load is executed, then the addressed
ISO image is loaded immediately. Else, the setting will be pending until the next
-dev or -indev. After the image has been loaded once, the setting is valid for
-rollback until next -dev or -indev, where it will be reset to "auto".

-displacement [-]lba
Compensate a displacement of the image versus the start address for which the image
was prepared. This affects only loading of ISO images and reading of their files.
The multi-session method of growing is not allowed as long as -displacement is
non-zero. I.e. -indev and -outdev must be different. The displacement gets reset to
0 before the drive gets re-acquired after writing.
If a track of a CD starts at block 123456 and gets copied to a disk file where it
begins at block 0, then this copy can be loaded with -displacement -123456.
If an ISO image was written onto a partition with offset of 640000 blocks of 512
bytes, then it can be loaded from the base device by -displacement 160000.
In both cases, the ISO sessions should be self contained, i.e. not add-on sessions
to an ISO image outside their track or partition.

-drive_class "harmless"|"banned"|"caution"|"clear_list" disk_pattern
Add a drive path pattern to one of the safety lists or make those lists empty.
There are three lists defined which get tested in the following sequence:
If a drive address path matches the "harmless" list then the drive will be
accepted. If it is not a MMC device then the prefix "stdio:" will be prepended
automatically. This list is empty by default.
Else if the path matches the "banned" list then the drive will not be accepted by
xorriso but rather lead to a FAILURE event. This list is empty by default.
Else if the path matches the "caution" list and if it is not a MMC device, then its
address must have the prefix "stdio:" or it will be rejected. This list has by
default one entry: "/dev".
If a drive path matches no list then it is considered "harmless". By default these
are all paths which do not begin with directory "/dev".
A path matches a list if one of its parent paths or itself matches a list entry.
Address prefix "stdio:" or "mmc:" will be ignored when testing for matches.
By pseudo-class "clear_list" and pseudo-patterns "banned", "caution", "harmless",
or "all", the lists may be made empty.
E.g.: -drive_class clear_list banned
One will normally define the -drive_class lists in one of the xorriso Startup
Note: This is not a security feature but rather a bumper for the superuser to
prevent inadverted mishaps. For reliably blocking access to a device file you have
to deny its rw-permissions in the filesystem.

-read_fs "any"|"norock"|"nojoliet"|"ecma119"
Specify which kind of filesystem tree to load if present. If the wish cannot be
fulfilled, then ECMA-119 names are loaded and converted according to -ecma119_map.
"any" first tries to read Rock Ridge. If not present, Joliet is tried.
"norock" does not try Rock Ridge.
"nojoliet" does not try Joliet.
"ecma119" tries neither Rock Ridge nor Joliet.

-assert_volid pattern severity
Refuse to load ISO images with volume IDs which do not match the given search
pattern. When refusing an image, give up the input drive and issue an event of the
given severity (like FAILURE, see -abort_on). An empty search pattern accepts any
This command does not hamper the creation of an empty image from blank input media
and does not discard an already loaded image.

-in_charset character_set_name
Set the character set from which to convert file names when loading an image. See
paragraph "Character sets" for more explanations. When loading the written image
after -commit the setting of -out_charset will be copied to -in_charset.

-auto_charset "on"|"off"
Enable or disable recording and interpretation of the output character set name in
an xattr attribute of the image root directory. If enabled and if a recorded
character set name is found, then this name will be used as name of the input
character set when reading an image.
Note that the default output charset is the local character set of the terminal
where xorriso runs. Before attributing this local character set to the produced ISO
image, check whether the terminal properly displays all intended filenames,
especially exotic national characters.

-hardlinks mode[:mode...]
Enable or disable loading and recording of hardlink relations.
In default mode "off", iso_rr files lose their inode numbers at image load time.
Each iso_rr file object which has no inode number at image generation time will get
a new unique inode number if -compliance is set to new_rr.
Mode "on" preserves inode numbers from the loaded image if such numbers were
recorded. When committing a session it searches for families of iso_rr files which
stem from the same disk file, have identical content filtering and have identical
properties. The family members all get the same inode number. Whether these
numbers are respected at mount time depends on the operating system.
Command -lsl displays hardlink counts if "lsl_count" is enabled. This can slow down
the command substantially after changes to the ISO image have been made. Therefore
the default is "no_lsl_count".
Commands -update and -update_r track splits and fusions of hard links in
filesystems which have stable device and inode numbers. This can cause automatic
last minute changes before the session gets written. Command -hardlinks
"perform_update" may be used to do these changes earlier, e.g. if you need to apply
filters to all updated files.
Mode "without_update" avoids hardlink processing during update commands. Use this
if your filesystem situation does not allow -disk_dev_ino "on".
xorriso commands which extract files from an ISO image try to hardlink files with
identical inode number. The normal scope of this operation is from image load to
image load. One may give up the accumulated hard link addresses by -hardlinks
A large number of hardlink families may exhaust -temp_mem_limit if not -osirrox
"sort_lba_on" and -hardlinks "cheap_sorted_extract" are both in effect. This
restricts hard linking to other files restored by the same single extract command.
-hardlinks "normal_extract" re-enables wide and expensive hardlink accumulation.

-acl "on"|"off"
Enable or disable processing of ACLs. If enabled, then xorriso will obtain ACLs
from disk file objects, store ACLs in the ISO image using the libisofs specific
AAIP format, load AAIP data from ISO images, test ACL during file comparison, and
restore ACLs to disk files when extracting them from ISO images. See also commands
-getfacl, -setfacl.

-xattr "on"|"off"
Enable or disable processing of xattr attributes in user namespace. If enabled,
then xorriso will handle xattr similar to ACL. See also commands -getfattr,
-setfattr and above paragraph about xattr.

-md5 "on"|"all"|"off"|"load_check_off"
Enable or disable processing of MD5 checksums for the overall session and for each
single data file. If enabled then images with checksum tags get loaded only if the
tags of superblock and directory tree match properly. The MD5 checksums of data
files and whole session get loaded from the image if there are any.
With commands -compare and -update the recorded MD5 of a file will be used to avoid
content reading from the image. Only the disk file content will be read and
compared with that MD5. This can save much time if -disk_dev_ino "on" is not
At image generation time they are computed for each file which gets its data
written into the new session. The checksums of files which have their data in older
sessions get copied into the new session. Superblock, tree and whole session get a
checksum tag each.
Mode "all" will additionally check during image generation whether the checksum of
a data file changed between the time when its reading began and the time when it
ended. This implies reading every file twice.
Mode "load_check_off" together with "on" or "all" will load recorded MD5 sums but
not test the recorded checksum tags of superblock and directory tree. This is
necessary if growisofs was used as burn program, because it does not overwrite the
superblock checksum tag of the first session. Therefore load_check_off is in
effect when xorriso -as mkisofs option -M is performed.
The test can be re-enabled by mode "load_check_on".
Checksums can be exploited via commands -check_md5, -check_md5_r, via find actions
get_md5, check_md5, and via -check_media.

Enable all extra features which help to produce or to restore backups with highest
fidelity of file properties. Currently this is a shortcut for: -hardlinks on -acl
on -xattr on -md5 on.

-ecma119_map "stripped"|"unmapped"|"lowercase"|"uppercase"
Choose the conversion of file names from the loaded session if neither a Rock Ridge
name nor a Joliet name was read from the session.
Mode "stripped" is the default. It shows the names as found in the ISO but removes
trailing ";1" or ".;1" if present.
Mode "unmapped" shows names as found without removing characters.
Mode "lowercase" is like "stripped" but also maps uppercase letters to lowercase
letters. This is compatible to default GNU/Linux mount behavior.
Mode "uppercase" is like "stripped" but maps lowercase letters to uppercase, if any
occur despite the prescriptions of ECMA-119.

-disk_dev_ino "on"|"ino_only"|"off"
Enable or disable processing of recorded file identification numbers (dev_t and
ino_t). If enabled they are stored as xattr and can substantially accelerate file
comparison. The root node gets a global start timestamp. If during comparison a
file with younger timestamps is found in the ISO image, then it is suspected to
have inconsistent content.
If device numbers and inode numbers of the disk filesystems are persistent and if
no irregular alterations of timestamps or system clock happen, then potential
content changes can be detected without reading that content. File content change
is assumed if any of mtime, ctime, device number or inode number have changed.
Mode "ino_only" replaces the precondition that device numbers are stable by the
precondition that mount points in the compared tree always lead to the same
filesystems. Use this if mode "on" always sees all files changed.
The speed advantage appears only if the loaded session was produced with
-disk_dev_ino "on" too.
Note that -disk_dev_ino "off" is totally in effect only if -hardlinks is "off",

-file_name_limit [+]number
Set the maximum permissible length for file names in the range of 64 to 255. Path
components which are longer than the given number will get truncated and have their
last 33 bytes overwritten by a colon ':' and the hex representation of the MD5 of
the first 4095 bytes of the whole oversized name. Potential incomplete UTF-8
characters will get their leading bytes replaced by '_'.
iso_rr_paths with the long components will still be able to access the file paths
with truncated components.
If -file_name_limit is executed while an ISO tree is present, the file names in the
ISO tree get checked for existing truncated file names of the current limit and for
name collisions between newly truncated files and existing files. In both cases,
the setting will be refused with a SORRY event.
One may lift this ban by prepending the character "+" to the argument of
-file_name_limit. Truncated filenames may then get truncated again, invalidating
their MD5 part. Colliding truncated names are made unique, consuming at least 9
more bytes of the remaining name part.
If writing of xattr is enabled, then the length will be stored in "isofs.nt" of the
root directory. If reading of xattr is enabled and "isofs.nt" is found, then the
found length will get into effect if it is smaller than the current setting of
File name patterns will only work if they match the truncated name. This might
change in future.
Files with truncated names get deleted and re-added unconditionally during -update
and -update_r. This might change in future.
Linux kernels up to at least 4.1 misrepresent names of length 254 and 255. If you
expect such names in or under disk_paths and plan to mount the ISO by such Linux
kernels, consider to set -file_name_limit 253. Else just avoid names longer than
253 characters.

-rom_toc_scan "on"|"force"|"off"[:"emul_off"][:"emul_wide"]
Read-only drives do not tell the actual media type but show any media as ROM (e.g.
as DVD-ROM). The session history of MMC multi-session media might be truncated to
first and last session or even be completely false. (The emulated history of
overwriteable media is not affected by this.)
To have in case of failure a chance of getting the session history and especially
the address of the last session, there is a scan for ISO 9660 filesystem headers
which might help but also might yield worse results than the drive's table of
content. At its end it can cause read attempts to invalid addresses and thus ugly
drive behavior. Setting "on" enables that scan for alleged read-only media.
Some operating systems are not able to mount the most recent session of
multi-session DVD or BD. If on such a system xorriso has no own MMC capabilities
then it may still find that session from a scanned table of content. Setting
"force" handles any media like a ROM medium with setting "on".
On the other hand the emulation of session history on overwriteable media can
hamper reading of partly damaged media. Setting "off:emul_off" disables the
elsewise trustworthy table-of-content scan for those media.
The table-of-content scan on overwriteable media normally searches only up to the
end of the session that is pointed to by the superblock at block 0. Setting
"on:emul_wide" lets the scan continue up to the end of the medium. This may be
useful after copying a medium with -check_media patch_lba0=on when not the last
session was loaded.

-calm_drive "in"|"out"|"all"|"revoke"|"on"|"off"
Reduce drive noise until it is actually used again. Some drives stay alert for
substantial time after they have been used for reading. This reduces the startup
time for the next drive operation but can be loud and waste energy if no i/o with
the drive is expected to happen soon.
Modes "in", "out", "all" immediately calm down -indev, -outdev, or both,
respectively. Mode "revoke" immediately alerts both. Mode "on" causes -calm_drive
to be performed automatically after each -dev, -indev, and -outdev. Mode "off"
disables this.

Allow for writing only the usage of MMC optical drives. Disallow to write the
result into files of nearly arbitrary type. Once set, this command cannot be

-early_stdio_test "on"|"appendable_wo"|"off"
If enabled by "on" then regular files and block devices get tested for effective
access permissions. This implies to try opening those files for writing, which
otherwise will happen only later and only if actual writing is desired.
The test result is used for classifying the pseudo drives as overwriteable,
read-only, write-only, or uselessly empty. This may lead to earlier detection of
severe problems, and may avoid some less severe error events.
Mode "appendable_wo" is like "on" with the additional property that non-empty
write-only files are regarded as appendable rather than blank.

-data_cache_size number_of_tiles blocks_per_tile
Set the size and granularity of the data cache which is used when ISO images are
loaded and when file content is read from ISO images. The cache consists of several
tiles, which each consists of several blocks. A larger cache reduces the need for
tiles being read multiple times. Larger tiles might additionally improve the data
throughput from the drive, but can be wasteful if the data are scattered over the
Larger cache sizes help best with image loading from MMC drives. They are an
inferior alternative to -osirrox option "sort_lba_on".
blocks_per_tile must be a power of 2. E.g. 16, 32, or 64. The overall cache size
must not exceed 1 GiB. The default values can be restored by parameter "default"
instead of one or both of the numbers. Currently the default is 32 tiles of 32
blocks = 2 MiB.

Inserting files into ISO image:

The following commands expect file addresses of two kinds:
disk_path is a path to an object in the local filesystem tree.
iso_rr_path is the Rock Ridge name of a file object in the ISO image. If no Rock Ridge
information is recorded in the loaded ISO image, then you will see ISO 9660 names which
are of limited length and character set. If no Rock Ridge information shall be stored in
an emerging ISO image, then their names will get mapped to such restricted ISO 9660 (aka
ECMA-119) names.

Note that in the ISO image you are as powerful as the superuser. Access permissions of the
existing files in the image do not apply to your write operations. They are intended to be
in effect with the read-only mounted image.

If the iso_rr_path of a newly inserted file leads to an existing file object in the ISO
image, then the following collision handling happens:
If both objects are directories then they get merged by recursively inserting the
subobjects from filesystem into ISO image. If other file types collide then the setting
of command -overwrite decides.
Renaming of files has similar collision handling, but directories can only be replaced,
not merged. Note that if the target directory exists, then -mv inserts the source objects
into this directory rather than attempting to replace it. Command -move, on the other
hand, would attempt to replace it.

The commands in this section alter the ISO image and not the local filesystem.

-disk_pattern "on"|"ls"|"off"
Set the pattern expansion mode for the disk_path parameters of several commands
which support this feature.
Setting "off" disables this feature for all commands which are marked in this man
page by "disk_path [***]" or "disk_pattern [***]".
Setting "on" enables it for all those commands.
Setting "ls" enables it only for those which are marked by "disk_pattern [***]".
Default is "ls".

-add pathspec [...] | disk_path [***]
Insert the given files or directory trees from filesystem into the ISO image.
If -pathspecs is set to "on" then pattern expansion is always disabled and
character '=' has a special meaning. It separates the ISO image path from the disk
The separator '=' can be escaped by '\'. If iso_rr_path does not begin with '/'
then -cd is prepended. If disk_path does not begin with '/' then -cdx is
If no '=' is given then the word is used as both, iso_rr_path and disk path. If in
this case the word does not begin with '/' then -cdx is prepended to the disk_path
and -cd is prepended to the iso_rr_path.
If -pathspecs is set to "off" then -disk_pattern expansion applies, if enabled.
The resulting words are used as both, iso_rr_path and disk path. Relative path
words get prepended the setting of -cdx to disk_path and the setting of -cd to

-add_plainly mode
If set to mode "unknown" then any command word that does not begin with "-" and is
not recognized as known command will be subject to a virtual -add command. I.e. it
will be used as pathspec or as disk_path and added to the image. If enabled,
-disk_pattern expansion applies to disk_paths.
Mode "dashed" is similar to "unknown" but also adds unrecognized command words even
if they begin with "-".
Mode "any" announces that all further words are to be added as pathspecs or
disk_paths. This does not work in dialog mode.
Mode "none" is the default. It prevents any words from being understood as files to
add, if they are not parameters to appropriate commands.

-path_list disk_path
Like -add but read the parameter words from file disk_path or standard input if
disk_path is "-". The list must contain exactly one pathspec or disk_path pattern
per line.

-quoted_path_list disk_path
Like -path_list but with quoted input reading rules. Lines get split into parameter
words for -add. Whitespace outside quotes is discarded.

-map disk_path iso_rr_path
Insert file object disk_path into the ISO image as iso_rr_path. If disk_path is a
directory then its whole sub tree is inserted into the ISO image.

-map_single disk_path iso_rr_path
Like -map, but if disk_path is a directory then its sub tree is not inserted.

-map_l disk_prefix iso_rr_prefix disk_path [***]
Perform -map with each of the disk_path parameters. iso_rr_path will be composed
from disk_path by replacing disk_prefix by iso_rr_prefix.

-update disk_path iso_rr_path
Compare file object disk_path with file object iso_rr_path. If they do not match,
then perform the necessary image manipulations to make iso_rr_path a matching copy
of disk_path. By default this comparison will imply lengthy content reading before
a decision is made. Commands -disk_dev_ino or -md5 may accelerate comparison if
they were already in effect when the loaded session was recorded.
If disk_path is a directory and iso_rr_path does not exist yet, then the whole
subtree will be inserted. Else only directory attributes will be updated.

-update_r disk_path iso_rr_path
Like -update but working recursively. I.e. all file objects below both addresses
get compared whether they have counterparts below the other address and whether
both counterparts match. If there is a mismatch then the necessary update
manipulation is done.
Note that the comparison result may depend on command -follow. Its setting should
always be the same as with the first adding of disk_path as iso_rr_path.
If iso_rr_path does not exist yet, then it gets added. If disk_path does not exist,
then iso_rr_path gets deleted.

-update_l disk_prefix iso_rr_prefix disk_path [***]
Perform -update_r with each of the disk_path parameters. iso_rr_path will be
composed from disk_path by replacing disk_prefix by iso_rr_prefix.

-cut_out disk_path byte_offset byte_count iso_rr_path
Map a byte interval of a regular disk file into a regular file in the ISO image.
This may be necessary if the disk file is larger than a single medium, or if it
exceeds the traditional limit of 2 GiB - 1 for old operating systems, or the limit
of 4 GiB - 1 for newer ones. Only the newest Linux kernels seem to read properly
files >= 4 GiB - 1.
A clumsy remedy for this limit is to backup file pieces and to concatenate them at
restore time. A well tested chopping size is 2047m. It is permissible to request a
higher byte_count than available. The resulting file will be truncated to the
correct size of a final piece. To request a byte_offset higher than available
yields no file in the ISO image but a SORRY event. E.g:
-cut_out /my/disk/file 0 2047m \
/file/part_1_of_3_at_0_with_2047m_of_5753194821 \
-cut_out /my/disk/file 2047m 2047m \
/file/part_2_of_3_at_2047m_with_2047m_of_5753194821 \
-cut_out /my/disk/file 4094m 2047m \
While command -split_size is set larger than 0, and if all pieces of a file reside
in the same ISO directory with no other files, and if the names look like above,
then their ISO directory will be recognized and handled like a regular file. This
affects commands -compare*, -update*, and overwrite situations. See command
-split_size for details.

-cpr disk_path [***] iso_rr_path
Insert the given files or directory trees from filesystem into the ISO image.
The rules for generating the ISO addresses are similar as with shell command cp -r.
Nevertheless, directories of the iso_rr_path are created if necessary. Especially a
not yet existing iso_rr_path will be handled as directory if multiple disk_paths
are present. The leafnames of the multiple disk_paths will be grafted under that
directory as would be done with an existing directory.
If a single disk_path is present then a non-existing iso_rr_path will get the same
type as the disk_path.
If a disk_path does not begin with '/' then -cdx is prepended. If the iso_rr_path
does not begin with '/' then -cd is prepended.

-mkdir iso_rr_path [...]
Create empty directories if they do not exist yet. Existence as directory
generates a WARNING event, existence as other file causes a FAILURE event.

-lns target_text iso_rr_path
Create a symbolic link with address iso_rr_path which points to target_text.
iso_rr_path may not exist yet.
Hint: Command -clone produces the ISO equivalent of a hard link.

-clone iso_rr_path_original iso_rr_path_copy
Create a copy of the ISO file object iso_rr_path_original with the new address
iso_rr_path_copy. If the original is a directory then copy all files and
directories underneath. If iso_rr_path_original is a boot catalog file, then it
gets not copied but is silently ignored.
The copied ISO file objects have the same attributes. Copied data files refer to
the same content source as their originals. The copies may then be manipulated
independendly of their originals.
This command will refuse execution if the address iso_rr_path_copy already exists
in the ISO tree.

-cp_clone iso_rr_path_original [***] iso_rr_path_dest
Create copies of one or more ISO file objects as with command -clone. In case of
collision merge directories with existing ones, but do not overwrite existing ISO
file objects.
The rules for generating the copy addresses are the same as with command -cpr (see
above) or shell command cp -r. Other than with -cpr, relative iso_rr_path_original
will get prepended the -cd path and not the -cdx path. Consider to -mkdir
iso_rr_path_dest before -cp_clone so the copy address does not depend on the number
of iso_rr_path_original parameters.

Settings for file insertion:

-file_size_limit value [value [...]] --
Set the maximum permissible size for a single data file. The values get summed up
for the actual limit. If the only value is "off" then the file size is not limited
by xorriso. Default is a limit of 100 extents, 4g -2k each:
-file_size_limit 400g -200k --
When mounting ISO 9660 filesystems, old operating systems can handle only files up
to 2g -1 --. Newer ones are good up to 4g -1 --. You need quite a new Linux kernel
to read correctly the final bytes of a file >= 4g if its size is not aligned to
2048 byte blocks.
xorriso's own data read capabilities are not affected by operating system size
limits. Such limits apply to mounting only. Nevertheless, the target filesystem of
an -extract must be able to take the file size.

-not_mgt code[:code[...]]
Control the behavior of the exclusion lists.
Exclusion processing happens before disk_paths get mapped to the ISO image and
before disk files get compared with image files. The absolute disk path of the
source is matched against the -not_paths list. The leafname of the disk path is
matched against the patterns in the -not_leaf list. If a match is detected then the
disk path will not be regarded as an existing file and not be added to the ISO
Several codes are defined. The _on/_off settings persist until they are revoked by
their_off/_on counterparts.
"erase" empties the lists which were accumulated by -not_paths and -not_leaf.
"reset" is like "erase" but also re-installs default behavior.
"off" disables exclusion processing temporarily without invalidating the lists and
"on" re-enables exclusion processing.
"param_off" applies exclusion processing only to paths below disk_path parameter of
commands. I.e. explicitly given disk_paths are exempted from exclusion processing.
"param_on" applies exclusion processing to command parameters as well as to files
below such parameters.
"subtree_off" with "param_on" excludes parameter paths only if they match a
-not_paths item exactly.
"subtree_on" additionally excludes parameter paths which lead to a file address
below any -not_paths item.
"ignore_off" treats excluded disk files as if they were missing. I.e. they get
reported with -compare and deleted from the image with -update.
"ignore_on" keeps excluded files out of -compare or -update activities.

-not_paths disk_path [***]
Add the given paths to the list of excluded absolute disk paths. If a given path is
relative, then the current -cdx is prepended to form an absolute path. Pattern
matching, if enabled, happens at definition time and not when exclusion checks are
(Do not forget to end the list of disk_paths by "--")

-not_leaf pattern
Add a single shell parser style pattern to the list of exclusions for disk
leafnames. These patterns are evaluated when the exclusion checks are made.

-not_list disk_path
Read lines from disk_path and use each of them either as -not_paths parameter, if
they contain a / character, or as -not_leaf pattern.

-quoted_not_list disk_path
Like -not_list but with quoted input reading rules. Each word is handled as one
parameter for -not_paths or -not_leaf.

-follow occasion[:occasion[...]]
Enable or disable resolution of symbolic links and mountpoints under disk_paths.
This applies to actions -add, -du*x, -ls*x, -findx, -concat, and to -disk_pattern
There are three kinds of follow decisison to be made:
link is the hop from a symbolic link to its target file object for the purpose of
reading. I.e. not for command -concat. If enabled then symbolic links are handled
as their target file objects, else symbolic links are handled as themselves.
mount is the hop from one filesystem to another subordinate filesystem. If enabled
then mountpoint directories are handled as any other directory, else mountpoints
are handled as empty directories if they are encountered in directory tree
concat is the hop from a symbolic link to its target file object for the purpose of
writing. I.e. for command -concat. This is a security risk !
Less general than above occasions:
pattern is mount and link hopping, but only during -disk_pattern expansion.
param is link hopping for parameter words (after eventual pattern expansion). If
enabled then -ls*x will show the link targets rather than the links themselves.
-du*x, -findx, and -add will process the link targets but not follow links in an
eventual directory tree below the targets (unless "link" is enabled).
Occasions can be combined in a colon separated list. All occasions mentioned in the
list will then lead to a positive follow decision.
off prevents any positive follow decision. Use it if no other occasion applies.
default is equivalent to "pattern:mount:limit=100".
on always decides positive. Equivalent to "link:mount:concat".

Not an occasion but an optional setting is:
limit=<number> which sets the maximum number of link hops. A link hop consists of
a sequence of symbolic links and a final target of different type. Nevertheless
those hops can loop. Example:
$ ln -s .. uploop
Link hopping has a built-in loop detection which stops hopping at the first
repetition of a link target. Then the repeated link is handled as itself and not as
its target. Regrettably one can construct link networks which cause exponential
workload before their loops get detected. The number given with "limit=" can curb
this workload at the risk of truncating an intentional sequence of link hops.

-pathspecs "on"|"off"
Control parameter interpretation with xorriso actions -add and -path_list.
"on" enables pathspecs of the form target=source like with program mkisofs
-graft-points. It also disables -disk_pattern expansion for command -add.
"off" disables pathspecs of the form target=source and re-enables -disk_pattern

-overwrite "on"|"nondir"|"off"
Allow or disallow overwriting of existing files in the ISO image by files with the
same name.
With setting "off", name collisions cause FAILURE events. With setting "nondir",
only directories are protected by such events, other existing file types get
treated with -rm before the new file gets added. Setting "on" enables automatic
-rm_r. I.e. a non-directory can replace an existing directory and all its
If restoring of files is enabled, then the overwrite rule applies to the target
file objects on disk as well, but "on" is downgraded to "nondir".

-split_size number["k"|"m"]
Set the threshold for automatic splitting of regular files. Such splitting maps a
large disk file onto a ISO directory with several part files in it. This is
necessary if the size of the disk file exceeds -file_size_limit. Older operating
systems can handle files in mounted ISO 9660 filesystems only if they are smaller
than 2 GiB or in other cases 4 GiB.
Default is 0 which will exclude files larger than -file_size_limit by a FAILURE
event. A well tested -split_size is 2047m. Sizes above -file_size_limit are not
While command -split_size is set larger than 0 such a directory with split file
pieces will be recognized and handled like a regular file by commands -compare* ,
-update*, and in overwrite situations. There are -ossirox parameters
"concat_split_on" and "concat_split_off" which control the handling when files get
restored to disk.
In order to be recognizable, the names of the part files have to describe the
splitting by 5 numbers:
which are embedded in the following text form:
Scaling characters like "m" or "k" are taken into respect. All digits are
interpreted as decimal, even if leading zeros are present.
E.g: /file/part_1_of_3_at_0_with_2047m_of_5753194821
No other files are allowed in the directory. All parts have to be present and their
numbers have to be plausible. E.g. byte_count must be valid as -cut_out parameter
and their contents may not overlap.

File manipulations:

The following commands manipulate files in the ISO image, regardless whether they stem
from the loaded image or were newly inserted.

-iso_rr_pattern "on"|"ls"|"off"
Set the pattern expansion mode for the iso_rr_path parameters of several commands
which support this feature.
Setting "off" disables pattern expansion for all commands which are marked in this
man page by "iso_rr_path [***]" or "iso_rr_pattern [***]".
Setting "on" enables it for all those commands.
Setting "ls" enables it only for those which are marked by "iso_rr_pattern [***]".
Default is "on".

-rm iso_rr_path [***]
Delete the given files from the ISO image.
Note: This does not free any space on the -indev medium, even if the deletion is
committed to that same medium.
The image size will shrink if the image is written to a different medium in
modification mode.

-rm_r iso_rr_path [***]
Delete the given files or directory trees from the ISO image. See also the note
with command -rm.

-rmdir iso_rr_path [***]
Delete empty directories.

-move iso_rr_path iso_rr_path
Rename the file given by the first (origin) iso_rr_path to the second (destination)
iso_rr_path. Deviate from rules of shell command mv by not moving the origin file
underneath an existing destination directory. The origin file will rather replace
such a directory, if this is allowed by command -overwrite.

-mv iso_rr_path [***] iso_rr_path
Rename the given file objects in the ISO tree to the last parameter in the list.
Use the same rules as with shell command mv.
If pattern expansion is enabled and if the last parameter contains wildcard
characters then it must match exactly one existing file address, or else the
command fails with a FAILURE event.

-chown uid iso_rr_path [***]
Set ownership of file objects in the ISO image. uid may either be a decimal number
or the name of a user known to the operating system.

-chown_r uid iso_rr_path [***]
Like -chown but affecting all files below eventual directories.

-chgrp gid iso_rr_path [***]
Set group attribute of file objects in the ISO image. gid may either be a decimal
number or the name of a group known to the operating system.

-chgrp_r gid iso_rr_path [***]
Like -chgrp but affecting all files below eventual directories.

-chmod mode iso_rr_path [***]
Equivalent to shell command chmod in the ISO image. mode is either an octal number
beginning with "0" or a comma separated list of statements of the form
[ugoa]*[+-=][rwxst]* .
Like: go-rwx,u+rwx .
Personalities: u=user, g=group, o=others, a=all
Operators: + adds given permissions, - revokes given permissions, = revokes all old
permissions and then adds the given ones.
Permissions: r=read, w=write, x=execute|inspect, s=setuid|setgid, t=sticky bit
For octal numbers see man 2 stat.

-chmod_r mode iso_rr_path [***]
Like -chmod but affecting all files below eventual directories.

-setfacl acl_text iso_rr_path [***]
Attach the given ACL to the given iso_rr_paths. If the files already have ACLs,
then those get deleted before the new ones get into effect. If acl_text is empty,
or contains the text "clear" or the text "--remove-all", then the existing ACLs
will be removed and no new ones will be attached. Any other content of acl_text
will be interpreted as a list of ACL entries. It may be in the long multi-line
format as put out by -getfacl but may also be abbreviated as follows:
ACL entries are separated by comma or newline. If an entry is empty text or begins
with "#" then it will be ignored. A valid entry has to begin by a letter out of
{ugom} for "user", "group", "other", "mask". It has to contain two colons ":". A
non-empty text between those ":" gives a user id or group id. After the second ":"
there may be letters out of {rwx- #}. The first three give read, write, or execute
permission. Letters "-", " " and TAB are ignored. "#" causes the rest of the entry
to be ignored. Letter "X" or any other letters are not supported. Examples:
A valid entry may be prefixed by "d", some following characters and ":". This
indicates that the entry goes to the "default" ACL rather than to the "access" ACL.

-setfacl_r acl_text iso_rr_path [***]
Like -setfacl but affecting all files below eventual directories.

-setfacl_list disk_path
Read the output of -getfacl_r or shell command getfacl -R and apply it to the
iso_rr_paths as given in lines beginning with "# file:". This will change
ownership, group and ACL of the given files. If disk_path is "-" then lines are
read from standard input. Line "@" ends the list, "@@@" aborts without changing the
pending iso_rr_path.
Since -getfacl and getfacl -R strip leading "/" from file paths, the setting of -cd
does always matter.

-setfattr [-]name value iso_rr_path [***]
Attach the given xattr pair of name and value to the given iso_rr_paths. If the
given name is prefixed by "-", then the pair with that name gets removed from the
xattr list. If name is "--remove-all" then all user namespace xattr of the given
iso_rr_paths get deleted. In case of deletion, value must be an empty text.
Only names from the user namespace are allowed. I.e. a name has to begin with
"user.", like "user.x" or "user.whatever".
Values and names undergo the normal input processing of xorriso. See also command
-backslash_codes. Other than with command -setfattr_list, the byte value 0 cannot
be expressed via -setfattr.

-setfattr_r [-]name value iso_rr_path [***]
Like -setfattr but affecting all files below eventual directories.

-setfattr_list disk_path
Read the output of -getfattr_r or shell command getfattr -Rd and apply it to the
iso_rr_paths as given in lines beginning with "# file:". All previously existing
user space xattr of the given iso_rr_paths will be deleted. If disk_path is "-"
then lines are read from standard input.
Since -getfattr and getfattr -Rd strip leading "/" from file paths, the setting of
-cd does always matter.
Empty input lines and lines which begin by "#" will be ignored (except "# file:").
Line "@" ends the list, "@@@" aborts without changing the pending iso_rr_path.
Other input lines must have the form
Name must be from user namespace. I.e. user.xyz where xyz should consist of
printable characters only. The separator "=" is not allowed in names. Value may
contain any kind of bytes. It must be in quotes. Trailing whitespace after the end
quote will be ignored. Non-printables bytes and quotes must be represented as \XYZ
by their octal 8-bit code XYZ. Use code \000 for 0-bytes.

-alter_date type timestring iso_rr_path [***]
Alter the date entries of files in the ISO image. type may be one of the following:
"a" sets access time, updates ctime.
"m" sets modification time, updates ctime.
"b" sets access time and modification time, updates ctime.
"a-c", "m-c", and "b-c" set the times without updating ctime.
"c" sets the ctime.
timestring may be in the following formats (see also section EXAMPLES):
As expected by program date:
As produced by program date:
[Day] MMM DD hh:mm:ss [TZON] YYYY
Relative times counted from current clock time:
where "s" means seconds, "h" hours, "d" days, "w" weeks, "m"=30d, "y"=365.25d plus
1d added to multiplication result.
Absolute seconds counted from Jan 1 1970:
xorriso's own timestamps:
scdbackup timestamps:
where "A0" is year 2000, "B0" is 2010, etc.
ECMA-119 volume timestamps:
These are normally given as GMT. The suffix "LOC" causes local timezone conversion.
E.g. 2013010720574700, 2013010720574700LOC. The last two digits cc (centiseconds)
will be ignored, but must be present in order to make the format recognizable.
-alter_date m-c 2013.11.27.103951 /file1 /file2 --

-alter_date_r type timestring iso_rr_path [***]
Like -alter_date but affecting all files below eventual directories.

-hide hide_state iso_rr_path [***]
Prevent the names of the given files from showing up in the directory trees of ISO
9660 and/or Joliet and/or HFS+ when the image gets written. The data content of
such hidden files will be included in the resulting image, even if they do not show
up in any directory. But you will need own means to find nameless data in the
Warning: Data which are hidden from the ISO 9660 tree will not be copied by the
write method of modifying.
Possible values of hide_state are: "iso_rr" for hiding from ISO 9660 tree, "joliet"
for Joliet tree, "hfsplus" for HFS+, "on" for them all. "off" means visibility in
all directory trees.
These values may be combined. E.g.: joliet:hfsplus
This command does not apply to the boot catalog. Rather use: -boot_image "any"

Tree traversal command -find:

-find iso_rr_path [test [op] [test ...]] [-exec action [params]] --
A restricted substitute for shell command find in the ISO image. It performs an
action on matching file objects at or below iso_rr_path.
If not used as last command in the line then the parameter list needs to get
terminated by "--".
Tests are optional. If they are omitted then action is applied to all file objects.
If tests are given then they form together an expression. The action is applied
only if the expression matches the file object. Default expression operator between
tests is -and, i.e. the expression matches only if all its tests match.
Available tests are:
-name pattern : Matches if pattern matches the file leaf name. If the pattern does
not contain any of the characters "*?[", then it will be truncated according to
-file_name_limit and thus match the truncated name in the ISO filesystem.
-wholename pattern : Matches if pattern matches the file path as it would be
printed by action "echo". Character '/' can be matched by wildcards. If pattern
pieces between '/' do not contain any of the characters "*?[", they will be
truncated according to -file_name_limit.
-disk_name pattern : Like -name but testing the leaf name of the file source on
disk. Can match only data files which do not stem from the loaded image, or for
directories above such data files. With directories the result can change between
-find runs if their content stems from multiple sources.
-disk_path disk_path : Matches if the given disk_path is equal to the path of the
file source on disk. The same restrictions apply as with -disk_name.
-type type_letter : Matches files of the given type: "block", "char", "dir",
"pipe", "file", "link", "socket", "eltorito", and "Xotic" which matches what is not
matched by the other types.
Only the first letter is interpreted. E.g.: -find / -type d
-damaged : Matches files which use data blocks marked as damaged by a previous run
of -check_media. The damage info vanishes when a new ISO image gets loaded.
Note that a MD5 session mismatch marks all files of the session as damaged. If
finer distinction is desired, perform -md5 off before -check_media.
-pending_data : Matches files which get their content from outside the loaded ISO
-lba_range start_lba block_count : Matches files which use data blocks within the
range of start_lba and start_lba+block_count-1.
-has_acl : Matches files which have a non-trivial ACL.
-has_xattr : Matches files which have xattr name-value pairs from user namespace.
-has_aaip : Matches files which have ACL or any xattr.
-has_any_xattr : Matches files which have any xattr other than ACL.
-has_md5 : Matches data files which have MD5 checksums.
-has_hfs_crtp creator type : Matches files which have the given HFS+ creator and
type attached. These are codes of 4 characters which get stored if -hfsplus is
enabled. Use a single dash '-' as wildcard that matches any such code. E.g:.
-has_hfs_crtp YYDN TEXT
-has_hfs_crtp - -
-has_hfs_bless blessing : Matches files which bear the given HFS+ blessing. It may
be one of : "ppc_bootdir", "intel_bootfile", "show_folder", "os9_folder",
"osx_folder", "any". See also action set_hfs_bless.
-has_filter : Matches files which are filtered by -set_filter.
-hidden hide_state : Matches files which are hidden in "iso_rr" tree, in "joliet"
tree, in "hfsplus" tree, in all trees ("on"), or not hidden in any tree ("off").
Those which are hidden in some tree match -not -hidden "off".
-bad_outname namespace : Matches files with names which change when converted forth
and back between the local character set and one of the namespaces "rockridge",
"joliet", "ecma119", "hfsplus".
All applicable -compliance rules are taken into respect. Rule "omit_version" is
always enabled, because else namespaces "joliet" and "ecma119" would cause changes
with every non-directory name. Consider to also enable rules "no_force_dots" and
The namespaces use different character sets and apply further restrictions to name
length, permissible characters, and mandatory name components. "rockridge" uses
the character set defined by -out_charset, "joliet" uses UCS-2BE, "ecma119" uses
ASCII, "hfsplus" uses UTF-16BE.
-name_limit_blocker length : Matches file names which would prevent command
-file_name_limit with the given length. The command itself reports only the first
problem file.
-prune : If this test is reached and the tested file is a directory then -find will
not dive into that directory. This test itself does always match.
-use_pattern "on"|"off" : This pseudo test controls the interpretation of wildcards
with tests -name, -wholename, and -disk_name. Default is "on". If interpretation is
disabled by "off", then the parameters of -name, -wholename, and -disk_name have to
match literally rather than as search pattern. This test itself does always match.
-or_use_pattern "on"|"off" : Like -use_pattern, but automatically appending the
test by -or rather than by -and. Further the test itself does never match. So a
subsequent test -or will cause its other operand to be performed.
-decision "yes"|"no" : If this test is reached then the evaluation ends immediately
and action is performed if the decision is "yes" or "true". See operator -if.
-true and -false : Always match or match not, respectively. Evaluation goes on.
-sort_lba : Always match. This causes -find to perform its action in a sequence
sorted by the ISO image block addresses of the files. It may improve throughput
with actions which read data from optical drives. Action will always get the
absolute path as parameter.
Available operators are:
-not : Matches if the next test or sub expression does not match. Several tests do
this specifically:
-undamaged, -lba_range with negative start_lba, -has_no_acl, -has_no_xattr,
-has_no_aaip, -has_no_filter .
-and : Matches if both neighboring tests or expressions match.
-or : Matches if at least one of both neighboring tests or expressions matches.
-sub ... -subend or ( ... ) : Enclose a sub expression which gets evaluated first
before it is processed by neighboring operators. Normal precedence is: -not, -or ,
-if ... -then ... -elseif ... -then ... -else ... -endif : Enclose one or more sub
expressions. If the -if expression matches, then the -then expression is evaluated
as the result of the whole expression up to -endif. Else the next -elseif
expression is evaluated and if it matches, its -then expression. Finally in case of
no match, the -else expression is evaluated. There may be more than one -elseif.
Neither -else nor -elseif are mandatory. If -else is missing and would be hit,
then the result is a non-match.
-if-expressions are the main use case for above test -decision.

Default action is echo, i.e. to print the address of the found file. Other actions
are certain xorriso commands which get performed on the found files. These
commands may have specific parameters. See also their particular descriptions.
chown and chown_r change the ownership and get the user id as parameter. E.g.:
-exec chown thomas --
chgrp and chgrp_r change the group attribute and get the group id as parameter.
E.g.: -exec chgrp_r staff --
chmod and chmod_r change access permissions and get a mode string as parameter.
E.g.: -exec chmod a-w,a+r --
alter_date and alter_date_r change the timestamps. They get a type character and a
timestring as parameters.
E.g.: -exec alter_date "m" "Dec 30 19:34:12 2007" --
lsdl prints file information like shell command ls -dl.
compare performs command -compare with the found file address as iso_rr_path and
the corresponding file address below its parameter disk_path_start. For this the
iso_rr_path of the -find command gets replaced by the disk_path_start.
E.g.: -find /thomas -exec compare /home/thomas --
update performs command -update with the found file address as iso_rr_path. The
corresponding file address is determined like with above action "compare".
update_merge is like update but does not delete the found file if it is missing on
disk. It may be run several times and records with all visited files whether their
counterpart on disk has already been seen by one of the update_merge runs.
Finally, a -find run with action "rm_merge" may remove all files that saw no
counterpart on disk.
Up to the next "rm_merge" or "clear_merge" all newly inserted files will get marked
as having a disk counterpart.
rm removes the found iso_rr_path from the image if it is not a directory with files
in it. I.e. this "rm" includes "rmdir".
rm_r removes the found iso_rr_path from the image, including whole directory trees.
rm_merge removes the found iso_rr_path if it was visited by one or more previous
actions "update_merge" and saw no counterpart on disk in any of them. The marking
from the update actions is removed in any case.
clear_merge removes an eventual marking from action "update_merge".
report_damage classifies files whether they hit a data block that is marked as
damaged. The result is printed together with the address of the first damaged byte,
the maximum span of damages, file size, and the path of the file.
report_lba prints files which are associated to image data blocks. It tells the
logical block address, the block number, the byte size, and the path of each file.
There may be reported more than one line per file if the file has more than one
section. In this case each line has a different extent number in column "xt".
report_sections like report_lba but telling the byte sizes of the particular
sections rather than the overall byte size of the file.
getfacl prints access permissions in ACL text form to the result channel.
setfacl attaches ACLs after removing existing ones. The new ACL is given in text
form as defined with command -setfacl.
E.g.: -exec setfacl u:lisa:rw,u::rw,g::r,o::-,m::rw --
getfattr prints xattr name-value pairs from user namespace to the result channel.
get_any_xattr prints xattr name-value pairs from any namespace except ACL to the
result channel. This is mostly for debugging of namespace "isofs".
list_extattr mode prints a script to the result channel, which would use FreeBSD
command setextattr to set the file's xattr name-value pairs of user namespace.
Parameter mode controls the form of the output of names and values. Default mode
"e" prints harmless characters in shell quotation marks, but represents texts with
octal 001 to 037 and 0177 to 0377 by an embedded echo -e command. Mode "q" prints
any characters in shell quotation marks. This might not be terminal-safe but should
work in script files. Mode "r" uses no quotation marks. Not safe. Mode "b" prints
backslash encoding. Not suitable for shell parsing.
E.g. -exec list_extattr e --
Command -backslash_codes does not affect the output.
get_md5 prints the MD5 sum, if recorded, together with file path.
check_md5 compares the MD5 sum, if recorded, with the file content and reports if
E.g.: -find / -not -pending_data -exec check_md5 FAILURE --
make_md5 equips a data file with an MD5 sum of its content. Useful to upgrade the
files in the loaded image to full MD5 coverage by the next commit with -md5 "on".
E.g.: -find / -type f -not -has_md5 -exec make_md5 --
setfattr sets or deletes xattr name value pairs.
E.g.: -find / -has_xattr -exec setfattr --remove-all '' --
set_hfs_crtp adds, changes, or removes HFS+ creator and type attributes.
E.g.: -exec set_hfs_crtp YYDN TEXT
E.g.: -find /my/dir -prune -exec set_hfs_crtp --delete -
get_hfs_crtp prints the HFS+ creator and type attributes together with the
iso_rr_path, if the file has such attributes at all.
E.g.: -exec get_hfs_crtp
set_hfs_bless applies or removes HFS+ blessings. They are roles which can be
attributed to up to four directories and a data file:
"ppc_bootdir", "intel_bootfile", "show_folder", "os9_folder", "osx_folder".
They may be abbreviated as "p", "i", "s", "9", and "x".
Each such role can be attributed to at most one file object. "intel_bootfile" is
the one that would apply to a data file. All others apply to directories. The
-find run will end as soon as the first blessing is issued. The previous bearer of
the blessing will lose it then. No file object can bear more than one blessing.
E.g.: -find /my/blessed/directory -exec set_hfs_bless p
Further there is blessing "none" or "n" which revokes any blessing from the found
files. This -find run will not stop when the first match is reached.
E.g.: -find / -has_hfs_bless any -exec set_hfs_bless none
get_hfs_bless prints the HFS+ blessing role and the iso_rr_path, if the file is
blessed at all.
E.g.: -exec get_hfs_bless
set_filter applies or removes filters.
E.g.: -exec set_filter --zisofs --
mkisofs_r applies the rules of mkisofs -r to the file object:
user id and group id become 0, all r-permissions get granted, all w denied. If
there is any x-permission, then all three x get granted. s- and t-bits get
sort_weight attributes a LBA weight number to regular files.
The number may range from -2147483648 to 2147483647. The higher it is, the lower
will be the block address of the file data in the emerging ISO image. Currently
the boot catalog has a hardcoded weight of 1 billion. Normally it should occupy
the block with the lowest possible address.
Data files which are loaded by -indev or -dev get a weight between 1 and 2 exp 28 =
268,435,456, depending on their block address. This shall keep them roughly in the
same order if the write method of modifying is applied.
Data files which are added by other commands get an initial weight of 0. Boot
image files have a default weight of 2.
E.g.: -exec sort_weight 3 --
show_stream shows the content stream chain of a data file.
show_stream_id is like show_stream, but also prints between stream type and first
":" in square brackets libisofs id numbers: [fs_id,dev_id,ino_id].
hide brings the file into one of the hide states "on", "iso_rr", "joliet",
"hfsplus", "off". They may be combined. E.g.: joliet:hfsplus
-find / -disk_name *_secret -exec hide on
print_outname prints in the first line the filename as registered by the program
model, and in the second line the filename after conversion forth and back between
local character set and one of the namespaces "rockridge", "joliet", "ecma119", or
"hfsplus". The third output line is "--" .
The name conversion does not take into respect the possibility of name collisions
in the target namespace. Such collisions are most likely in "joliet" and "ecma119",
where they get resolved by automatic file name changes.
-find / -bad_outname joliet -exec print_outname joliet
estimate_size prints a lower and an upper estimation of the number of blocks which
the found files together will occupy in the emerging ISO image. This does not
account for the superblock, for the directories in the -find path, or for image
find performs another run of -find on the matching file address. It accepts the
same params as -find, except iso_rr_path.
-find / -name '???' -type d -exec find -name '[abc]*' -exec chmod a-w,a+r --

Filters for data file content:

Filters may be installed between data files in the ISO image and their content source
outside the image. They may also be used vice versa between data content in the image and
target files on disk.
Built-in filters are "--zisofs" and "--zisofs-decode". The former is to be applied via
-set_filter, the latter is automatically applied if zisofs compressed content is detected
with a file when loading the ISO image.
Another built-in filter pair is "--gzip" and "--gunzip" with suffix ".gz". They behave
about like external gzip and gunzip but avoid forking a process for each single file. So
they are much faster if there are many small files.

-external_filter name option[:option] program_path [arguments] --
Register a content filter by associating a name with a program path, program
arguments, and some behavioral options. Once registered it can be applied to
multiple data files in the ISO image, regardless whether their content resides in
the loaded ISO image or in the local filesystem. External filter processes may
produce synthetic file content by reading the original content from stdin and
writing to stdout whatever they want. They must deliver the same output on the
same input in repeated runs.
Options are:
"default" means that no other option is intended.
"suffix=..." sets a file name suffix. If it is not empty then it will be appended
to the file name or removed from it.
"remove_suffix" will remove a file name suffix rather than appending it.
"if_nonempty" will leave 0-sized files unfiltered.
"if_reduction" will try filtering and revoke it if the content size does not
"if_block_reduction" will revoke if the number of 2 kB blocks does not shrink.
"used=..." is ignored. Command -status shows it with the number of files which
currently have the filter applied.
-external_filter bzip2 suffix=.bz2:if_block_reduction \
/usr/bin/bzip2 --
-external_filter bunzip2 suffix=.bz2:remove_suffix \
/usr/bin/bunzip2 --

-unregister_filter name
Remove an -external_filter registration. This is only possible if the filter is not
applied to any file in the ISO image.

Irrevocably ban commands -concat "pipe", -external_filter, and -unregister_filter,
but not -set_filter. Use this to prevent external filtering in general or when all
intended filters are registered and -concat mode "pipe" shall be disallowed.
External filters may also be banned totally at compile time of xorriso. By default
they are banned if xorriso runs under setuid permission.

-set_filter name iso_rr_path [***]
Apply an -external_filter or a built-in filter to the given data files in the ISO
image. If the filter suffix is not empty , then it will be applied to the file
name. Renaming only happens if the filter really gets attached and is not revoked
by its options. By default files which already bear the suffix will not get
filtered. The others will get the suffix appended to their names. If the filter
has option "remove_suffix", then the filter will only be applied if the suffix is
present and can be removed. Name oversize or collision caused by suffix change
will prevent filtering.
With most filter types this command will immediately run the filter once for each
file in order to determine the output size. Content reading operations like
-extract , -compare and image generation will perform further filter runs and
deliver filtered content.
At image generation time the filter output must still be the same as the output
from the first run. Filtering for image generation does not happen with files from
the loaded ISO image if the write method of growing is in effect (i.e -indev and
-outdev are identical).
The reserved filter name "--remove-all-filters" revokes filtering. This will revoke
suffix renamings as well. Use "--remove-all-filters+" to prevent any suffix
Attaching or detaching filters will not alter the state of -changes_pending. If
the filter manipulations shall be the only changes in a write run, then explicitly
execute -changes_pending "yes".

-set_filter_r name iso_rr_path [***]
Like -set_filter but affecting all data files below eventual directories.

Writing the result, drive control:

(see also paragraph about settings below)

Discard the manipulated ISO image and reload it from -indev. (Use -rollback_end if
immediate program end is desired.)

-changes_pending "no"|"yes"|"mkisofs_printed"|"show_status"
Write runs are performed only if a change of the image has been made since the
image was loaded or created blank. Vice versa the program will start a write run
for pending changes when it ends normally (i.e. not by abort and not by command
The command -changes_pending can be used to override the automatically determined
state. This is mainly useful for setting state "yes" despite no real changes were
made. The sequence -changes_pending "no" -end is equivalent to the command
-rollback_end. State "mkisofs_printed" is caused by emulation command -as mkisofs
if option -print-size is present.
The pseudo-state "show_status" can be used to print the current state to result
Image loading or manipulations which happen after this command will again update
automatically the change status of the image.

Perform the write operation. Afterwards, if -outdev is readable, make it the new
-dev and load the image from there. Switch to growing mode. (A subsequent -outdev
will activate modification mode or blind growing.) -commit is performed
automatically at end of program if there are uncommitted manipulations pending.
So, to perform a final write operation with no new -dev and no new loading of
image, rather execute command -end. If you want to go on without image loading,
execute -commit_eject "none". To eject after write without image loading, use
-commit_eject "all".
To suppress a final write, execute -rollback_end.

Writing can last quite a while. It is not unnormal with several types of media that
there is no progress visible for the first few minutes or that the drive gnaws on
the medium for a few minutes after all data have been transmitted. xorriso and the
drives are in a client-server relationship. The drives have much freedom about
what to do with the media. Some combinations of drives and media simply do not
work, despite the promises by their vendors. If writing fails then try other media
or another drive. The reason for such failure is hardly ever in the code of the
various burn programs but you may well try some of those listed below under SEE

-eject "in"|"out"|"all"
Eject the medium in -indev, -outdev, or both drives, respectively. Note: It is not
possible yet to effectively eject disk files.

-commit_eject "in"|"out"|"all"|"none"
Combined -commit and -eject. When writing has finished do not make -outdev the new
-dev, and load no ISO image. Rather eject -indev and/or -outdev. Give up any
non-ejected drive.

-blank mode
Make media ready for writing from scratch (if not -dummy is activated).
This affects only the -outdev not the -indev. If both drives are the same and if
the ISO image was altered then this command leads to a FAILURE event. Defined
modes are:
as_needed, fast, all, deformat, deformat_quickest
"as_needed" cares for used CD-RW, DVD-RW and for used overwriteable media by
applying -blank "fast". It applies -format "full" to yet unformatted DVD-RAM and
BD-RE. Other media in blank state are gracefully ignored. Media which cannot be
made ready for writing from scratch cause a FAILURE event.
"fast" makes CD-RW and unformatted DVD-RW re-usable, or invalidates overwriteable
ISO images. "all" might work more thoroughly and need more time.
"deformat" converts overwriteable DVD-RW into unformatted ones.
"deformat_quickest" is a faster way to deformat or blank DVD-RW but produces media
which are only suitable for a single session. Some drives announce this state by
not offering feature 21h, but some drives offer it anyway. If feature 21h is
missing, then xorriso will refuse to write on DVD-RW if not command -close is set
to "on".
The progress reports issued by some drives while blanking are quite unrealistic. Do
not conclude success or failure from the reported percentages. Blanking was
successful if no SORRY event or worse occured.
Mode may be prepended by "force:" in order to override the evaluation of the medium
state by libburn. E.g. "force:fast". Blanking will nevertheless only succeed if
the drive is willing to do it.

-format mode
Convert unformatted DVD-RW into overwriteable ones, "de-ice" DVD+RW, format newly
purchased BD-RE or BD-R, re-format DVD-RAM or BD-RE.
Defined modes are:
as_needed, full, fast, by_index_<num>, fast_by_index_<num>,
by_size_<num>, fast_by_size_<num>, without_spare
"as_needed" formats yet unformatted DVD-RW, DVD-RAM, BD-RE, or blank unformatted
BD-R. Other media are left untouched.
"full" (re-)formats DVD-RW, DVD+RW, DVD-RAM, BD-RE, or blank unformatted BD-R.
"fast" does the same as "full" but tries to be quicker.
"by_index_" selects a format out of the descriptor list issued by command
-list_formats. The index number from that list is to be appended to the mode word.
E.g: "by_index_3".
"fast_by_index_" does the same as "by_index_" but tries to be quicker.
"by_size_" selects a format out of the descriptor list which provides at least the
given size. That size is to be appended to the mode word. E.g: "by_size_4100m".
This applies to media with Defect Management. On BD-RE it will not choose format
0x31, which offers no Defect Management.
"fast_by_size_" does the same as "by_size_" but tries to be quicker.
"without_spare" selects the largest format out of the descriptor list which
provides no Spare Area for Defect Management. On BD-RE this will be format 0x31.
The formatting action has no effect on media if -dummy is activated.
Formatting is normally needed only once during the lifetime of a medium, if ever.
But it is a reason for re-formatting if:
DVD-RW was deformatted by -blank,
DVD+RW has read failures (re-format before next write),
DVD-RAM or BD-RE shall change their amount of defect reserve.
BD-R may be written unformatted or may be formatted before first use. Formatting
activates Defect Management which tries to catch and repair bad spots on media
during the write process at the expense of half speed even with flawless media.
The progress reports issued by some drives while formatting are quite unrealistic.
Do not conclude success or failure from the reported percentages. Formatting was
successful if no SORRY event or worse occured. Be patient with apparently frozen

Put out a list of format descriptors as reported by the output drive for the
current medium. The list gives the index number after "Format idx", a MMC format
code, the announced size in blocks (like "2236704s") and the same size in MiB.
MMC format codes are manifold. Most important are: "00h" general formatting, "01h"
increases reserve space for DVD-RAM, "26h" for DVD+RW, "30h" for BD-RE with reserve
space, "31h" for BD-RE without reserve space, "32h" for BD-R.
Smaller format size with DVD-RAM, BD-RE, or BD-R means more reserve space.

Put out a list of speed values as reported by the drives with the loaded media. The
list tells read speeds of the input drive and of the output drive. Further it tells
write speeds of the output drive.
The list of write speeds does not necessarily mean that the medium is writable or
that these speeds are actually achievable. Especially the lists reported with empty
drive or with ROM media obviously advertise speeds for other media.
It is not mandatory to use speed values out of the listed range. The drive is
supposed to choose a safe speed that is as near to the desired speed as possible.
At the end of the list, "Write speed L" and "Write speed H" are the best guesses
for lower and upper write speed limit. "Write speed l" and "Write speed h" may
appear only with CD and eventually override the list of other speed offers.
Only if the drive reports contradicting speed information there will appear "Write
speed 0", which tells the outcome of speed selection by command -speed 0, if it
deviates from "Write speed H".
"Read speed L" and "Read speed H" tell the minimum and maximum read speeds, as
reported by the drive. They would be chosen by -read_speed "min" or "max" if they
undercut or surpass the built-in limits. These are "1x", "52xCD", "24xDVD",

-close_damaged "as_needed"|"force"
Try to close the upcomming track and session if the drive reported the medium as
damaged. This may apply to CD-R, CD-RW, DVD-R, DVD-RW, DVD+R, DVD+R DL, or BD-R
media. It is indicated by warning messages when the drive gets acquired, and by a
remark "but next track is damaged" with the line "Media status :" of command -toc.
The setting of command -close determines whether the medium stays appendable.
Mode "as_needed" gracefully refuses on media which are not reported as damaged.
Mode "force" attempts the close operation even with media which appear undamaged.
No image changes are allowed to be pending before this command is performed. After
closing was attempted, both drives are given up.

-list_profiles "in"|"out"|"all"
Put out a list of media types supported by -indev, -outdev, or both, respectively.
The currently recognized type is marked by text "(current)".

Settings for result writing:

Rock Ridge info will be generated by default. ACLs will be written according to the
setting of command -acl.

-joliet "on"|"off"
If enabled by "on", generate Joliet tree additional to ISO 9660 + Rock Ridge tree.

-hfsplus "on"|"off"
If enabled by "on", generate a HFS+ filesystem inside the ISO 9660 image and mark
it by Apple Partition Map (APM) entries in the System Area, the first 32 KiB of the
This may collide with data submitted by -boot_image system_area=. The first 8
bytes of the System Area get overwritten by { 0x45, 0x52, 0x08 0x00, 0xeb, 0x02,
0xff, 0xff } which can be executed as x86 machine code without negative effects.
So if an MBR gets combined with this feature, then its first 8 bytes should contain
no essential commands.
The next blocks of 2 KiB in the System Area will be occupied by APM entries. The
first one covers the part of the ISO image before the HFS+ filesystem metadata. The
second one marks the range from HFS+ metadata to the end of file content data. If
more ISO image data follow, then a third partition entry gets produced. Other
features of xorriso might cause the need for more APM entries.
The HFS+ filesystem is not suitable for add-on sessions produced by the
multi-session method of growing. An existing ISO image may nevertheless be the base
for a new image produced by the method of modifying. If -hfsplus is enabled when
-indev or -dev gets executed, then AAIP attributes get loaded from the input image
and checked for information about HFS creator, filetype, or blessing. If found,
then they get enabled as settings for the next image production. Therefore it is
advisable to perform -hfsplus "on" before -indev or -dev.
Information about HFS creator, type, and blessings gets stored by xorriso if
-hfsplus is enabled at -commit time. It is stored as copy outside the HFS+
partition, but rather along with the Rock Ridge information. xorriso does not read
any information from the HFS+ meta data.
Be aware that HFS+ is case-insensitive although it can record file names with
upper-case and lower-case letters. Therefore, file names from the iso_rr name tree
may collide in the HFS+ name tree. In this case they get changed by adding
underscore characters and counting numbers. In case of very long names, it might be
necessary to map them to "MANGLED_...".

-rockridge "on"|"off"
Mode "off" disables production of Rock Ridge information for the ISO 9660 file
objects. The multi-session capabilities of xorriso depend much on the naming
fidelity of Rock Ridge. So it is strongly discouraged to deviate from default
setting "on".

-compliance rule[:rule...]
Adjust the compliance to specifications of ISO 9660/ECMA-119 and its contemporary
extensions. In some cases it is worth to deviate a bit in order to circumvent bugs
of the intended reader system or to get unofficial extra features.
There are several adjustable rules which have a keyword each. If they are mentioned
with this command then their rule gets added to the relaxation list. This list can
be erased by rules "strict" or "clear". It can be reset to its start setting by
"default". All of the following relaxation rules can be revoked individually by
appending "_off". Like "deep_paths_off".
Rule keywords are:
"iso_9660_level="number chooses level 1 with ECMA-119 names of the form 8.3 and
-file_size_limit <= 4g - 1, or level 2 with ECMA-119 names up to length 32 and the
same -file_size_limit, or level 3 with ECMA-119 names up to length 32 and
-file_size_limit >= 400g -200k. If necessary -file_size_limit gets adjusted.
"allow_dir_id_ext" allows ECMA-119 names of directories to have a name extension as
with other file types. It does not force dots and it omits the version number,
though. This is a bad tradition of mkisofs which violates ECMA-119. Especially ISO
level 1 only allows 8 characters in a directory name and not 8.3.
"omit_version" does not add versions (";1") to ECMA-119 and Joliet file names.
"only_iso_version" does not add versions (";1") to Joliet file names.
"deep_paths" allows ECMA-119 file paths deeper than 8 levels.
"long_paths" allows ECMA-119 file paths longer than 255 characters.
"long_names" allows up to 37 characters with ECMA-119 file names.
"no_force_dots" does not add a dot to ECMA-119 file names which have none.
"no_j_force_dots" does not add a dot to Joliet file names which have none.
"lowercase" allows lowercase characters in ECMA-119 file names.
"7bit_ascii" allows nearly all 7-bit characters in ECMA-119 file names. Not
allowed are 0x0 and '/'. If not "lowercase" is enabled, then lowercase letters get
converted to uppercase.
"full_ascii" allows all 8-bit characters except 0x0 and '/' in ECMA-119 file names.
"untranslated_names" might be dangerous for inadverted reader programs which rely
on the restriction to at most 37 characters in ECMA-119 file names. This rule
allows ECMA-119 file names up to 96 characters with no character conversion. If a
file name has more characters, then image production will fail deliberately.
"untranslated_name_len="number enables untranslated_names with a smaller limit for
the length of file names. 0 disables this feature, -1 chooses maximum length limit,
numbers larger than 0 give the desired length limit.
"joliet_long_names" allows Joliet leaf names up to 103 characters rather than 64.
"joliet_long_paths" allows Joliet paths longer than 240 characters.
"joliet_utf16" encodes Joliet names in UTF-16BE rather than UCS-2. The difference
is with characters which are not present in UCS-2 and get encoded in UTF-16 by 2
words of 16 bit each. Both words then stem from a reserved subset of UCS-2.
"always_gmt" stores timestamps in GMT representation with timezone 0.
"rec_mtime" records with non-RockRidge directory entries the disk file's mtime and
not the creation time of the image. This applies to the ECMA-119 tree (plain ISO
9660), to Joliet, and to ISO 9660:1999. "rec_time" is default. If disabled, it gets
automatically re-enabled by -as mkisofs emulation when a pathspec is encountered.
"new_rr" uses Rock Ridge version 1.12 (suitable for GNU/Linux but not for older
FreeBSD or for Solaris). This implies "aaip_susp_1_10_off" which may be changed by
subsequent "aaip_susp_1_10".
Default is "old_rr" which uses Rock Ridge version 1.10. This implies also
"aaip_susp_1_10" which may be changed by subsequent "aaip_susp_1_10_off".
"aaip_susp_1_10" allows AAIP to be written as unofficial extension of RRIP rather
than as official extension under SUSP-1.12.
"no_emul_toc" saves 64 kB with the first session on overwriteable media but makes
the image incapable of displaying its session history.
"iso_9660_1999" causes the production of an additional directory tree compliant to
ISO 9660:1999. It can record long filenames for readers which do not understand
Rock Ridge.
"old_empty" uses the old way of of giving block addresses in the range of [0,31] to
files with no own data content. The new way is to have a dedicated block to which
all such files will point.
Default setting is
Note: The term "ECMA-119 name" means the plain ISO 9660 names and attributes which
get visible if the reader ignores Rock Ridge.

-rr_reloc_dir name
Specify the name of the relocation directory in which deep directory subtrees shall
be placed if -compliance is set to "deep_paths_off" or "long_paths_off". A deep
directory is one that has a chain of 8 parent directories (including root) above
itself, or one that contains a file with an ECMA-119 path of more than 255
The overall directory tree will appear originally deep when interpreted as Rock
Ridge tree. It will appear as re-arranged if only ECMA-119 information is
The default relocation directory is the root directory. By giving a non-empty name
with -rr_reloc_dir, a directory in the root directory may get this role. If that
directory does not already exist at -commit time, then it will get created and
marked for Rock Ridge as relocation artefact. At least on GNU/Linux it will not be
displayed in mounted Rock Ridge images.
The name must not contain a '/' character and must not be longer than 255 bytes.

-volid text
Specify the volume ID, which most operating systems will consider to be the volume
name of the image or medium.
xorriso accepts any text up to 32 characters, but according to rarely obeyed specs
stricter rules apply:
ECMA-119 demands ASCII characters out of [A-Z0-9_]. Like:
Joliet allows 16 UCS-2 characters. Like:
"Windows name"
Be aware that the volume id might get used automatically as the name of the mount
point when the medium is inserted into a playful computer system.
If an ISO image gets loaded while the volume ID is set to default "ISOIMAGE" or to
"", then the volume ID of the loaded image will become the effective volume id for
the next write run. But as soon as command -volid is performed afterwards, this
pending ID is overridden by the new setting.
Consider this when setting -volid "ISOIMAGE" before executing -dev, -indev, or
-rollback. If you insist in -volid "ISOIMAGE", set it again after those commands.

-volset_id text
Set the volume set ID string to be written with the next -commit. Permissible are
up to 128 characters. This setting gets overridden by image loading.

-publisher text
Set the publisher ID string to be written with the next -commit. This may identify
the person or organisation who specified what shall be recorded. Permissible are
up to 128 characters. This setting gets overridden by image loading.

-application_id text
Set the application ID string to be written with the next -commit. This may
identify the specification of how the data are recorded. Permissible are up to 128
characters. This setting gets overridden by image loading.
The special text "@xorriso@" gets converted to the ID string of xorriso which is
normally written as -preparer_id. It is a wrong tradition to write the program ID
as -application_id.

-system_id text
Set the system ID string to be written with the next -commit. This may identify the
system which can recognize and act upon the content of the System Area in image
blocks 0 to 15. Permissible are up to 32 characters. This setting gets overridden
by image loading.

-volume_date type timestring
Set one of the four overall timestamps for subsequent image writing. Available
types are:
"c" time when the volume was created.
"m" time when volume was last modified.
"x" time when the information in the volume expires.
"f" time since when the volume is effectively valid.
"uuid" sets a timestring that overrides "c" and "m" times literally. It must
consist of 16 decimal digits which form YYYYMMDDhhmmsscc, with YYYY between 1970
and 2999. Time zone is GMT. It is supposed to match this GRUB line:
search --fs-uuid --set YYYY-MM-DD-hh-mm-ss-cc
E.g. 2010040711405800 is 7 Apr 2010 11:40:58 (+0 centiseconds).
Timestrings for the other types may be given as with command -alter_date. Some of
them are prone to timezone computations. The timestrings "default" or "overridden"
cause default settings: "c" and "m" will show the current time of image creation.
"x" and "f" will be marked as insignificant. "uuid" will be deactivated.

-copyright_file text
Set the copyright file name to be written with the next -commit. This should be the
ISO 9660 path of a file in the image which contains a copyright statement.
Permissible are up to 37 characters. This setting gets overridden by image loading.

-abstract_file text
Set the abstract file name to be written with the next -commit. This should be the
ISO 9660 path of a file in the image which contains an abstract statement about the
image content. Permissible are up to 37 characters. This setting gets overridden
by image loading.

-biblio_file text
Set the biblio file name to be written with the next -commit. This should be the
ISO 9660 path of a file in the image which contains bibliographic records.
Permissible are up to 37 characters. This setting gets overridden by image loading.

Set the preparer ID string to be written with the next -commit. This may identify
the person or other entity which controls the preparation of the data which shall
be recorded. Normally this should be the ID of xorriso and not of the person or
program which operates xorriso. Please avoid to change it. Permissible are up to
128 characters.
The special text "@xorriso@" gets converted to the ID string of xorriso which is
default at program startup.
Unlike other ID strings, this setting is not influenced by image loading.

-application_use character|0xXY|disk_path
Specify the content of the Application Use field which can take at most 512 bytes.
If the parameter of this command is empty, then the field is filled with 512
0-bytes. If it is a single character, then it gets repeated 512 times. If it
begins by "0x" followed by two hex digits [0-9a-fA-F], then the digits are read as
byte value which gets repeated 512 times.
Any other parameter text is used as disk_path to open a data file and to read up to
512 bytes from it. If the file is smaller than 512 bytes, then the remaining bytes
in the field get set to binary 0.
This setting is not influenced by image loading.

-out_charset character_set_name
Set the character set to which file names get converted when writing an image. See
paragraph "Character sets" for more explanations. When loading the written image
after -commit the setting of -out_charset will be copied to -in_charset.

-uid uid
User id to be used for all files when the new ISO tree gets written to media.

-gid gid
Group id to be used for all files when the new ISO tree gets written to media.

-zisofs option[:options]
Set global parameters for zisofs compression. This data format is recognized and
transparently uncompressed by some Linux kernels. It is to be applied via command
-set_filter with built-in filter "--zisofs". Parameters are:
"level="[0-9] zlib compression: 0=none, 1=fast,..., 9=slow
"block_size="32k|64k|128k size of compression blocks
"by_magic=on" enables an expensive test at image generation time which checks
files from disk whether they already are zisofs compressed, e.g. by program
"default" same as "level=6:block_size=32k:by_magic=off"

-speed code|number[k|m|c|d|b]
Set the burn speed. Default is "max" (or "0") = maximum speed as announced by the
drive. Further special speed codes are:
"min" (or "-1") selects minimum speed as announced by the drive.
"none" avoids to send a speed setting command to the drive before burning begins.
Speed can be given in media dependent numbers or as a desired throughput per second
in MMC compliant kB (= 1000) or MB (= 1000 kB). Media x-speed factor can be set
explicity by "c" for CD, "d" for DVD, "b" for BD, "x" is optional.
Example speeds:
706k = 706kB/s = 4c = 4xCD
5540k = 5540kB/s = 4d = 4xDVD
If there is no hint about the speed unit attached, then the medium in the -outdev
will decide. Default unit is CD = 176.4k.
MMC drives usually activate their own idea of speed and take the speed value given
by the burn program only as upper limit for their own decision.

-stream_recording "on"|"off"|"full"|"data"|number
Setting "on" tries to circumvent the management of defects on DVD-RAM, BD-RE, or
BD-R. Defect management keeps partly damaged media usable. But it reduces write
speed to half nominal speed even if the medium is in perfect shape. For the case
of flawless media, one may use -stream_recording "on" to get full speed.
"full" tries full speed with all write operations, whereas "on" does this only
above byte address 32s. One may give a number of at least 16s in order to set an
own address limit.
"data" causes full speed to start when superblock and directory entries are written
and writing of file content blocks begins.

-dvd_obs "default"|"32k"|"64k"
GNU/Linux specific: Set the number of bytes to be transmitted with each write
operation to DVD or BD media. A number of 64 KB may improve throughput with bus
systems which show latency problems. The default depends on media type, on command
-stream_recording , and on compile time options.

-modesty_on_drive parameter[:parameters]
Control whether the drive buffer shall be kept from getting completely filled.
Parameter "on" (or "1") keeps the program from trying to write to the burner drive
while its buffer is in danger to be filled over a given limit. If this limit is
exceeded then the program will wait until the filling reaches a given low
percentage value.
This can ease the load on operating system and drive controller and thus help with
achieving better input bandwidth if disk and burner are not on independent
controllers (like hda and hdb). It may also help with simultaneous burns on
different burners with Linux kernels like 3.16. On the other hand it increases the
risk of buffer underflow and thus reduced write speed.
Some burners are not suitable because they report buffer fill with granularity too
coarse in size or time, or expect their buffer to be filled to the top before they
go to full speed.
Parameters "off" or "0" disable this feature.
The threshhold for beginning to wait is given by parameter "max_percent=".
Parameter "min_percent=" defines the threshhold for resuming transmission.
Percentages are permissible in the range of 25 to 100. Numbers in this range
without a prepended name are interpreted as "on:min_percent=".
E.g.: -modesty_on_drive 75
The optimal values depend on the buffer behavior of the drive.
Parameter "timeout_sec=" defines after which time of unsuccessful waiting the
modesty shall be disabled because it does not work.
Parameter "min_usec=" defines the initial sleeping period in microseconds. If the
drive buffer appears to be too full for sending more data, the program will wait
the given time and inquire the buffer fill state again. If repeated inquiry shows
not enough free space, the sleep time will slowly be increased to what parameter
"max_usec=" defines.
Parameters, which are not mentioned with a -modesty_on_drive command, stay
unchanged. Default is:
-modesty_on_drive off:min_percent=90:max_percent=95:

-stdio_sync "on"|"off"|"end"|number
Set the number of bytes after which to force output to stdio: pseudo drives. This
forcing keeps the memory from being clogged with lots of pending data for slow
devices. Default "on" is the same as "16m". Forced output can be disabled by
"off", or be delayed by "end" until all data are produced. If a number is chosen,
then it must be at least 64k.

-dummy "on"|"off"
If "on" then simulate burning or refuse with FAILURE event if no simulation is
possible, do neither blank nor format.

-fs number["k"|"m"]
Set the size of the fifo buffer which smoothens the data stream from ISO image
generation to media burning. Default is 4 MiB, minimum 64 kiB, maximum 1 GiB. The
number may be followed by letter "k" or "m" which means unit is kiB (= 1024) or MiB
(= 1024 kiB).

-close "on"|"off"|"as_needed"
If -close is set to "on" then mark the written medium as not appendable any more.
This will have no effect on overwritable media types. Setting "on" is the contrary
of cdrecord option -multi, and is one aspect of growisofs option -dvd-compat.
If set to "off" then keep the medium writable for an appended session.
If set to "as_needed" then use "on" only if "off" is predicted to fail with the
given medium and its state.
Not all drives correctly recognize fast-blanked DVD-RW which need "on". If there
is well founded suspicion that a burn run failed due to -close "off", then -close
"as_needed" causes a re-try with "on".
Note that emulation command -as "cdrecord" temporarily overrides the current
setting of -close by its own default -close "on" if its option -multi is missing.

-write_type "auto"|"tao"|"sao/dao"
Set the write type for the next burn run. "auto" will select SAO with blank CD
media, DAO with blank DVD-R[W] if -close is "on", and elsewise CD TAO or the
equivalent write type of the particular DVD/BD media. Choosing TAO or SAO/DAO
explicitly might cause the burn run to fail if the desired write type is not
possible with the given media state.

-padding number["k"|"m"]|"included"|"appended"
Append the given number of extra bytes to the image stream. This is a traditional
remedy for a traditional bug in block device read drivers. Needed only for CD
recordings in TAO mode. Since one can hardly predict on what media an image might
end up, xorriso adds the traditional 300k of padding by default to all images.
For images which will never get to a CD it is safe to use -padding 0 .
Normally padding is not written as part of the ISO image but appended after the
image end. This is -padding mode "appended".
Emulation command -as "mkisofs" and command -jigdo cause padding to be written as
part of the image. The same effect is achieved by -padding mode "included".

Bootable ISO images:

Contrary to published specifications many BIOSes will load an El Torito record from the
first session on media and not from the last one, which gets mounted by default. This
makes no problems with overwriteable media, because they appear to inadverted readers as
one single session.
But with multi-session media CD-R[W], DVD-R[W], DVD+R, it implies that the whole bootable
system has to reside already in the first session and that the last session still has to
bear all files which the booted system expects after mounting the ISO image.
If a boot image from ISOLINUX or GRUB is known to be present on media then it is advised
to patch it when a follow-up session gets written. But one should not rely on the
capability to influence the bootability of the existing sessions, unless one can assume
overwriteable media.
There are booting mechanisms which do not use an El Torito record but rather start at the
first bytes of the image: PC-BIOS MBR or EFI GPT for hard-disk-like devices, APM partition
entries for Macs which expect HFS+ boot images, MIPS Volume Header for old SGI computers,
DEC Boot Block for old MIPS DECstation, SUN Disk Label for SPARC machines, HP-PA boot
sector for HP PA-RISC machines, DEC Alpha SRM boot sector for old DEC Alpha machines.

Several of the following commands expect disk paths as input but also accept description
strings for the libisofs interval reader, which is able to cut out data from disk files or
-indev and to zeroize parts of the content: command -append_partition, boot specs
system_area=, grub2_mbr=, prep_boot_part=, efi_boot_part=.
The description string consists of the following components, separated by colon ':'
The component "--interval" states that this is not a plain disk path but rather an
interval reader description string. The component Flags modifies the further
"local_fs" demands to read from a file depicted by the path in Source.
"imported_iso" demands to read from the -indev. This works only if -outdev is not the same
as -indev. The Source component is ignored.
The component Interval consists of two byte address numbers separated by a "-" character.
E.g. "0-429" means to read bytes 0 to 429.
The component Zeroizers consists of zero or more comma separated strings. They define
which part of the read data to zeroize. Byte number 0 means the byte read from the
Interval start address. Each string may be one of:
"zero_mbrpt" demands to zeroize the MBR partition table if bytes 510 and 511 bear the MBR
signature 0x55 0xaa.
"zero_gpt" demands to check for a GPT header in bytes 512 to 1023, to zeroize it and its
partition table blocks.
"zero_apm" demands to check for an APM block 0 and to zeroize its partition table blocks.
Start_byte"-"End_byte demands to zeroize the read-in bytes beginning with number
Start_byte and ending after End_byte.
The component Source is the file path with flag "local_fs", and ignored with flag
Byte numbers may be scaled by a suffix out of {k,m,g,t,s,d} meaning multiplication by
{1024, 1024k, 1024m, 1024g, 2048, 512}. A scaled value end number depicts the last byte of
the scaled range.
E.g. "0d-0d" is "0-511".

-boot_image "any"|"isolinux"|"grub"
Define the equipment of the emerging filesystem with boot entry points.
With systems which boot via BIOS or EFI this is a set of El Torito boot images,
possibly MBR boot code, and possibly partition tables of type MBR, GPT, or APM.
Such file sets get produced by boot loader systems like ISOLINUX or GRUB.

Each -boot_image command has two parameters: type and setting. More than one
-boot_image command may be used to define the handling of one or more boot images.
Sequence matters.
Types isolinux and grub care for known peculiarities. Type any makes no
assumptions about the origin of the boot images.

When loading an ISO filesystem, system area and El Torito boot images get loaded,
too. The default behavior is not to write loaded El Torito boot images and to write
the loaded system area content without alterations.
discard gives up the El Torito boot catalog and its boot images. regardless
whether loaded from an ISO filesystem or defined by commands. Any BIOS or EFI
related boot options get revoked. Nevertheless, loaded system area data stay
valid. If desired, they have to be erased by
-boot_image any system_area=/dev/zero
keep keeps or copies El Torito boot images unaltered and writes a new catalog.
patch applies patching to existing El Torito boot images if they seem to bear a
boot info table.
A boot info table needs to be patched when the boot image gets newly introduced
into the ISO image or if an existing image gets relocated. This is automatically
done if type "isolinux" or "grub" is given, but not with "any".
If patching is enabled, then boot images from previous sessions will be checked
whether they seem to bear a boot info table. If not, then they stay unpatched. This
check is not infallible. So if you do know that the images need no patching, use
"any" "keep". "grub" "patch" will not patch EFI images (platform_id=0xef).
replay is a more modern version of "patch", which not only cares for existing El
Torito boot equipment but also for the recognizable boot provisions in the System
Area. It discards any existing -boot_image setting and executes the commands
proposed by command -report_el_torito "cmd".
This action will only succeed if the file objects mentioned in the output of
command -report_el_torito "cmd" are still available. Do not remove or rename boot
image files after -indev.
Drop unknown El Torito: -boot_image "any" "discard"
Maintain recognizable stuff: -boot_image "any" "replay"
El Torito only for GRUB: -boot_image "grub" "patch"
El Torito only for ISOLINUX: -boot_image "isolinux" "patch"
show_status will print what is known about the loaded boot images and their
designated fate.

A bootspec is a word of the form name=value. It is used to describe the parameters
of a boot feature. The names "dir", "bin_path", "efi_path" lead to El Torito
bootable images. Name "system_area" activates a given file as MBR or other disk
On all media types this is possible within the first session. In further sessions
an existing boot image can get replaced by a new one, but depending on the media
type this may have few effect at boot time. See above.
El Torito boot images have to be added to the ISO image by normal means (image
loading, -map, -add, ...). In case of ISOLINUX the files should reside either in
ISO image directory /isolinux or in /boot/isolinux . In that case it suffices to
use as bootspec the text "dir=/isolinux" or "dir=/boot/isolinux". E.g.:
-boot_image isolinux dir=/boot/isolinux
which bundles these individual settings:
-boot_image isolinux bin_path=/boot/isolinux/isolinux.bin
-boot_image isolinux cat_path=/boot/isolinux/boot.cat
-boot_image isolinux load_size=2048
-boot_image any boot_info_table=on
An El Torito boot catalog file gets inserted into the ISO image with address
cat_path= at -commit time. It is subject to normal -overwrite and -reassure
processing if there is already a file with the same name. The catalog lists the
boot images and is read by the boot facility to choose one of the boot images. But
it is not necessary that it appears in the directory tree at all. One may hide it
in all trees by cat_hidden=on. Other possible values are "iso_rr", "joliet",
"hfsplus", and the default "off".
bin_path= depicts an El Torito boot image file, a binary program which is to be
started by the hardware boot facility (e.g. the BIOS) at boot time.
efi_path= depicts an El Torito boot image file that is ready for EFI booting. This
is normally a FAT filesystem image not larger than 65535 blocks of 512 bytes (= 32
MiB - 512). Its load_size is determined automatically, no boot info table gets
written, no boot medium gets emulated, platform_id is 0xef.
emul_type= can be one of "no_emulation", "hard_disk", "diskette". It controls the
boot medium emulation code of a boot image. The default "no_emulation" is suitable
for ISOLINUX, GRUB, FreeBSD cdboot.
load_size= is a value which depends on the boot image. Default 2048 should be
overridden only if a better value is known.
boot_info_table=on causes address patching to bytes 8 to 63 of the boot image which
is given by "any" "bin_path=". "boot_info_table=off" disables this patching.
grub2_boot_info=on causes address patching to byte 2548 of the boot image which is
given by "any" "bin_path=". The address is written as 64 bit little-endian number.
It is the 2KB block address of the boot image content, multiplied by 4, and then
incremented by 5. "grub2_boot_info=off" disables this patching.
platform_id= defines by a hexadecimal or decimal number the Platform ID of the boot
image. "0x00" is 80x86 PC-BIOS, "0x01" is PowerPC, "0x02" is Mac, "0xef" is EFI
(decimal "239").
id_string=text|56_hexdigits defines the ID string of the boot catalog section where
the boot image will be listed. If the value consists of 56 characters [0-9A-Fa-f]
then it is converted into 28 bytes, else the first 28 characters become the ID
string. The ID string of the first boot image becomes the overall catalog ID. It
is limited to 24 characters. Other id_strings become section IDs.
sel_crit=hexdigits defines the Selection Criteria of the boot image. Up to 20
bytes get read from the given characters [0-9A-Fa-f]. They get attributed to the
boot image entry in the catalog.
next ends the definition of a boot image and starts a new one. Any following
-bootimage bootspecs will affect the new image. The first "next" discards loaded
boot images and their catalog.
system_area=disk_path copies at most 32768 bytes from the given disk file to the
very start of the ISO image. This System Area is reserved for system dependent
boot software, e.g. an MBR which can be used to boot from USB stick or hard disk.
Other than an El Torito boot image, the file disk_path needs not to be added to the
ISO image.
-boot_image isolinux system_area= implies "partition_table=on". In this case, the
disk path should lead to one of the SYSLINUX files isohdp[fp]x*.bin or to a file
which was derived from one of those files. E.g. to the first 512 bytes from an
ISOLINUX isohybrid ISO image.
In this case, El Torito boot images (dir=, bin_path=, efi_path=) may be augmented
by isolinux partition_entry=gpt_basdat or isolinux partition_entry=gpt_hfsplus, and
by isolinux partition_entry=apm_hfsplus. The boot image will then be mentioned in
GPT as Basic Data or GPT HFS+ partition, and in APM as HFS+ partition. The first
three GPT partitions will also be marked by MBR partitions.
In multi-session situations the existing System Area is preserved by default. In
in this case, the special disk_path "." prevents reading of a disk file but
nevertheless causes adjustments in the loaded system area data. Such adjustments
may get ordered by -boot_image commands.
grub2_mbr=disk_path works like "any" system_area= with additional patching for
modern GRUB MBRs. The content start address of the first boot image is converted to
a count of 512 byte blocks, and an offset of 4 is added. The result is written as
64 bit little-endian number to byte address 0x1b0.
This feature can be revoked either by grub2_mbr= with empty disk path, or by
submitting a disk_path via system_area=.
partition_table=on causes a simple partition table to be written into bytes 446 to
511 of the System Area.
With type "isolinux" it shows a partition that begins at byte 0 and it causes the
LBA of the first boot image to be written into the MBR. For the first session this
works only if also "system_area=" and "bin_path=" or "dir=" is given.
With types "any" and "grub" it shows a single partition which starts at byte 512
and ends where the ISO image ends. This works with or without system_area= or boot
Bootspecs chrp_boot_part=, prep_boot_part=, and efi_boot_part= overwrite this entry
in the MBR partition table.
If types "isolinux" or "grub" are set to "patch", then "partition_table=on" is
activated without new boot image. In this case the existing System Area gets
checked whether it bears addresses and sizes as if it had been processed by
"partition_table=on". If so, then those parameters get updated when the new System
Area is written.
Special "system_area=/dev/zero" causes 32k of NUL-bytes. Use this to discard an
MBR which was loaded with the ISO image.
appended_part_as=gpt marks partitions from -append_partition in GPT rather than in
MBR. In this case the MBR shows a single partition of type 0xee which covers the
whole output data.
appended_part_as=mbr is the default. Appended partitions get marked in GPT only if
GPT is produced because of other settings.
chrp_boot_part=on causes a single partition in MBR which covers the whole ISO image
and has type 0x96. This is not compatible with any other feature that produces MBR
partition entries. It makes GPT unrecognizable.
prep_boot_part=disk_path inserts the content of a data file into the image and
marks it by an MBR partition of type 0x41. The parts of the ISO image before and
after this partition will be covered by further MBR partitions. The data file is
supposed to contain ELF executable code.
efi_boot_part=disk_path inserts the content of a data file into the image and marks
it by a GPT partition. If not chrp_boot_part=on, then the first partition in MBR
will have type 0xee to announce the presence of GPT. The data file is supposed to
contain a FAT filesystem.
Instead of a disk_path, the word --efi-boot-image may be given. It exposes in GPT
the content of the first El Torito EFI boot image as EFI system partition. EFI boot
images are introduced by bootspec efi_path=. The affected EFI boot image cannot
show up in HFS+ because it is stored outside the HFS+ partition.
partition_offset=2kb_block_adr causes a partition table with a single partition
that begins at the given block address. This is counted in 2048 byte blocks, not in
512 byte blocks. If the block address is non-zero then it must be at least 16. A
non-zero partition offset causes two superblocks to be generated and two sets of
directory trees. The image is then mountable from its absolute start as well as
from the partition start.
The offset value of an ISO image gets preserved when a new session is added. So
the value defined here is only in effect if a new ISO image gets written.
partition_hd_cyl=number gives the number of heads per cylinder for the partition
table. 0 chooses a default value. Maximum is 255.
partition_sec_hd=number gives the number of sectors per head for the partition
table. 0 chooses a default value. Maximum is 63.
The product partition_sec_hd * partition_hd_cyl * 512 is the cylinder size. It
should be divisible by 2048 in order to make exact alignment possible. With
appended partitions and "appended_part_as=gpt" there is no limit for the number of
cylinders. Else there may be at most 1024 of them. If the cylinder size is too
small to stay below the limit, then appropriate values of partition_hd_cyl are
chosen with partition_sec_hd 32 or 63. If the image is larger than 8,422,686,720
bytes, then the cylinder size constraints cannot be fulfilled for MBR.
partition_cyl_align=mode controls image size alignment to an integer number of
cylinders. It is prescribed by isohybrid specs and it seems to please program
fdisk. Cylinder size must be divisible by 2048. Images larger than 8,323,596,288
bytes cannot be aligned in MBR partition table.
Mode "auto" is default. Alignment by padding happens only with "isolinux"
Mode "on" causes alignment by padding with "partition_table=on" for any type. Mode
"all" is like "on" but also pads up partitions from -append_partition to an aligned
Mode "off" disables alignment for any type.
mips_path=iso_rr_path declares a data file in the image to be a MIPS Big Endian
boot file and causes production of a MIPS Big Endian Volume Header. This is
mutually exclusive with production of other boot blocks like MBR. It will
overwrite the first 512 bytes of any data provided by system_area=. Up to 15 boot
files can be declared by mips_path=.
mipsel_path=iso_rr_path declares a data file in the image to be the MIPS Little
Endian boot file. This is mutually exclusive with other boot blocks. It will
overwrite the first 512 bytes of any data provided by system_area=. Only a single
boot file can be declared by mipsel_path=.
sparc_label=text causes the production of a SUN Disk Label with the given text as
ASCII label. Partitions 2 to 8 may be occupied by appended images. Partition 1
will always be the ISO image. See command -append_partition. The first 512 bytes
of any data provided by system_area= will be overwritten.
grub2_sparc_core=iso_rr_path causes the content address and size of the given file
to be written after the SUN Disk Label. Both numbers are counted in bytes. The
address is written as 64 bit big-endian number to byte 0x228. The size is written
as 32 bit big-endian number to byte 0x230.
hppa_cmdline=text sets the PALO command line for HP-PA. Up to 1023 characters are
permitted by default. With hppa_hdrversion=4 the limit is 127.
Note that the first five hppa_ bootspecs are mandatory, if any of the hppa_
bootspecs is used. Only hppa_hdrversion= is allowed to be missing.
hppa_bootloader=iso_rr_path designates the given path as HP-PA bootloader file.
hppa_kernel_32=iso_rr_path designates the given path as HP-PA 32 bit kernel file.
hppa_kernel_64=iso_rr_path designates the given path as HP-PA 64 bit kernel file.
hppa_ramdisk=iso_rr_path designates the given path as HP-PA RAM disk file.
hppa_hdrversion=number chooses between PALO header version 5 (default) and version
4. For the appropriate value see in PALO source code: PALOHDRVERSION.
alpha_boot=iso_rr_path declares a data file in the image to be the DEC Alpha SRM
Secondary Bootstrap Loader and causes production of a boot sector which points to
it. This is mutually exclusive with production of other boot blocks like MBR.
mips_discard, sparc_discard, hppa_discard, alpha_discard revoke any boot file
declarations made for mips/mipsel, sparc, hppa, or alpha, respectively. This
removes the ban on production of other boot blocks.
hfsplus_serial=hexstring sets a string of 16 digits "0" to "9" and letters "a" to
"f", which will be used as unique serial number of an emerging HFS+ filesystem.
hfsplus_block_size=number sets the allocation block size to be used when producing
HFS+ filesystems. Permissible are 512, 2048, or 0. The latter lets the program
apm_block_size=number sets the block size to be used when describing partitions by
an Apple Partition Map. Permissible are 512, 2048, or 0. The latter lets the
program decide.
Note that size 512 is not compatible with production of GPT, and that size 2048
will not be mountable -t hfsplus at least by older Linux kernels.

-append_partition partition_number type_code disk_path
Cause a prepared filesystem image to be appended to the ISO image and to be
described by a partition table entry in a boot block at the start of the emerging
ISO image. The partition entry will bear the size of the submitted file rounded up
to the next multiple of 2048 bytes or to the next multiple of the cylinder size.
Beware of subsequent multi-session runs. The appended partition will get
Partitions may be appended with boot block type MBR and with SUN Disk Label.
With MBR:
partition_number may be 1 to 4. Number 1 will put the whole ISO image into the
unclaimed space before partition 1. So together with most xorriso MBR features,
number 2 would be the most natural choice.
The type_code may be "FAT12", "FAT16", "Linux", or a hexadecimal number between
0x00 and 0xff. Not all those numbers will yield usable results. For a list of codes
search the Internet for "Partition Types" or run fdisk command "L".
If some other command causes the production of GPT, then the appended partitions
will be mentioned there too.
The disk_path must provide the necessary data bytes at commit time. An empty
disk_path disables this feature for the given partition number.
With SUN Disk Label (selected by -boot_image any sparc_label=):
partition_number may be 2 to 8. Number 1 will always be the ISO image. Partition
start addresses are aligned to 320 KiB. The type_code does not matter. Submit 0x0.
Partition image name "." causes the partition to become a copy of the next lower
valid one.

Jigdo Template Extraction:

From man genisoimage: "Jigdo is a tool to help in the distribution of large files like CD
and DVD images; see http://atterer.net/jigdo/ for more details. Debian CDs and DVD ISO
images are published on the web in jigdo format to allow end users to download them more
xorriso can produce a .jigdo and a .template file together with a single-session ISO
image. The .jigdo file contains checksums and symbolic file addresses. The .template
file contains the compressed ISO image with reference tags instead of the content bytes of
the listed files.
Input for this process are the normal arguments for a xorriso session on a blank -outdev,
and a .md5 file which lists those data files which may be listed in the .jigdo file and
externally referenced in the .template file. Each designated file is represented in the
.md5 file by a single text line:
MD5 as 32 hex digits, 2 blanks, size as 12 decimal digits or blanks, 2 blanks, symbolic
file address
The file address in an .md5 line has to bear the same basename as the disk_path of the
file which it shall match. The directory path of the file address is decisive for To=From
mapping, not for file recognition. After To=From mapping, the file address gets written
into the .jigdo file. Jigdo restore tools will convert these addresses into really
reachable data source addresses from which they can read.
If the list of jigdo parameters is not empty, then xorriso will refuse to write to
non-blank targets, it will disable multi-session emulation, and padding will be counted as
part of the ISO image.

-jigdo parameter_name value
Clear Jigdo Template Extraction parameter list or add a parameter to that list.
The alias names are the corresponding genisoimage options. They are accepted as
parameter names as well. Especially they are recognized by the -as mkisofs
emulation command.
Parameter clear with any value empties the whole list. No .jigdo and .template
file will be produced.
template_path sets the disk_path for the .template file with the holed and
compressed ISO image copy.
Alias: -jigdo-template
jigdo_path sets the disk_path for the .jigdo file with the checksums and download
addresses for filling the holes in .template.
Alias: -jigdo-jigdo
md5_path sets the disk_path where to find the .md5 input file.
Alias: -md5-list
min_size sets the minimum size for a data file to be listed in the .jigdo file and
being a hole in the .template file.
Alias: -jigdo-min-file-size
exclude adds a regular expression pattern which will get compared with the absolute
disk_path of any data file. A match causes the file to stay in .template in any
Alias: -jigdo-exclude
demand_md5 adds a regular expression pattern which will get compared with the
absolute disk_path of any data file that was not found in the .md5 list. A match
causes a MISHAP event.
Alias: -jigdo-force-md5
mapping adds a string pair of the form To=From to the parameter list. If a data
file gets listed in the .jigdo file, then it is referred by the file address from
its line in the .md5 file. This file address gets checked whether it begins with
the From string. If so, then this string will be replaced by the To string and a
':' character, before it goes into the .jigdo file. The From string should end by a
'/' character.
Alias: -jigdo-map
compression chooses one of "bzip2" or "gzip" for the compression of the template
file. The jigdo file is put out uncompressed.
Alias: -jigdo-template-compress
checksum_iso chooses one or more of "md5", "sha1", "sha256", "sha512" for the
auxiliary "# Image Hex" checksums in the jigdo file. The value may e.g. look like
"md5,sha1,sha512". Value "all" chooses all available algorithms. Note that MD5
stays always enabled.
Alias: -checksum_algorithm_iso
checksum_template is like checksum_iso but for "# Template Hex".
Alias: -checksum_algorithm_template

Character sets:

File names are strings of non-zero bytes with 8 bit each. Unfortunately the same byte
string may appear as different peculiar national characters on differently nationalized
terminals. The meanings of byte codes are defined in character sets which have names.
Shell command iconv -l lists them.
The file names on hard disk are assumed to be encoded by the local character set which is
also used for the communication with the user. Byte codes 32 to 126 of the local
character set must match the US-ASCII characters of the same code. ISO-8859 and UTF-8
fulfill this demand.
By default, xorriso uses the character set as told by shell command "locale" with argument
"charmap". This may be influenced by environment variables LC_ALL, LC_CTYPE, or LANG and
should match the expectations of the terminal. In some situations it may be necessary to
set it by command -local_charset.
Local character sets should not matter as long as only english alphanumeric characters are
used for file names or as long as all writers and readers of the media use the same local
character set. Outside these constraints it may be necessary to let xorriso convert byte
codes from and to other character sets.
The Rock Ridge file names in ISO filesystems are assumed to be encoded by the input
character set. The Rock Ridge file names which get written with ISO filesystems will be
encoded by the output character set.
The sets can be defined independently by commands -in_charset and -out_charset. Normally
one will have both identical, if ever. Other than the local character set, these two
character sets may deviate from US-ASCII.
The output character sets for Joliet and HFS+ are not influenced by these commands. Joliet
uses output character set UCS-2 or UTF-16. HFS+ uses UTF-16.
The default output charset is the local character set of the terminal where xorriso runs.
So by default no conversion happens between local filesystem names and emerging Rock Ridge
names in the image. The situation stays ambigous and the reader has to riddle what
character set was used.
By command -auto_charset it is possible to attribute the output charset name to the image.
This makes the situation unambigous. But if your terminal character set does not match the
character set of the local file names, then this attribute can become plainly wrong and
cause problems at read time. To prevent this it is necessary to check whether the
terminal properly displays all intended filenames. Check especially the exotic national
To enforce recording of a particular character set name without any conversion at image
generation time, set -charset and -local_charset to the desired name, and enable
-backslash_codes to avoid evil character display on your terminal.

-charset character_set_name
Set the character set from which to convert file names when loading an image and to
which to convert when writing an image.

-local_charset character_set_name
Override the system assumption of the local character set name. If this appears
necessary, one should consider to set -backslash_codes to "on" in order to avoid
dangerous binary codes being sent to the terminal.

Exception processing:

Since the tasks of xorriso are manifold and prone to external influence, there may arise
the need for xorriso to report and handle problem events.
Those events get classified when they are detected by one of the software modules and
forwarded to reporting and evaluation modules which decide about reactions. Event classes
are sorted by severity:
"NEVER" The upper end of the severity spectrum.
"ABORT" The program is being aborted and on its way to end.
"FATAL" The main purpose of the run failed or an important resource failed unexpectedly.
"FAILURE" An important part of the job could not be performed.
"MISHAP" A FAILURE which can be tolerated during ISO image generation.
"SORRY" A less important part of the job could not be performed.
"WARNING" A situation is suspicious of being not intended by the user.
"HINT" A proposal to the user how to achieve better results.
"NOTE" A harmless information about noteworthy circumstances.
"UPDATE" A pacifier message during long running operations.
"DEBUG" A message which would only interest the program developers.
"ALL" The lower end of the severity spectrum.

-abort_on severity
Set the severity threshold for events to abort the program.
It may become necessary to abort the program anyway, despite the setting by this
command. Expect not many "ABORT" events to be ignorable.
A special property of this command is that it works preemptive if given as program
start argument. I.e. the first -abort_on setting among the start arguments is in
effect already when the first operations of xorriso begin. Only "-abort_on" with
dash "-" is recognized that way.

-return_with severity exit_value
Set the threshold and exit_value to be returned at program end if no abort has
happened. This is to allow xorriso to go on after problems but to get a failure
indicating exit value from the program, nevertheless. Useful is a value lower than
the -abort_on threshold, down to "WARNING".
exit_value may be either 0 (indicating success to the starter of the program) or a
number between 32 and 63. Some other exit_values are used by xorriso if it decides
to abort the program run:
1=abort due to external signal
2=no program arguments given
3=creation of xorriso main object failed
4=failure to start libburnia-project.org libraries
5=program abort during argument processing
6=program abort during dialog processing

-report_about severity
Set the threshold for events to be reported.
Regardless what is set by -report_about, messages get always reported if they reach
the severity threshold of -abort_on .
Event messages are sent to the info channel "I" which is usually stderr but may be
influenced by command -pkt_output. Info messages which belong to no event get
attributed severity "NOTE".
A special property of this command is that the first -report_about setting among
the start arguments is in effect already when the first operations of xorriso
begin. Only "-report_about" with dash "-" is recognized that way.

-signal_handling mode
Control the installation of a signal handler which shall react on external signals
(e.g. from program "kill" or from keys Ctrl+C) or on signals caused by severe
program errors.
Mode "on" is the default. It uses the signal handler of libburn which produces ugly
messages but puts much effort in releasing optical drives before xorriso ends.
Mode "off" as first -signal_handling among the start arguments prevents all own
signal precautions of xorriso. Inherited signal handler settings stay as they are.
It works like "sig_dfl" if given after other signal handling was already
established at program start.
Mode "sig_dfl" uses the system provided default handling of signals, which is
normally a sudden abort of the program. To prevent stuck drives, the libburn
handler is used during burning, blanking, and formatting on MMC drives.
Mode "sig_ign" tries to ignore as many signal types as possible. This imposes the
risk that xorriso refuses to end until externally kill -9 if performed. kill -9
then imposes the risk that the drive is left in unusable state and needs poweroff
to be reset. So during burning, blanking, and formatting wait for at least their
normal run time before killing externally.
A special property of this command is that the first -signal_handling setting among
the start arguments is in effect already when the first operations of xorriso
begin. Only "-signal_handling" with dash "-" is recognized that way.

-error_behavior occasion behavior
Control the program behavior at problem event occasions. For now this applies to
occasions "image_loading" which is given while an image tree is read from the input
device, and to "file_extraction" which is given with osirrox commands like
With "image_loading" there are three behaviors available:
"best_effort" goes on with reading after events with severity below FAILURE if the
threshold of command -abort_on allows this.
"failure" aborts image tree reading on first event of at least SORRY. It issues an
own FAILURE event. This is the default.
"fatal" acts like "failure" but issues the own event as FATAL.
With occasion "file_extraction" there are three behaviors:
"keep" maintains incompletely extracted files on disk. This is the default.
"delete" removes files which encountered errors during content extraction.
"best_effort" starts a revovery attempt by means of -extract_cut if the file
content stems from the loaded ISO image and is not filtered.

Dialog mode control:

-dialog "on"|"off"|"single_line"
Enable or disable to enter dialog mode after all program arguments are processed.
In dialog mode input lines get prompted via readline or from stdin.
If no -abort_on severity was set when dialog starts, then "NEVER" is set to avoid
abort in most cases of wrong input or other problems. Before dialog begins, the
default is "FAILURE" which e.g. aborts on unknown commands.
Mode "on" supports input of newline characters within quotation marks and line
continuation by trailing backslash outside quotation marks. Mode "single_line"
does not.

-page length width
Describe terminal to the text pager. See also above, paragraph Result pager.
If parameter length is nonzero then the user gets prompted after that number of
terminal lines. Zero length disables paging.
Parameter width is the number of characters per terminal line. It is used to
compute the number of terminal lines which get occupied by an output line. A usual
terminal width is 80.

-use_readline "on"|"off"
If "on" then use readline for dialog. Else use plain stdin.
See also above, paragraph Dialog, Readline, Result pager.

-reassure "on"|"tree"|"off"
If "on" then ask the user for "y" or "n":
before deleting or overwriting any file in the ISO image,
before overwriting any disk file during restore operations,
before rolling back pending image changes,
before committing image changes to media,
before changing the input drive,
before blanking or formatting media,
before ending the program.
With setting "tree" the reassuring prompt will appear for an eventual directory
only once and not for each file in its whole subtree.
Setting "off" silently kills any kind of image file object and performs above
irrevocable actions.
To really produce user prompts, command -dialog needs to be set to "on". Note that
the prompt does not appear in situations where file removal is forbidden by command
-overwrite. -reassure only imposes an additional curb for removing existing file
Be aware that file objects get deleted from the ISO image immediately after
confirmation. They are gone even if the running command gets aborted and its
desired effect gets revoked. In case of severe mess-up, consider to use -rollback
to revoke the whole session.

Drive and media related inquiry actions:

Show list of available MMC drives with the addresses of their libburn standard
device files.
This is only possible when no ISO image changes are pending. After this command
was executed, there is no drive current and no image loaded.
In order to be visible, a device has to offer rw-permissions with its libburn
standard device file. Thus it might be only the superuser who is able to see all
Drives which are occupied by other processes get not shown.

Like -devices, but presenting the drives with addresses of symbolic links which
point to the actual device files.
Modern GNU/Linux systems may shuffle drive addresses from boot to boot. The udev
daemon is supposed to create links which always point to the same drive, regardless
of its system address. The command -device_links shows the addresses of such links
if they begin by "/dev/dvd" or "/dev/cd". Precedence is: "dvdrw", "cdrw", "dvd",
"cdrom", "cd".

Show media specific tables of content. This is the session history of the medium,
not the ISO image directory tree.
In case of overwriteable media holding a valid ISO image, it may happen that only a
single session gets shown. But if the first session on the overwriteable media was
written by xorriso then a complete session history can be emulated.
A drive which is incapable of writing may show any media as CD-ROM or DVD-ROM with
only one or two sessions on it. The last of these sessions is supposed to be the
most recent real session then.
Some read-only drives and media show no usable session history at all. Command
-rom_toc_scan might help.
If input device and output device are both acquired and not the same, then both
tables-of-content get shown.

-toc_of "in"|"out"|"all"[":short"]
Like command -toc but explicitly choosing which drive's table-of-content to show.
"in" shows -indev or -dev, "out" shows -outdev or -dev, "all" shows the same as
If ":short" is appended to the drive choosing word, then only a short summary of
drive state and medium content is printed.
As further difference to -toc, this command does not emit FAILURE events if the
desired drive is not acquired.

-mount_cmd drive entity id path
Emit an appropriate command line for mounting the ISO session indicated by drive,
entity and id. The result will be different on GNU/Linux and on FreeBSD or NetBSD.
drive can be "indev" or "outdev" to indicate already acquired drives, or it can be
the path of a not yet acquired drive. Prefix "stdio:" for non-MMC drives is not
entity must be either "sbsector" with the superblock sector address as id, or
"track" with a track number as id, or "session" with a session number, or "volid"
with a search pattern for the volume id, or "auto" with any text as id.
path will be used as mount point and must already exist as a directory on disk.
The command gets printed to the result channel. See command -mount for direct
execution of this command.

-mount_opts option[:option...]
Set options which influence -mount and -mount_cmd. Currently there is only option
"exclusive" which is default and its counterpart "shared". The latter causes
xorriso not to give up the affected drive with command -mount. On GNU/Linux it
adds mount option "loop" which may enable mounting of several sessions of the same
block device at the same time. One should not write to a mounted optical medium, of
course. Take care to umount all sessions before ejecting.

-session_string drive entity id format
Print to the result channel a text which gets composed according to format and the
parameters of the addressed session.
Formats "linux:"path or "freebsd:"path produce the output of -mount_cmd for the
given operating systems.
In other texts xorriso will substitute the following parameter names. An optional
prefix "string:" will be removed.
"%device%" will be substituted by the mountable device path of the drive address.
"%sbsector%" will be substituted by the session start sector.
"%track%", "%session%", "%volid%" will be substituted by track number, session
number, or volume id of the depicted session.

Print the foreseeable consumption of 2048 byte blocks by next -commit. This can
last a while as a -commit gets prepared and only in last moment is revoked by this
command. The result depends on several settings and also on the kind of output
device. If no -jidgo options are set and not command -as "mkisofs" was used, then
-padding (300 kB by default) is not counted as part of the image size.
If an El Torito boot image file is already depicted, then command -print_size
automatically executes -boot_image "any" "next". This means that the properties of
that boot image cannot be edited by subsequent commands.

Print available space on the output medium and the free space after subtracting
already foreseeable consumption by next -commit.
Note that the title of the prediction "After commit :" is misleading. It is rather
the space that may still be filled in this session without making the next -commit
fail from medium overflow.
The free space after the next -commit might be smaller by several MB. This depends
on medium type, number of recorded sessions, and drive habits.

Print various ID strings and timestamps which can be found in loaded ISO images.
Some of the IDs may be changed by commands like -volid or -publisher. For these
IDs -pvd_info reports what would be written with the next -commit. The timestamps
get not automatically propagated from loaded image to newly written image. The ones
for new images may be set by command -volume_date. See there for the meaning of
the particular timestamps.

-report_el_torito mode
With mode plain print a report about the information found in the El Torito boot
catalog of the loaded ISO image.
With mode help print a text which explains the meaning of the lines put out by
Mode cmd tries to print the xorriso commands which are necessary to produce the
found boot equipment: disk identifiers, El Torito boot images, and System Area.
Disk identifiers are strings which the booting operating system might use to find
the ISO filesystem from where it comes. Currently known is the use of volume id and
modification date.
The intended use case is modification of the filesystem by having -indev and
-outdev pointing to different images or drives. The result might be insufficient,
if the found equipment cannot be produced by xorriso. Various SORRY events may
arise in this case, but it is not guaranteed that xorriso recognizes all its
Mode as_mkisofs tries to print the xorriso -as mkisofs options, which are necessary
to produce the found equipment. The intended use case is to use the mounted
filesystem as input tree together with the printed options.

-report_system_area mode
With mode plain print a report about the information found in the System Area of
the loaded ISO image. The report consists of zero to many lines with a header text,
a colon, and information text.
With mode help print a text which explains the meaning of the lines put out by
"plain". You probably will have to look for more documentation which explains the
technical details of the mentioned boot facilities.
Modes cmd and as_mkisofs work like with command -report_el_torito. See above.
With mode gpt_crc_of:disk_path read up to 32 KiB from the disk file with the path
given after the colon. Compute the GPT compliant CRC number and print it to the
result channel. The number is shown like "0x690fd979". The special disk_path "-"
causes reading from standard input.

Navigation in ISO image and disk filesystem:

-cd iso_rr_path
Change the current working directory in the ISO image. This is prepended to
iso_rr_paths which do not begin with '/'.
It is possible to set the working directory to a path which does not exist yet in
the ISO image. The necessary parent directories will be created when the first file
object is inserted into that virtual directory. Use -mkdir if you want to enforce
the existence of the directory already at first insertion.

-cdx disk_path
Change the current working directory in the local filesystem. To be prepended to
disk_paths which do not begin with '/'.

Tell the current working directory in the ISO image.

Tell the current working directory in the local filesystem.

-ls iso_rr_pattern [***]
List files in the ISO image which match shell patterns (i.e. with wildcards '*' '?'
'[a-z]'). If a pattern does not begin with '/' then it is compared with addresses
relative to -cd.
Directories are listed by their content rather than as single file item.
Pattern expansion may be disabled by command -iso_rr_pattern.

-lsd iso_rr_pattern [***]
Like -ls but listing directories as themselves and not by their content. This
resembles shell command ls -d.

-lsl iso_rr_pattern [***]
Like -ls but also list some of the file attributes. The output format resembles
shell command ls -ln.
File type 'e' indicates the El Torito boot catalog.
If the file has non-trivial ACL, then a '+' is appended to the permission info. If
the file is hidden, then 'I' for "iso_rr", 'J' for "joliet", 'A' for "hfsplus", 'H'
for multiple hiding gets appended. Together with ACL it is 'i', 'j', 'a', 'h'.

-lsdl iso_rr_pattern [***]
Like -lsd but also list some of the file attributes. The output format resembles
shell command ls -dln.

-lsx disk_pattern [***]
List files in the local filesystem which match shell patterns. Patterns which do
not begin with '/' are used relative to -cdx.
Directories are listed by their content rather than as single file item.
Pattern expansion may be disabled by command -disk_pattern.

-lsdx disk_pattern [***]
Like -lsx but listing directories as themselves and not by their content. This
resembles shell command ls -d.

-lslx disk_pattern [***]
Like -lsx but also listing some of the file attributes. Output format resembles
shell command ls -ln.

-lsdlx disk_pattern [***]
Like -lsdx but also listing some of the file attributes. Output format resembles
shell command ls -dln.

-getfacl iso_rr_pattern [***]
Print the access permissions of the given files in the ISO image using the format
of shell command getfacl. If a file has no ACL then it gets fabricated from the
-chmod settings. A file may have a real ACL if it was introduced into the ISO image
while command -acl was set to "on".

-getfacl_r iso_rr_pattern [***]
Like -gefacl but listing recursively the whole file trees underneath eventual

-getfattr iso_rr_pattern [***]
Print the xattr of the given files in the ISO image. If a file has no such xattr
then noting is printed for it.

-getfattr_r iso_rr_pattern [***]
Like -gefattr but listing recursively the whole file trees underneath eventual

-du iso_rr_pattern [***]
Recursively list size of directories and files in the ISO image which match one of
the patterns. similar to shell command du -k.

-dus iso_rr_pattern [***]
List size of directories and files in the ISO image which match one of the
patterns. Similar to shell command du -sk.

-dux disk_pattern [***]
Recursively list size of directories and files in the local filesystem which match
one of the patterns. Similar to shell command du -k.

-dusx disk_pattern [***]
List size of directories and files in the local filesystem which match one of the
patterns. Similar to shell command du -sk.

-findx disk_path [-name pattern] [-type t] [-exec action [params]] --
Like -find but operating on local filesystem and not on the ISO image. This is
subject to the settings of -follow.
-findx accepts the same -type parameters as -find. Additionally it recognizes type
"mountpoint" (or "m") which matches subdirectories which reside on a different
device than their parent. It never matches the disk_path given as start address for
-findx accepts the -exec actions as does -find. But except the following few
actions it will always perform action "echo".
in_iso reports the path if its counterpart exists in the ISO image. For this the
disk_path of the -findx command gets replaced by the iso_rr_path given as
E.g.: -findx /home/thomas -exec in_iso /thomas_on_cd --
not_in_iso reports the path if its counterpart does not exist in the ISO image. The
report format is the same as with command -compare.
add_missing iso_rr_path_start adds the counterpart if it does not yet exist in the
ISO image and marks it for "rm_merge" as non-removable.
E.g.: -findx /home/thomas -exec add_missing /thomas_on_cd --
is_full_in_iso reports if the counterpart in the ISO image contains files. To be
used with -type "m" to report mount points.
empty_iso_dir deletes all files from the counterpart in the ISO image. To be used
with -type "m" to truncate mount points.
estimate_size prints a lower and an upper estimation of the number of blocks which
the found files together will occupy in the emerging ISO image. This does not
account for the superblock, for the directories in the -findx path, or for image
list_extattr mode prints a script to the result channel, which would use FreeBSD
command setextattr to set the file's xattr name-value pairs of user namespace. See
-find for a description of parameter mode.
E.g. -exec list_extattr e --

-compare disk_path iso_rr_path
Compare attributes and eventual data file content of a fileobject in the local
filesystem with a file object in the ISO image. The iso_rr_path may well point to
an image file object which is not yet committed, i.e. of which the data content
still resides in the local filesystem. Such data content is prone to externally
caused changes.
If iso_rr_path is empty then disk_path is used as path in the ISO image too.
Differing attributes are reported in detail, differing content is summarized. Both
to the result channel. In case of no differences no result lines are emitted.

-compare_r disk_path iso_rr_path
Like -compare but working recursively. I.e. all file objects below both addresses
get compared whether they have counterparts below the other address and whether
both counterparts match.

-compare_l disk_prefix iso_rr_prefix disk_path [***]
Perform -compare_r with each of the disk_path parameters. iso_rr_path will be
composed from disk_path by replacing disk_prefix by iso_rr_prefix.

-show_stream iso_rr_path [***]
Display the content stream chain of data files in the ISO image. The chain consists
of the iso_rr_name and one or more streams, separated by " < " marks. A stream
description consists of one or more texts, separated by ":" characters. The first
text tells the stream type, the following ones, if ever, describe its individual
properties. Frequently used types are:
disk:'disk_path' for local filesystem objects.
image:'iso_rr_path' for ISO image file objects.
cout:'disk_path offset count' for -cut_out files.
extf:'filter_name' for external filters.
'/abc/xyz.gz' < extf:'gzip' < disk:'/home/me/x'

-show_stream_r iso_rr_path [***]
Like -show_stream but working recursively.

Evaluation of readability and recovery:

It is not uncommon that optical media produce read errors. The reasons may be various and
get obscured by error correction which is performed by the drives and based on extra data
on the media. If a drive returns data then one can quite trust that they are valid. But at
some degree of read problems the correction will fail and the drive is supposed to
indicate error.
xorriso can scan a medium for readable data blocks, classify them according to their read
speed, save them to a file, and keep track of successfuly saved blocks for further tries
on the same medium.
By command -md5 checksums may get recorded with data files and whole sessions. These
checksums are reachable only via indev and a loaded image. They work independently of the
media type and can detect transmission errors.

-check_media [option [option ...]] --
Try to read data blocks from the indev drive, optionally copy them to a disk file,
and finally report about the encountered quality. Several options may be used to
modify the default behavior.
The parameters given with this command override the default settings which may have
been changed by command -check_media_defaults. See there for a description of
available options.
The result list tells intervals of 2 KiB blocks with start address, number of
blocks and quality. Qualities which begin with "+" are supposed to be valid
readable data. Qualities with "-" are unreadable or corrupted data. "0" indicates
qualities which are not covered by the check run or are regularly allowed to be
unreadable (e.g. gaps between tracks).
Alternatively it is possible to report damaged files rather than blocks.
If -md5 is "on" then the default mode what=tracks looks out for libisofs checksum
tags for the ISO session data and checks them against the checksums computed from
the data stream.

-check_media_defaults [option [option ...]] --
Preset options for runs of -check_media, -extract_cut and best_effort file
extraction. Options given with -check_media will override the preset options.
-extract_cut will override some options automatically.
An option consists of a keyword, a "=" character, and a value. Options may override
each other. So their sequence matters.
The default setting at program start is:
use=indev what=tracks min_lba=-1 max_lba=-1 retry=default
time_limit=28800 item_limit=100000 data_to='' event=ALL
sector_map='' map_with_volid=off patch_lba0=off report=blocks
bad_limit=invalid slow_limit=1.0 chunk_size=0s async_chunks=0
Option "reset=now" restores these startup defaults.
Non-default options are:
report="files" lists the files which use damaged blocks (not with use=outdev). The
format is like with find -exec report_damage. Note that a MD5 session mismatch
marks all files of the session as damaged. If finer distinction is desired,
perform -md5 off before -check_media.
report="blocks_files" first lists damaged blocks and then affected files.
use="outdev" reads from the output drive instead of the input drive. This avoids
loading the ISO image tree from media.
use="sector_map" does not read any media but loads the file given by option
sector_map= and processes this virtual outcome.
what="disc" scans the payload range of a medium without respecting track gaps.
what="image" similar to "disc", but restricts scanning to the range of the ISO 9660
image, if present.
min_lba=limit omits all blocks with addresses lower than limit.
max_lba=limit switches to what=disc and omits all blocks above limit.
chunk_size=size sets the number of bytes to be read in one low-level read
operation. This gets rounded down to full blocks of 2048 bytes. 0 means automatic
retry="on" forces read retries with minimal senseful chunk size when the normal
read chunk produces a read error. This size is 1s with CD and stdio files, 16s with
DVD (1 ECC Block), and 32s with BD (1 Cluster). By default, retries are only
enabled with CD media. "retry=off" forbits retries for all media types.
abort_file=disk_path gives the path of the file which may abort a scan run. Abort
happens if the file exists and its mtime is not older than the start time of the
run. Use shell command "touch" to trigger this. Other than an aborted program run,
this will report the tested and untested blocks and go on with running xorriso.
time_limit=seconds gives the number of seconds after which the scan shall be
aborted. This is useful for unattended scanning of media which may else overwork
the drive in its effort to squeeze out some readable blocks. Abort may be delayed
by the drive gnawing on the last single read operation. Value -1 means unlimited
item_limit=number gives the number of report list items after which to abort.
Value -1 means unlimited item number.
data_to=disk_path copies the valid blocks to the given file.
event=severity sets the given severity for a problem event which shall be issued at
the end of a check run if data blocks were unreadable or failed to match recorded
MD5 checksums. Severity "ALL" disables this event.
sector_map=disk_path tries to read the file given by disk_path as sector bitmap and
to store such a map file after the scan run. The bitmap tells which blocks have
been read successfully in previous runs. It is the persistent memory for several
scans on the same medium, even with intermediate eject, in order to collect
readable blocks whenever the drive is lucky enough to produce them. The stored file
contains a human readable TOC of tracks and their start block addresses, followed
by binary bitmap data.
By default, untested blocks are not considered bad, but rather as intentionally
unread. If you expect time_limit= or item_limit= to abort the run, then consider to
use bad_limit="untested".
map_with_volid="on" examines tracks whether they are ISO images and prints their
volume IDs into the human readable TOC of sector_map=.
patch_lba0="on" transfers within the data_to= file a copy of the currently loaded
session head to the start of that file and patches it to be valid at that position.
This makes the loaded session the last valid session of the image file when it gets
mounted or loaded as stdio: drive. New sessions will be appended after this last
session and will overwrite any sessions which have followed it.
patch_lba0="force" performs patch_lba0="on" even if xorriso believes that the
copied data are not valid.
patch_lba0= may also bear a number. If it is 32 or higher it is taken as start
address of the session to be copied. In this case it is not necessary to have an
-indev and a loaded image. ":force" may be appended after the number.
bad_limit=threshold sets the highest quality which shall be considered as damage.
Choose one of "good", "md5_match", "slow", "partial", "valid", "untested",
"invalid", "tao_end", "off_track", "md5_mismatch", "unreadable".
"valid" and "invalid" are qualities imported from a sector_map file. "tao_end" and
"off_track" are intentionally not readable, but not bad either. "partial" are
blocks retrieved from a partially readable chunk. They are supposed to be ok but
stem from a suspicious neighborhood.
"md5_match" and "md5_mismatch" regions overlap with regions of other quality.
slow_limit=threshold sets the time threshold for a single read chunk to be
considered slow. This may be a fractional number like 0.1 or 1.5.
async_chunks=number enables asynchronous MD5 processing if number is 2 or larger.
In this case the given number of read chunks is allocated as fifo buffer. On very
fast MMC drives try: chunk_size=64s async_chunks=16.

-check_md5 severity iso_rr_path [***]
Compare the data content of the given files in the loaded image with their recorded
MD5 checksums, if there are any. In case of any mismatch an event of the given
severity is issued. It may then be handled by appropriate settings of commands
-abort_on or -return_with which both can cause non-zero exit values of the program
run. Severity ALL suppresses that event.
This command reports match and mismatch of data files to the result channel.
Non-data files cause NOTE events. There will also be UPDATE events from data
If no iso_rr_path is given then the whole loaded session is compared with its MD5
sum. Be aware that this covers only one session and not the whole image if there
are older sessions.

-check_md5_r severity iso_rr_path [***]
Like -check_md5 but checking all data files underneath the given paths. Only
mismatching data files will be reported.

osirrox ISO-to-disk restore commands:

Normally xorriso only writes to disk files which were given as stdio: pseudo-drives or as
log files. But its alter ego osirrox is able to extract file objects from ISO images and
to create, overwrite, or delete file objects on disk.
Disk file exclusions by -not_mgt, -not_leaf, -not_paths apply. If disk file objects
already exist then the settings of -overwrite and -reassure apply. But -overwrite "on"
only triggers the behavior of -overwrite "nondir". I.e. directories cannot be deleted.
Access permissions of files in the ISO image do not restrict restoring. The directory
permissions on disk have to allow rwx.

-osirrox setting[:option:...]
Setting "off" disables disk filesystem manipulations. This is the default unless
the program was started with leafname "osirrox". Elsewise the capability to restore
files can be enabled explicitly by -osirrox "on". It can be irrevocably disabled
by -osirrox "banned".
The setting "blocked" is like "off". But it can only be revoked by setting
"unblock", which elsewise is like "on". This can be used to curb command scripts
which might use "on" undesiredly.
To enable restoring of special files by "device_files" is potentially dangerous.
The meaning of the number st_rdev (see man 2 stat) depends much on the operating
system. Best is to restore device files only to the same system from where they
were copied. If not enabled, device files in the ISO image are ignored during
restore operations.
Due to a bug of previous versions, device files from previous sessions might have
been altered to major=0, minor=1. So this combination does not get restored.
Option "concat_split_on" is default. It enables restoring of split file directories
as data files if the directory contains a complete collection of -cut_out part
files. With option "concat_split_off" such directories are handled like any other
ISO image directory.
Option "auto_chmod_off" is default. If "auto_chmod_on" is set then access
restrictions for disk directories get circumvented if those directories are owned
by the effective user who runs xorriso. This happens by temporarily granting rwx
permission to the owner.
Option "sort_lba_on" may improve read performance with optical drives. It can
restore large numbers of hard links without exhausting -temp_mem_limit. It does not
preserve directory mtime and it needs -osirrox option auto_chmod_on in order to
extract directories which offer no write permission. Default is "sort_lba_off".
Option "o_excl_on" is the default unless the program was started with leafname
"osirrox". On GNU/Linux it tries to avoid using drives which are mounted or in use
by other libburn programs. Option "o_excl_off" on GNU/Linux enables access to such
drives. Drives which get acquired while "o_excl_off" will refuse to get blanked,
formatted, written, or ejected. But be aware that even harmless inquiries can spoil
ongoing burns of CD-R[W] and DVD-R[W].
Option "strict_acl_off" is default. It tolerates on FreeBSD the presence of
directory "default" ACLs in the ISO image. With "strict_acl_on" these GNU/Linux
ACLs cause on FreeBSD a FAILURE event during restore with -acl "on".

-extract iso_rr_path disk_path
Copy the file objects at and underneath iso_rr_path to their corresponding
addresses at and underneath disk_path. This is the inverse of -map or -update_r.
If iso_rr_path is a directory and disk_path is an existing directory then both
trees will be merged. Directory attributes get extracted only if the disk directory
is newly created by the copy operation. Disk files get removed only if they are to
be replaced by file objects from the ISO image.
As many attributes as possible are copied together with restored file objects.

-extract_single iso_rr_path disk_path
Like -extract, but if iso_rr_path is a directory then its sub tree gets not

-extract_l iso_rr_prefix disk_prefix iso_rr_path [***]
Perform -extract with each of the iso_rr_path parameters. disk_path will be
composed from iso_rr_path by replacing iso_rr_prefix by disk_prefix.

-extract_cut iso_rr_path byte_offset byte_count disk_path
Copy a byte interval from a data file out of an ISO image into a newly created disk
file. The main purpose for this is to offer a way of handling large files if they
are not supported by mount -t iso9660 or if the target disk filesystem cannot store
large files.
If the data bytes of iso_rr_path are stored in the loaded ISO image, and no filter
is applied, and byte_offset is a multiple of 2048, then a special run of
-check_media is performed. It may be quicker and more rugged than the general
reading method.

-cpx iso_rr_path [***] disk_path
Copy single leaf file objects from the ISO image to the address given by disk_path.
If more then one iso_rr_path is given then disk_path must be a directory or
non-existent. In the latter case it gets created and the extracted files get
installed in it with the same leafnames.
Missing directory components in disk_path will get created, if possible.
Directories are allowed as iso_rr_path only with -osirrox "concat_split_on" and
only if they actually represent a complete collection of -cut_out split file parts.

-cpax iso_rr_path [***] disk_path
Like -cpx but restoring mtime, atime as in ISO image and trying to set ownership
and group as in ISO image.

-cp_rx iso_rr_path [***] disk_path
Like -cpx but also extracting whole directory trees from the ISO image.
The resulting disk paths are determined as with shell command cp -r : If disk_path
is an existing directory then the trees will be inserted or merged underneath this
directory and will keep their leaf names. The ISO directory "/" has no leaf name
and thus gets mapped directly to disk_path.

-cp_rax iso_rr_path [***] disk_path
Like -cp_rx but restoring mtime, atime as in ISO image and trying to set ownership
and group as in ISO image.

-paste_in iso_rr_path disk_path byte_offset byte_count
Read the content of a ISO data file and write it into a data file on disk beginning
at the byte_offset. Write at most byte_count bytes. This is the inverse of command

-concat mode [target | lim prog [args [...]] lim] iso_rr_path [***]
Copy the data content of one or more data files of the ISO image into a disk file
object, into a file descriptor, or start a program and copy the data into its
standard input. The latter is subject to the security restrictions for external
Modes overwrite and append write into the target which is given by the second
parameter. This may be the path to a disk file object, or "-" which means standard
output, or a text of the form /dev/fd/number, where number is an open file
descriptor (e.g. standard error is /dev/fd/2). An existing target file is not
removed before writing begins. If it is not able to take content data, then this
command fails. Mode overwrite truncates regular data files to 0 size before
writing into them. Example:
-concat append /home/me/accumulated_text /my/iso/text --

Mode pipe expects as second parameter a delimiter word which shall mark the end of
the program argument list. The third argument is the disk_path to the program. It
must contain at least one '/'. $PATH is not applied. Further parameters up to the
announced delimiter word are used as arguments with the program start. Example:
-iso_rr_pattern on \
-concat pipe + /usr/bin/wc + "/my/iso/files*" --

The further parameters in all modes are the iso_rr_paths of data files. Their
content gets concatenated in the copy.

-mount drive entity id path
Produce the same line as -mount_cmd and then execute it as external program run
after giving up the depicted drive. See also -mount_opts. This demands -osirrox to
be enabled and normally will succeed only for the superuser. For safety reasons the
mount program is only executed if it is reachable as /bin/mount or /sbin/mount.

Command compatibility emulations:

Writing of ISO 9660 on CD is traditionally done by program mkisofs as ISO 9660 image
producer and cdrecord as burn program. xorriso does not strive for their comprehensive
emulation. Nevertheless it is ready to perform some of its core tasks under control of
commands which in said programs trigger comparable actions.

-as personality option [options] --
Perform the variable length option list as sparse emulation of the program depicted
by the personality word.

Personality "mkisofs" accepts the options listed with:
-as mkisofs -help --
Among them: -R (always on), -r, -J, -o, -M, -C, -dir-mode, -file-mode, -path-list,
-m, -exclude-list, -f, -print-size, -pad, -no-pad, -V, -v, -version, -graft-points,
-z, -no-emul-boot, -b, -c, -boot-info-table, -boot-load-size, -input-charset, -G,
-output-charset, -U, -hide, -hide-joliet, -hide-list, -hide-joliet-list, file paths
and pathspecs. A lot of options are not supported and lead to failure of the
mkisofs emulation. Some are ignored, but better do not rely on this tolerance.
The supported options are documented in detail in xorrisofs.info and in man
xorrisofs. The description here is focused on the effect of mkisofs emulation in
the context of a xorriso run.
Other than with the "cdrecord" personality there is no automatic -commit at the end
of a "mkisofs" option list. Verbosity settings -v (= "UPDATE") and -quiet (=
"SORRY") persist. The output file persists until things happen like -commit,
-rollback, -dev, or end of xorriso.
Options which affect all file objects in the ISO image, like -r or -dir-mode, will
be applied only to files which are present in the ISO image when the command -as
ends. If you use several -as mkisofs commands in the same run, then consider to put
such options into the last -as command.
If files are added to the image, then -pacifier gets set to "mkisofs" and
-stdio_sync is defaulted to "off" if no such setting was made yet.
-graft-points is equivalent to -pathspecs on. Note that pathspecs without "=" are
interpreted differently than with xorriso command -add. Directories get merged
with the root directory of the ISO image, other filetypes get mapped into that root
If pathspecs are given and if no output file was chosen before or during the
"mkisofs" option list, then standard output (-outdev "-") will get into effect. If
-o points to a regular file, then it will be truncated to 0 bytes when finally
writing begins. This truncation does not happen if the drive is chosen by xorriso
commands before -as mkisofs or after its list delimiter. Directories and symbolic
links are no valid -o targets.
Writing to stdout is possible only if -as "mkisofs" was among the start arguments
or if other start arguments pointed the output drive to standard output.
-print-size inhibits automatic image production at program end. This ban is lifted
only if the pending image changes get discarded.
Padding is counted as part of the ISO image if not option --emul-toc is given.
If no -iso-level is given, then level 1 is chosen when the first file or directory
is added to the image. At the same occasion directory names get allowed to violate
the standard by -compliance option allow_dir_id_ext. This may be avoided by option
Option -root is supported. Option -old-root is implemented by xorriso commands
-mkdir, -cp_clone, -find update_merge, and -find rm_merge. -root and -old-root set
command -disk_dev_ino to "ino_only" and -md5 to "on", by default. -disk_dev_ino
can be set to "off" by --old-root-no-ino or to "on" by --old-root-devno . -md5 can
be set to "off" by --old-root-no-md5 .
Not original mkisofs options are --quoted_path_list , --hardlinks , --acl , --xattr
, --md5 , --stdio_sync . They work like the xorriso commands with the same name
and hardcoded parameter "on", e.g. -acl "on". Explicit parameters are expected by
--stdio_sync and --scdbackup_tag.
The capability to preserve multi-session history on overwriteable media gets
disabled by default. It can be enabled by using --emul-toc with the first session.
See -compliance no_emul_toc.
--sort-weight gets as parameters a number and an iso_rr_path. The number becomes
the LBA sorting weight of regular file iso_rr_path or of all regular files
underneath directory iso_rr_path. (See -find -exec sort_weight).
Adopted from grub-mkisofs are --protective-msdos-label (see -boot_image grub
partition_table=on) and --modification-date=YYYYMMDDhhmmsscc (see -volume_date
uuid). For EFI bootable GRUB boot images use --efi-boot. It performs -boot_image
grub efi_path= surrounded by two -boot_image "any" "next". Alternative option -e
from Fedora genisoimage sets bin_path and platform_id for EFI, but performs no
For MBR bootable ISOLINUX images there is -isohybrid-mbr FILE, where FILE is one of
the Syslinux files mbr/isohdp[fp]x*.bin . Use this instead of -G to apply the
effect of -boot_image isolinux partition_table=on.
--boot-catalog-hide is -boot_image any cat_hidden=on.
-mips-boot is the same as -boot_image any mips_path= .
-mipsel-boot leads to mipsel_path= .
-partition_offset number is -boot_image any partition_offset=number.
Command -append_partition is supported.
-untranslated_name_len number is -compliance untranslated_name_len=number.
--old-empty is -compliance old_empty.
The options of genisoimage Jigdo Template Extraction are recognized and performed
via xorriso command -jigdo. See the "Alias:" names there for the meaning of the
genisoimage options.

Personalities "xorrisofs", "genisoimage", and "genisofs" are aliases for "mkisofs".
If xorriso is started with one of the leafnames "xorrisofs", "genisofs", "mkisofs",
or "genisoimage", then it performs -read_mkisofsrc and prepends -as "genisofs" to
the program arguments. I.e. all arguments will be interpreted mkisofs style until
"--" is encountered. From then on, arguments are interpreted as xorriso commands.
--no_rc as first argument of such a program start prevents interpretation of
startup files. See section FILES below.

Personality "cdrecord" accepts the options listed with:
-as cdrecord -help --
Among them: -v, dev=, speed=, blank=, fs=, -eject, -atip, padsize=, tsize=,
-isosize, -multi, -msinfo, --grow_overwriteable_iso, write_start_address=, track
source file path or "-" for standard input as track source.
It ignores most other options of cdrecord and cdrskin but refuses on -audio,
-scanbus, and on blanking modes unknown to xorriso.
The scope is only a single data track per session to be written to blank,
overwriteable, or appendable media. The medium gets closed if closing is applicable
and not option -multi is present.
If an input drive was acquired, then it is given up. This is only allowed if no
image changes are pending.
dev= must be given as xorriso device address. Addresses like 0,0,0 or ATA:1,1,0 are
not supported.
If a track source is given, then an automatic -commit happens at the end of the
"cdrecord" option list.
--grow_overwriteable_iso enables emulation of multi-session on overwriteable media.
To enable emulation of a TOC, the first session needs -C 0,32 with -as mkisofs (but
no -M) and --grow_overwriteable_iso write_start_address=32s with -as cdrecord.
A much more elaborate libburn based cdrecord emulator is the program cdrskin.
Personalites "xorrecord", "wodim", and "cdrskin" are aliases for "cdrecord".
If xorriso is started with one of the leafnames "xorrecord", "cdrskin", "cdrecord",
or "wodim", then it automatically prepends -as "cdrskin" to the program arguments.
I.e. all arguments will be interpreted cdrecord style until "--" is encountered.
From then on, arguments are interpreted as xorriso commands.
--no_rc as first argument of such a program start prevents interpretation of
xorriso startup files. See section FILES below.

Try one by one to open for reading:
./.mkisofsrc , $MKISOFSRC , $HOME/.mkisofsrc , $(dirname $0)/.mkisofsrc
On success interpret the file content as of man mkisofs CONFIGURATION, and end this
command. Do not try further files. The last address is used only if start argument
0 has a non-trivial dirname.
The reader currently interprets the following NAME=VALUE pairs: APPI
(-application_id) , PUBL (-publisher) , SYSI (-system_id) , VOLI (-volid) , VOLS
Any other lines will be silently ignored.

-pacifier behavior_code
Control behavior of UPDATE pacifiers during write operations. The following
behavior codes are defined:
"xorriso" is the default format:
Writing: sector XXXXX of YYYYYY [fifo active, nn% fill]
"cdrecord" looks like:
X of Y MB written (fifo nn%) [buf mmm%]
nn% done, estimate finish Tue Jul 15 20:13:28 2008
The frequency of the messages can be adjusted by
where number gives the seconds between two messages. Permissible settings are 0.1
to 60.0.

-scdbackup_tag list_path record_name
Set the parameter "name" for a scdbackup checksum record. It will be appended in
an scdbackup checksum tag to the -md5 session tag if the image starts at LBA 0.
This is the case if it gets written as first session onto a sequential medium, or
piped into a program, named pipe or character device.
If list_path is not empty then the record will also be appended to the data file
given by this path.
Program scdbackup_verify will recognize and verify tag and file record.

Scripting, dialog and program control features:

Only if used as first program argument this command prevents reading and
interpretation of startup files. See section FILES below.

-options_from_file fileaddress
Read quoted input from fileaddress and execute it like dialog lines. Empty lines
and lines which begin by # are ignored. Normally one line should hold one xorriso
command and all its parameters. Nevertheless lines may be concatenated by a
trailing backslash.
See also section "Command processing", paragraph "Quoted input".

Print helptext.

Print program name and version, component versions, license.

-list_extras code
Tell whether certain extra features were enabled at compile time. Code "all" lists
all features and a headline. Other codes pick a single feature. Code "codes"
lists them. They share names with related commands (see also there):
"acl" tells whether xorriso has an adapter for local filesystems ACLs.
"xattr" tells whether xorriso has an adapter for local filesystems EA.
"jigdo" tells whether production of Jigdo files is possible.
"zisofs" tells whether zisofs and built-in gzip filters are enabled.
"external_filter" tells whether external filter processes are allowed and whether
they are allowed if real user id and effective user id differ.
"dvd_obs" tells whether 64 kB output to DVD media is default.
"use_readline" tells whether readline may be enabled in dialog mode.

-history textline
Copy textline into libreadline history.

-status mode|filter
Print the current settings of xorriso. Modes:
short... print only important or altered settings
long ... print all settings including defaults
long_history like long plus history lines
Filters begin with '-' and are compared literally against the output lines of
-status:long_history. A line is put out only if its start matches the filter text.
No wildcards.

-status_history_max number
Set maximum number of history lines to be reported with -status "long_history".

-list_delimiter word
Set the list delimiter to be used instead of "--". It has to be a single word,
must not be empty, not longer than 80 characters, and must not contain quotation
For brevity the list delimiter is referred as "--" throughout this text.

-sh_style_result "on"|"off"
Make the result output of some filesystem inspection commands look more like the
output of equivalent shell commands. The most important effect is to prevent the
wrapping of file addresses into quotation marks with commands
-pwd -pwdx -ls -lsd -lsl -lsdl -lsx -lsdx -lslx -lsdlx
-du -dus -dux -dusx -findx -find
This will make ambigous the representation of file names which contain newline
characters. On the other hand it should facilitate integration of xorriso into
shell scripts which already use the corresponding shell commands.

-backslash_codes "on"|"off"|mode[:mode]
Enable or disable the interpretation of symbolic representations of special
characters with quoted input, or with program arguments, or with program text
output. If enabled the following translations apply:
\a=bell(007) \b=backspace(010) \e=Escape(033) \f=formfeed(014)
\n=linefeed(012) \r=carriage_return(015) \t=tab(011)
\v=vtab(013) \\=backslash(134) \[0-7][0-7][0-7]=octal_code
\x[0-9a-f][0-9a-f]=hex_code \cC=control-C
Translations can occur with quoted input in 3 modes:
"in_double_quotes" translates only inside " quotation.
"in_quotes" translates inside " and ' quotation.
"with_quoted_input" translates inside and outside quotes.
With the start program arguments there is mode:
"with_program_arguments" translates program arguments.
Mode "encode_output" encodes output characters. It combines "encode_results" with
"encode_infos". Inside single or double quotation marks encoding applies to 8-bit
characters octal 001 to 037 , 177 to 377 and to backslash(134). Outside quotation
marks some harmless ASCII control characters stay unencoded: bell(007),
backspace(010), tab(011), linefeed(012), formfeed(014), carriage_return(015).
Mode "off" is default and disables any translation. Mode "on" is

-temp_mem_limit number["k"|"m"]
Set the maximum size of temporary memory to be used for image dependent buffering.
Currently this applies to pattern expansion, LBA sorting, restoring of hard links.
Default is 16m = 16 MiB, minimum 64k = 64 kiB, maximum 1024m = 1 GiB.

-print text
Print a text line to the result channel which is by default stdout.

-print_info text
Print a text line to the info channel which is by default stderr.

-print_mark text
Print a text line to the mark channel which is by default directed to both, result
and info channel. An empty text will cause no output at all.

-prompt text
Show text at beginning of output line and wait for the user to hit the Enter key or
to send a line via stdin.

-sleep seconds
Wait for the given number of seconds before performing the next command. Expect
coarse granularity no better than 1/100 seconds.

-errfile_log mode path|channel
If problem events are related to input files from the filesystem, then their
disk_paths can be logged to a file or to output channels R or I.
Mode can either be "plain" or "marked". The latter causes marker lines which give
the time of log start, burn session start, burn session end, log end or program
end. In mode "plain", only the file paths are logged.
If path is "-" or "-R" then the log is directed to the result channel. Path "-I"
directs it to the info message channel. Any text that does not begin with "-" is
used as path for a file to append the log lines.
Problematic files can be recorded multiple times during one program run. If the
program run aborts then the list might not be complete because some input files
might not have been processed at all.
The errfile paths are transported as messages of very low severity "ERRFILE". This
transport becomes visible with -report_about "ALL".

-session_log path
If path is not empty it gives the address of a plain text file where a log record
gets appended after each session. This log can be used to determine the start_lba
of a session for mount options -o sbsector= (on GNU/Linux) or -s (on FreeBSD) from
date or volume ID.
Record format is: timestamp start_lba size volume-id
The first three items are single words, the rest of the line is the volume ID.

-scsi_log "on"|"off"
Mode "on" enables very verbous logging of SCSI commands and drive replies. Logging
messages get printed to stderr, not to any of the xorriso output channels.
A special property of this command is that the first -scsi_log setting among the
start arguments is in effect already when the first operations of xorriso begin.
Only "-scsi_log" with dash "-" is recognized that way.

End program after writing pending changes.

Discard pending changes. End program immediately.

# any text
Only in dialog or file execution mode, and only as first non-whitespace in line: Do
not execute the line but store it in readline history.

Support for frontend programs via stdin and stdout:

-pkt_output "on"|"off"
Consolidate text output on stdout and classify each line by a channel indicator:
'R:' for result lines,
'I:' for notes and error messages,
'M:' for -mark texts.
Next is a decimal number of which only bit 0 has a meaning for now. 0 means no
newline at end of payload, 1 means that the newline character at the end of the
output line belongs to the payload. After another colon and a blank follows the
payload text.
I:1: enter option and parameters :

-logfile channel fileaddress
Copy output of a channel to the given file. Channel may be one of: "." for all
channels, "I" for info messages, "R" for result lines, "M" for -mark texts.

-mark text
If text is not empty it will get put out on "M" channel each time xorriso is ready
for the next dialog line or before xorriso performs a command that was entered to
the pager prompt.

-msg_op opcode parameter_text
This command shall facilitate extraction of particular information from the message
output of other commands. It gives access to the C API function
Xorriso_parse_line() and to the message sieve that is provided by the C API.
Please refer to their descriptions in file xorriso.h. Further it helps to
interpret the severity codes of info messages.
Intended users are frontend programs which operate xorriso in dialog mode.
The result output of this command is not caught by the message sieve.
The following opcodes are defined:
Install the message sieve as of Xorriso_sieve_big() and start watching program
messages. The parameter_text has no meaning.
Show a list of filter rule names. The parameter_text has no meaning. The list
begins by a line with the return value of Xorriso_sieve_get_result() with flag
bit3. If this value is larger than 0, then the next line tells the number of names.
The following lines show one name each.
Use the parameter_text as name of a filter rule and inquire its next recorded
result. See Xorriso_sieve_big() for a list of names and reply strings.
The recorded strings are put out on result channel. They get wrapped into lines
which tell their structure. The first line tells the return value of
Xorriso_sieve_get_result(). The next line tells the number of strings. Each string
begins by a line that tells the number of lines of the string. Then follow these
lines. They are to be concatenated with a newline character inbetween each of them.
Finally the number of still available recorded results of the given name is put
Dispose all recorded strings and continue watching program messages. The
parameter_text has no meaning.
Dispose the sieve with its filter rules and stop watching program messages. The
parameter_text has no meaning.
Read a text from dialog input and submit it to Xorriso_parse_line(). The
parameter_text word shall consist of several words separated by blanks. It will be
necessary to use both kinds of quotation marks.
E.g. "'ISO session :' '' 0 0 1"
The five parameter words are: prefix, separators, max_words, flag,
number_of_input_lines. The former four are handed over to Xorriso_parse_line().
The number of input lines minus one tells xorriso how many newline characters are
part of the input text.
The announced number of text lines will be read from dialog input, concatenated
with a newline character inbetween each of them, and submitted to
Xorriso_parse_line() as parameter line. Note that newlines outside of quotation
marks are interpreted as separators if the separators parameter is empty.
The parsed strings are put out on result channel. They get wrapped into lines which
tell their structure. The first line tells the return value of
Xorriso_parse_line(). The next line tells the number of strings. Each string
begins by a line that tells the number of lines of the string. Then follow these
lines. They are to be concatenated with a newline character inbetween each of them.
If -backslash_codes "encode_output" is enabled, then the strings undergo encoding
as if they were enclosed in quotes. Escpecially each string will be put out as a
single result line.
Like "parse", but with the fifth parameter word being number_of_input_texts rather
than number_of_input_lines. Each input text has to be preceded by a line that tells
number_of_input_lines as with "parse". Then come the announced number of text
All input texts will be read before printing of result lines begins. This consumes
memory in xorriso. So the number_of_input_texts should not be extremely high. On
the other hand, large transactions of command, input texts, and results are
desirable if connection latency is an issue.
Like "parse" but not issueing a prompting message. Confusing to humans.
Like "parse_bulk" but not issueing a prompting message. Confusing to humans.
The parameter_text should contain two comma separated severity texts as issued by
this program. Like "SORRY,UPDATE". See also paragraph "Exception processing".
These two severity texts get compared and a number gets printed to the result
channel. This number is 0 if both severities are equal. It is -1 if the first
severity is lower than the second one. It is 1 is the first severity is higher
than the second one.
Above example "SORRY,UPDATE" will yield 1.
Print to the result channel a blank separated list of all severity names. Sorted
from low to high severity.

-named_pipe_loop mode[:mode] disk_path_stdin disk_path_stdout disk_path_stderr
Temporarily replace standard input, standard output and standard error by named
pipes. Enter dialog mode without readline.
Defined modes are:
"cleanup" removes the submitted pipe files when the loop ends.
"keep" does not delete them. This is the default.
"buffered" reads all lines from the input pipe until EOF before it opens the output
pipes and processes the input lines.
"direct" opens the output pipes after the first input line was read. Each line is
executed directly after it is read. This is the default.
The other three parameters must either be disk paths to existing named pipes, or be
"-" to leave the according standard i/o channel unreplaced.
xorriso will open the stdin pipe, read and execute dialog lines from it until the
sender closes the pipe. The output pipes get opened depending on mode "buffered" or
"direct". After all lines are executed, xorriso will close its side of the pipes
and enter a new cycle of opening, reading and executing.
If an input line consists only of the word "end_named_pipe_loop" then
-named_pipe_loop will end and further xorriso commands may be executed from other

-launch_frontend program [arguments ...] --
Start the program that is given as first parameter. Submit the other parameters as
program arguments. Enable xorriso dialog mode.
Two nameless pipe objects are created. xorriso standard input gets connected to the
standard output of the started program. xorriso standard output and standard error
get connected to the standard input of that program.
xorriso will abort when the started program ends or if it cannot be started at all.
In both cases it will return a non-zero exit value. The exit value will be zero if
the frontend sends -end or -rollback_end before ending itself.
This command may be totaly banned at compile time. It is banned by default if
xorriso runs under setuid permissions.
The program name will not be searched in the $PATH directories. To make this
clear, it must contain at least one /-character. Best is an absolute path.
xorriso -launch_frontend "$(which xorriso-tcltk)" -stdio --
The frontend program should first send via its standard output:
-mark 0 -pkt_output on -msg_op start_sieve - -reassure off
It should be ready to decode -pkt_output and to react on -mark messages. Best is
to increment the -mark number after each sent command sequence and then to wait for
the new number to show up in a mark message:
...some...commands... -mark <incremented_number>
Further are advised:
-report_about UPDATE -abort_on NEVER
-iso_rr_pattern off -disk_pattern off
A check of the xorriso version should be done, in order to make sure that all
desired features are present.
Command -launch_frontend will only work once per xorriso run. If no command
parameters are submitted or if program is an empty text, then no program will be
started but nevertheless -launch_frontend will be irrevocably disabled.

-prog text
Use text as name of this program in subsequent messages

-prog_help text
Use text as name of this program and perform -help.


Overview of examples:
As superuser learn about available drives
Blank medium and compose a new ISO image as batch run
A dialog session doing about the same
Manipulate an existing ISO image on the same medium
Copy modified ISO image from one medium to another
Bring a prepared ISOLINUX tree onto medium and make it bootable
Change existing file name tree from ISO-8859-1 to UTF-8
Operate on storage facilities other than optical drives
Burn an existing ISO image file to medium
Perform multi-session runs as of cdrtools traditions
Let xorriso work underneath growisofs
Adjust thresholds for verbosity, exit value and program abort
Examples of input timestrings
Incremental backup of a few directory trees
Restore directory trees from a particular ISO session to disk
Try to retrieve blocks from a damaged medium

As superuser learn about available drives
On Linux, FreeBSD or NetBSD consider to give rw-permissions to those users or groups which
shall be able to use the drives with xorriso. On Solaris use pfexec. Consider to restrict
privileges of xorriso to "base,sys_devices" and to give r-permission to user or group.
$ xorriso -device_links
1 -dev '/dev/cdrom1' rwrw-- : 'TSSTcorp' 'DVD-ROM SH-D162C
1 -dev '/dev/cdrw' rwrw-- : 'TSSTcorp' 'CDDVDW SH-S223B'
2 -dev '/dev/cdrw3' rwrw-- : 'HL-DT-ST' 'BDDVDRW_GGC-H20L'

Blank medium and compose a new ISO image as batch run
Acquire drive /dev/sr2, make medium ready for writing a new image, fill the image with the
files from hard disk directories /home/me/sounds and /home/me/pictures.
Because no -dialog "on" is given, the program will then end by writing the session to the
$ xorriso -outdev /dev/sr2 \
-blank as_needed \
-map /home/me/sounds /sounds \
-map /home/me/pictures /pictures

The ISO image may be shaped in a more elaborate way like the following: Omit some unwanted
stuff by removing it from the image directory tree. Reintroduce some wanted stuff.
$ cd /home/me
$ xorriso -outdev /dev/sr2 \
-blank as_needed \
-map /home/me/sounds /sounds \
-map /home/me/pictures /pictures \
-rm_r \
/sounds/indecent \
'/pictures/*private*' \
/pictures/confidential \
-- \
-cd / \
-add pictures/confidential/work* --
Note that '/pictures/*private*' is a pattern for iso_rr_paths while
pictures/confidential/work* gets expanded by the shell with addresses from the hard disk.
Commands -add and -map have different parameter rules but finally the same effect: they
put files into the image.

A dialog session doing about the same
Some settings are already given as start argument. The other activities are done as dialog
input. The pager gets set to 20 lines of 80 characters.
The drive is acquired by command -dev rather than -outdev in order to see the message
about its current content. By command -blank this content is made ready for being
overwritten and the loaded ISO image is made empty.
In order to be able to eject the medium, the session needs to be committed explicitly.
$ xorriso -dialog on -page 20 80 -disk_pattern on
enter option and arguments :
-dev /dev/sr2
enter option and arguments :
-blank as_needed
enter option and arguments :
-map /home/me/sounds /sounds -map /home/me/pictures /pictures
enter option and arguments :
-rm_r /sounds/indecent /pictures/*private* /pictures/confidential
enter option and arguments :
-cdx /home/me/pictures -cd /pictures
enter option and arguments :
-add confidential/office confidential/factory
enter option and arguments :
-du /
enter option and arguments :
-commit_eject all -end

Manipulate an existing ISO image on the same medium
Load image from drive. Remove (i.e. hide) directory /sounds and its subordinates. Rename
directory /pictures/confidential to /pictures/restricted. Change access permissions of
directory /pictures/restricted. Add new directory trees /sounds and /movies. Burn to the
same medium, check whether the tree can be loaded, and eject.
$ xorriso -dev /dev/sr2 \
-rm_r /sounds -- \
-mv \
/pictures/confidential \
/pictures/restricted \
-- \
-chmod go-rwx /pictures/restricted -- \
-map /home/me/prepared_for_dvd/sounds_dummy /sounds \
-map /home/me/prepared_for_dvd/movies /movies \
-commit -eject all

Copy modified ISO image from one medium to another
Load image from input drive. Do the same manipulations as in the previous example. Acquire
output drive and blank it. Burn the modified image as first and only session to the output
$ xorriso -indev /dev/sr2 \
-rm_r /sounds -- \
-outdev /dev/sr0 -blank as_needed \
-commit -eject all

Bring a prepared ISOLINUX tree onto medium and make it bootable
The user has already created a suitable file tree on disk and copied the ISOLINUX files
into subdirectory ./boot/isolinux of that tree. Now xorriso can burn an El Torito
bootable medium:
$ xorriso -outdev /dev/sr0 -blank as_needed \
-map /home/me/ISOLINUX_prepared_tree / \
-boot_image isolinux dir=/boot/isolinux

Change existing file name tree from ISO-8859-1 to UTF-8
This example assumes that the existing ISO image was written with character set ISO-8859-1
but that the readers expected UTF-8. Now a new session gets added with converted file
names. Command -changes_pending "yes" enables writing despite the lack of any
manipulation command.
In order to avoid any weaknesses of the local character set, this command pretends that it
uses already the final target set UTF-8. Therefore strange file names may appear in
messages, which will be made terminal-safe by command -backslash_codes.
$ xorriso -in_charset ISO-8859-1 -local_charset UTF-8 \
-out_charset UTF-8 -backslash_codes on -dev /dev/sr0 \
-changes_pending yes -commit -eject all

Operate on storage facilities other than optical drives
Full read-write operation is possible with regular files and block devices:
$ xorriso -dev /tmp/regular_file ...
Paths underneath /dev normally need prefix "stdio:"
$ xorriso -dev stdio:/dev/sdb ...
If /dev/sdb is to be used frequently and /dev/sda is the system disk, then consider to
place the following lines in a xorriso Startup File. They allow you to use /dev/sdb
without prefix and protect disk /dev/sda from xorriso:
-drive_class banned /dev/sda*
-drive_class harmless /dev/sdb
Other writeable file types are supported write-only:
$ xorriso -outdev /tmp/named_pipe ...
Among the write-only drives is standard output:
$ xorriso -outdev - \
| gzip >image.iso.gz

Burn an existing ISO image file to medium
Actually this works with any kind of data, not only ISO images:
$ xorriso -as cdrecord -v dev=/dev/sr0 blank=as_needed image.iso

Perform multi-session runs as of cdrtools traditions
Between both processes there can be performed arbitrary transportation or filtering.
The first session is written like this:
$ xorriso -as mkisofs prepared_for_iso/tree1 | \
xorriso -as cdrecord -v dev=/dev/sr0 blank=fast -multi -eject -
Follow-up sessions are written like this:
$ dd if=/dev/sr0 count=1 >/dev/null 2>&1
$ m=$(xorriso -as cdrecord dev=/dev/sr0 -msinfo)
$ xorriso -as mkisofs -M /dev/sr0 -C $m prepared_for_iso/tree2 | \
xorriso -as cdrecord -v dev=/dev/sr0 -waiti -multi -eject -
Always eject the drive tray between sessions. The old sessions get read via /dev/sr0. Its
device driver might not be aware of the changed content before it loads the medium again.
In this case the previous session would not be loaded and the new session would contain
only the newly added files.
For the same reason do not let xorriso -as cdrecord load the medium, but rather do this
manually or by a program that reads from /dev/sr0.
This example works for multi-session media only. Add cdrskin option
--grow_overwriteable_iso to all -as cdrecord runs in order to enable multi-session
emulation on overwriteable media.

Let xorriso work underneath growisofs
growisofs expects an ISO formatter program which understands options -C and -M. If xorriso
gets started by name "xorrisofs" then it is suitable for that.
$ export MKISOFS="xorrisofs"
$ growisofs -Z /dev/dvd /some/files
$ growisofs -M /dev/dvd /more/files
If no "xorrisofs" is available on your system, then you will have to create a link
pointing to the xorriso binary and tell growisofs to use it. E.g. by:
$ ln -s $(which xorriso) "$HOME/xorrisofs"
$ export MKISOFS="$HOME/xorrisofs"
One may quit mkisofs emulation by argument "--" and make use of all xorriso commands.
growisofs dislikes options which start with "-o" but -outdev must be set to "-". So use
"outdev" instead:
$ growisofs -Z /dev/dvd -- outdev - -update_r /my/files /files
$ growisofs -M /dev/dvd -- outdev - -update_r /my/files /files
growisofs has excellent burn capabilities with DVD and BD. It does not emulate session
history on overwriteable media, though.

Adjust thresholds for verbosity, exit value and program abort
Be quite verbous, exit 32 if severity "FAILURE" was encountered, do not abort prematurely
but forcibly go on until the end of commands.
$ xorriso ... \
-report_about UPDATE \
-return_with FAILURE 32 \
-abort_on NEVER \

Examples of input timestrings
As printed by program date: 'Thu Nov 8 14:51:13 CET 2007'
The same without ignored parts: 'Nov 8 14:51:13 2007'
The same as expected by date: 110814512007.13
Four weeks in the future: +4w
The current time: +0
Three hours ago: -3h
Seconds since Jan 1 1970: =1194531416

Incremental backup of a few directory trees
This changes the directory trees /projects and /personal_mail in the ISO image so that
they become exact copies of their disk counterparts. ISO file objects get created,
deleted or get their attributes adjusted accordingly.
ACL, xattr, hard links and MD5 checksums will be recorded. Accelerated comparison is
enabled at the expense of potentially larger backup size. Only media with the expected
volume ID or blank media are accepted. Files with names matching *.o or *.swp get
excluded explicitly.
When done with writing the new session gets checked by its recorded MD5.
$ xorriso \
-abort_on FATAL \
-for_backup -disk_dev_ino on \
-assert_volid 'PROJECTS_MAIL_*' FATAL \
-dev /dev/sr0 \
-volid PROJECTS_MAIL_"$(date '+%Y_%m_%d_%H%M%S')" \
-not_leaf '*.o' -not_leaf '*.swp' \
-update_r /home/thomas/projects /projects \
-update_r /home/thomas/personal_mail /personal_mail \
-commit -toc -check_md5 FAILURE -- -eject all
To be used several times on the same medium, whenever an update of the two disk trees to
the medium is desired. Begin with a blank medium and update it until the run fails
gracefully due to lack of remaining space on the old one.
This makes sense if the full backup leaves substantial remaining capacity on media and if
the expected changes are much smaller than the full backup. To apply zisofs compression
to those data files which get newly copied from the local filesystem, insert these
commands immediately before -commit :
-hardlinks perform_update \
-find / -type f -pending_data -exec set_filter --zisofs -- \
Commands -disk_dev_ino and -for_backup depend on stable device and inode numbers on disk.
Without them, an update run may use -md5 "on" to match recorded MD5 sums against the
current file content on hard disk. This is usually much faster than the default which
compares both contents directly.
With mount option -o "sbsector=" on GNU/Linux or -s on FreeBSD or NetBSD it is possible to
access the session trees which represent the older backup versions. With CD media,
GNU/Linux mount accepts session numbers directly by its option "session=".
Multi-session media and most overwriteable media written by xorriso can tell the sbsectors
of their sessions by xorriso command -toc. Used after -commit the following command
prints the matching mount command for the newly written session (here for mount point
-mount_cmd "indev" "auto" "auto" /mnt
Commands -mount_cmd and -mount are also able to produce the mount commands for older
sessions in the table-of-content. E.g. as superuser:
# osirrox -mount /dev/sr0 "volid" '*2008_12_05*' /mnt

Above example produces a result similar to -root / -old-root / with mkisofs. For getting
the session trees accumulated in the new sessions, let all -update commands use a common
parent directory and clone it after updating is done:
-update_r /home/thomas/projects /current/projects \
-update_r /home/thomas/personal_mail /current/personal_mail \
-clone /current /"$(date '+%Y_%m_%d_%H%M%S')" \
The cloned tree will have a name like /2011_02_12_155700.

Sessions on multi-session media are separated by several MB of unused blocks. So with
small sessions the payload capacity can become substantially lower than the overall media
capacity. If the remaining space on a medium does not suffice for the next gap, the drive
is supposed to close the medium automatically.

Better do not use your youngest backup for -update_r. Have at least two media which you
use alternatingly. So only older backups get endangered by the new write operation, while
the newest backup is stored safely on a different medium.
Always have a blank medium ready to perform a full backup in case the update attempt fails
due to insufficient remaining capacity. This failure will not spoil the old medium, of

Restore directory trees from a particular ISO session to disk
This is an alternative to mounting the medium and using normal file operations.
First check which backup sessions are on the medium:
$ xorriso -outdev /dev/sr0 -toc
Then enable restoring of ACL, xattr and hard links. Load the desired session and copy the
file trees to disk. Avoid to create /home/thomas/restored without rwx-permission.
$ xorriso -for_backup \
-load volid 'PROJECTS_MAIL_2008_06_19*' \
-indev /dev/sr0 \
-osirrox on:auto_chmod_on \
-chmod u+rwx / -- \
-extract /projects /home/thomas/restored/projects \
-extract /personal_mail /home/thomas/restored/personal_mail \
The final command -rollback_end prevents an error message about the altered image being

Try to retrieve blocks from a damaged medium
$ xorriso -abort_on NEVER -indev /dev/sr0 \
-check_media time_limit=1800 report=blocks_files \
data_to="$HOME"/dvd_copy sector_map="$HOME"/dvd_copy.map --
This can be repeated several times, if necessary with -eject or with other -indev drives.
See the human readable part of "$HOME"/dvd_copy.map for addresses which can be used on
"$HOME"/dvd_copy with mount option -o sbsector= or -s.

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