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ftp — ARPANET file transfer program
ftp [-K] [-d] [-g] [-i] [-l] [-n] [-p] [-t] [-v] [-x] [--no-gss-bindings]
ftp is the user interface to the ARPANET standard File Transfer Protocol. The program
allows a user to transfer files to and from a remote network site.
Modifications have been made so that it almost follows the FTP Security Extensions, RFC
Options may be specified at the command line, or to the command interpreter.
-K Disable Kerberos authentication.
-t Enables packet tracing.
-v Verbose option forces ftp to show all responses from the remote server, as well as
report on data transfer statistics.
-n Restrains ftp from attempting “auto-login” upon initial connection. If auto-login is
enabled, ftp will check the .netrc (see below) file in the user's home directory for
an entry describing an account on the remote machine. If no entry exists, ftp will
prompt for the remote machine login name (default is the user identity on the local
machine), and, if necessary, prompt for a password and an account with which to login.
-i Turns off interactive prompting during multiple file transfers.
-p Turn on passive mode.
-d Enables debugging.
-g Disables file name globbing.
.It Fl Fl no-gss-bindings Don't use GSS-API bindings when talking to peer. IP
addresses will not be checked to ensure they match.
Disable delegation of GSSAPI credentials.
-l Disables command line editing.
-x Encrypt command and data channel.
The client host with which ftp is to communicate may be specified on the command line. If
this is done, ftp will immediately attempt to establish a connection to an FTP server on
that host; otherwise, ftp will enter its command interpreter and await instructions from the
user. When ftp is awaiting commands from the user the prompt ‘ftp>’ is provided to the
user. The following commands are recognized by ftp:
! [command [args]]
Invoke an interactive shell on the local machine. If there are arguments, the
first is taken to be a command to execute directly, with the rest of the
arguments as its arguments.
$ macro-name [args]
Execute the macro macro-name that was defined with the macdef command.
Arguments are passed to the macro unglobbed.
Supply a supplemental password required by a remote system for access to
resources once a login has been successfully completed. If no argument is
included, the user will be prompted for an account password in a non-echoing
append local-file [remote-file]
Append a local file to a file on the remote machine. If remote-file is left
unspecified, the local file name is used in naming the remote file after being
altered by any ntrans or nmap setting. File transfer uses the current settings
for type, format, mode, and structure.
ascii Set the file transfer type to network ASCII. This is the default type.
bell Arrange that a bell be sounded after each file transfer command is completed.
binary Set the file transfer type to support binary image transfer.
bye Terminate the FTP session with the remote server and exit ftp. An end of file
will also terminate the session and exit.
case Toggle remote computer file name case mapping during mget commands. When case
is on (default is off), remote computer file names with all letters in upper
case are written in the local directory with the letters mapped to lower case.
Change the working directory on the remote machine to remote-directory.
cdup Change the remote machine working directory to the parent of the current remote
machine working directory.
chmod mode file-name
Change the permission modes of the file file-name on the remote system to mode.
close Terminate the FTP session with the remote server, and return to the command
interpreter. Any defined macros are erased.
cr Toggle carriage return stripping during ascii type file retrieval. Records are
denoted by a carriage return/linefeed sequence during ascii type file transfer.
When cr is on (the default), carriage returns are stripped from this sequence to
conform with the UNIX single linefeed record delimiter. Records on non-UNIX
remote systems may contain single linefeeds; when an ascii type transfer is
made, these linefeeds may be distinguished from a record delimiter only when cr
Delete the file remote-file on the remote machine.
Toggle debugging mode. If an optional debug-value is specified it is used to
set the debugging level. When debugging is on, ftp prints each command sent to
the remote machine, preceded by the string ‘-->’
dir [remote-directory] [local-file]
Print a listing of the directory contents in the directory, remote-directory,
and, optionally, placing the output in local-file. If interactive prompting is
on, ftp will prompt the user to verify that the last argument is indeed the
target local file for receiving dir output. If no directory is specified, the
current working directory on the remote machine is used. If no local file is
specified, or local-file is -, output comes to the terminal.
disconnect A synonym for close.
Set the file transfer form to format. The default format is “file”.
get remote-file [local-file]
Retrieve the remote-file and store it on the local machine. If the local file
name is not specified, it is given the same name it has on the remote machine,
subject to alteration by the current case, ntrans, and nmap settings. The
current settings for type, form, mode, and structure are used while transferring
glob Toggle filename expansion for mdelete, mget and mput. If globbing is turned off
with glob, the file name arguments are taken literally and not expanded.
Globbing for mput is done as in csh(1). For mdelete and mget, each remote file
name is expanded separately on the remote machine and the lists are not merged.
Expansion of a directory name is likely to be different from expansion of the
name of an ordinary file: the exact result depends on the foreign operating
system and ftp server, and can be previewed by doing ‘mls remote-files -’. As a
security measure, remotely globbed files that starts with ‘/’ or contains ‘../’,
will not be automatically received. If you have interactive prompting turned
off, these filenames will be ignored. Note: mget and mput are not meant to
transfer entire directory subtrees of files. That can be done by transferring a
tar(1) archive of the subtree (in binary mode).
hash Toggle hash-sign (``#'') printing for each data block transferred. The size of
a data block is 1024 bytes.
Print an informative message about the meaning of command. If no argument is
given, ftp prints a list of the known commands.
Set the inactivity timer on the remote server to seconds seconds. If seconds is
omitted, the current inactivity timer is printed.
Change the working directory on the local machine. If no directory is
specified, the user's home directory is used.
ls [remote-directory] [local-file]
Print a listing of the contents of a directory on the remote machine. The
listing includes any system-dependent information that the server chooses to
include; for example, most UNIX systems will produce output from the command ‘ls
-l’. (See also nlist.) If remote-directory is left unspecified, the current
working directory is used. If interactive prompting is on, ftp will prompt the
user to verify that the last argument is indeed the target local file for
receiving ls output. If no local file is specified, or if local-file is ‘-’,
the output is sent to the terminal.
Define a macro. Subsequent lines are stored as the macro macro-name; a null
line (consecutive newline characters in a file or carriage returns from the
terminal) terminates macro input mode. There is a limit of 16 macros and 4096
total characters in all defined macros. Macros remain defined until a close
command is executed. The macro processor interprets `$' and `\' as special
characters. A `$' followed by a number (or numbers) is replaced by the
corresponding argument on the macro invocation command line. A `$' followed by
an `i' signals that macro processor that the executing macro is to be looped.
On the first pass `$i' is replaced by the first argument on the macro invocation
command line, on the second pass it is replaced by the second argument, and so
on. A `\' followed by any character is replaced by that character. Use the `\'
to prevent special treatment of the `$'.
Delete the remote-files on the remote machine.
mdir remote-files local-file
Like dir, except multiple remote files may be specified. If interactive
prompting is on, ftp will prompt the user to verify that the last argument is
indeed the target local file for receiving mdir output.
Expand the remote-files on the remote machine and do a get for each file name
thus produced. See glob for details on the filename expansion. Resulting file
names will then be processed according to case, ntrans, and nmap settings.
Files are transferred into the local working directory, which can be changed
with ‘lcd directory’; new local directories can be created with ‘! mkdir
Make a directory on the remote machine.
mls remote-files local-file
Like nlist, except multiple remote files may be specified, and the local-file
must be specified. If interactive prompting is on, ftp will prompt the user to
verify that the last argument is indeed the target local file for receiving mls
Set the file transfer mode to mode-name. The default mode is “stream” mode.
Show the last modification time of the file on the remote machine.
Expand wild cards in the list of local files given as arguments and do a put for
each file in the resulting list. See glob for details of filename expansion.
Resulting file names will then be processed according to ntrans and nmap
Get the file only if the modification time of the remote file is more recent
that the file on the current system. If the file does not exist on the current
system, the remote file is considered newer. Otherwise, this command is
identical to get.
nlist [remote-directory] [local-file]
Print a list of the files in a directory on the remote machine. If
remote-directory is left unspecified, the current working directory is used. If
interactive prompting is on, ftp will prompt the user to verify that the last
argument is indeed the target local file for receiving nlist output. If no
local file is specified, or if local-file is -, the output is sent to the
nmap [inpattern outpattern]
Set or unset the filename mapping mechanism. If no arguments are specified, the
filename mapping mechanism is unset. If arguments are specified, remote
filenames are mapped during mput commands and put commands issued without a
specified remote target filename. If arguments are specified, local filenames
are mapped during mget commands and get commands issued without a specified
local target filename. This command is useful when connecting to a non-UNIX
remote computer with different file naming conventions or practices. The
mapping follows the pattern set by inpattern and outpattern. [Inpattern] is a
template for incoming filenames (which may have already been processed according
to the ntrans and case settings). Variable templating is accomplished by
including the sequences `$1', `$2', ..., `$9' in inpattern. Use `\' to prevent
this special treatment of the `$' character. All other characters are treated
literally, and are used to determine the nmap [inpattern] variable values. For
example, given inpattern $1.$2 and the remote file name "mydata.data", $1 would
have the value "mydata", and $2 would have the value "data". The outpattern
determines the resulting mapped filename. The sequences `$1', `$2', ...., `$9'
are replaced by any value resulting from the inpattern template. The sequence
`$0' is replace by the original filename. Additionally, the sequence ‘[seq1,
seq2]’ is replaced by [seq1] if seq1 is not a null string; otherwise it is
replaced by seq2. For example, the command
nmap $1.$2.$3 [$1,$2].[$2,file]
would yield the output filename "myfile.data" for input filenames "myfile.data"
and "myfile.data.old", "myfile.file" for the input filename "myfile", and
"myfile.myfile" for the input filename ".myfile". Spaces may be included in
outpattern, as in the example: `nmap $1 sed "s/ *$//" > $1' . Use the `\'
character to prevent special treatment of the `$','[','[', and `,' characters.
ntrans [inchars [outchars]]
Set or unset the filename character translation mechanism. If no arguments are
specified, the filename character translation mechanism is unset. If arguments
are specified, characters in remote filenames are translated during mput
commands and put commands issued without a specified remote target filename. If
arguments are specified, characters in local filenames are translated during
mget commands and get commands issued without a specified local target filename.
This command is useful when connecting to a non-UNIX remote computer with
different file naming conventions or practices. Characters in a filename
matching a character in inchars are replaced with the corresponding character in
outchars. If the character's position in inchars is longer than the length of
outchars, the character is deleted from the file name.
open host [port]
Establish a connection to the specified host FTP server. An optional port
number may be supplied, in which case, ftp will attempt to contact an FTP server
at that port. If the auto-login option is on (default), ftp will also attempt
to automatically log the user in to the FTP server (see below).
passive Toggle passive mode. If passive mode is turned on (default is off), the ftp
client will send a PASV command for all data connections instead of the usual
PORT command. The PASV command requests that the remote server open a port for
the data connection and return the address of that port. The remote server
listens on that port and the client connects to it. When using the more
traditional PORT command, the client listens on a port and sends that address to
the remote server, who connects back to it. Passive mode is useful when using
ftp through a gateway router or host that controls the directionality of
traffic. (Note that though ftp servers are required to support the PASV command
by RFC 1123, some do not.)
prompt Toggle interactive prompting. Interactive prompting occurs during multiple file
transfers to allow the user to selectively retrieve or store files. If
prompting is turned off (default is on), any mget or mput will transfer all
files, and any mdelete will delete all files.
Execute an ftp command on a secondary control connection. This command allows
simultaneous connection to two remote ftp servers for transferring files between
the two servers. The first proxy command should be an open, to establish the
secondary control connection. Enter the command "proxy ?" to see other ftp
commands executable on the secondary connection. The following commands behave
differently when prefaced by proxy: open will not define new macros during the
auto-login process, close will not erase existing macro definitions, get and
mget transfer files from the host on the primary control connection to the host
on the secondary control connection, and put, mput, and append transfer files
from the host on the secondary control connection to the host on the primary
control connection. Third party file transfers depend upon support of the ftp
protocol PASV command by the server on the secondary control connection.
put local-file [remote-file]
Store a local file on the remote machine. If remote-file is left unspecified,
the local file name is used after processing according to any ntrans or nmap
settings in naming the remote file. File transfer uses the current settings for
type, format, mode, and structure.
pwd Print the name of the current working directory on the remote machine.
quit A synonym for bye.
quote arg1 arg2 ...
The arguments specified are sent, verbatim, to the remote FTP server.
recv remote-file [local-file]
A synonym for get.
reget remote-file [local-file]
Reget acts like get, except that if local-file exists and is smaller than
remote-file, local-file is presumed to be a partially transferred copy of
remote-file and the transfer is continued from the apparent point of failure.
This command is useful when transferring very large files over networks that are
prone to dropping connections.
Request help from the remote FTP server. If a command-name is specified it is
supplied to the server as well.
With no arguments, show status of remote machine. If file-name is specified,
show status of file-name on remote machine.
rename [from] [to]
Rename the file from on the remote machine, to the file to.
reset Clear reply queue. This command re-synchronizes command/reply sequencing with
the remote ftp server. Resynchronization may be necessary following a violation
of the ftp protocol by the remote server.
Restart the immediately following get or put at the indicated marker. On UNIX
systems, marker is usually a byte offset into the file.
Delete a directory on the remote machine.
runique Toggle storing of files on the local system with unique filenames. If a file
already exists with a name equal to the target local filename for a get or mget
command, a ".1" is appended to the name. If the resulting name matches another
existing file, a ".2" is appended to the original name. If this process
continues up to ".99", an error message is printed, and the transfer does not
take place. The generated unique filename will be reported. Note that runique
will not affect local files generated from a shell command (see below). The
default value is off.
send local-file [remote-file]
A synonym for put.
sendport Toggle the use of PORT commands. By default, ftp will attempt to use a PORT
command when establishing a connection for each data transfer. The use of PORT
commands can prevent delays when performing multiple file transfers. If the
PORT command fails, ftp will use the default data port. When the use of PORT
commands is disabled, no attempt will be made to use PORT commands for each data
transfer. This is useful for certain FTP implementations which do ignore PORT
commands but, incorrectly, indicate they've been accepted.
site arg1 arg2 ...
The arguments specified are sent, verbatim, to the remote FTP server as a SITE
Return size of file-name on remote machine.
status Show the current status of ftp.
Set the file transfer structure to struct-name. By default “stream” structure
sunique Toggle storing of files on remote machine under unique file names. Remote ftp
server must support ftp protocol STOU command for successful completion. The
remote server will report unique name. Default value is off.
system Show the type of operating system running on the remote machine.
tenex Set the file transfer type to that needed to talk to TENEX machines.
trace Toggle packet tracing.
Set the file transfer type to type-name. If no type is specified, the current
type is printed. The default type is network ASCII.
Set the default umask on the remote server to newmask. If newmask is omitted,
the current umask is printed.
user user-name [password] [account]
Identify yourself to the remote FTP server. If the password is not specified
and the server requires it, ftp will prompt the user for it (after disabling
local echo). If an account field is not specified, and the FTP server requires
it, the user will be prompted for it. If an account field is specified, an
account command will be relayed to the remote server after the login sequence is
completed if the remote server did not require it for logging in. Unless ftp is
invoked with “auto-login” disabled, this process is done automatically on
initial connection to the FTP server.
verbose Toggle verbose mode. In verbose mode, all responses from the FTP server are
displayed to the user. In addition, if verbose is on, when a file transfer
completes, statistics regarding the efficiency of the transfer are reported. By
default, verbose is on.
A synonym for help.
The following command can be used with ftpsec-aware servers.
prot clear | safe | confidential | private
Set the data protection level to the requested level.
The following command can be used with ftp servers that has implemented the KAUTH site
Obtain remote tickets.
Command arguments which have embedded spaces may be quoted with quote `"' marks.
ABORTING A FILE TRANSFER
To abort a file transfer, use the terminal interrupt key (usually Ctrl-C). Sending
transfers will be immediately halted. Receiving transfers will be halted by sending a ftp
protocol ABOR command to the remote server, and discarding any further data received. The
speed at which this is accomplished depends upon the remote server's support for ABOR
processing. If the remote server does not support the ABOR command, an ‘ftp>’ prompt will
not appear until the remote server has completed sending the requested file.
The terminal interrupt key sequence will be ignored when ftp has completed any local
processing and is awaiting a reply from the remote server. A long delay in this mode may
result from the ABOR processing described above, or from unexpected behavior by the remote
server, including violations of the ftp protocol. If the delay results from unexpected
remote server behavior, the local ftp program must be killed by hand.
FILE NAMING CONVENTIONS
Files specified as arguments to ftp commands are processed according to the following rules.
1. If the file name ‘-’ is specified, the stdin (for reading) or stdout (for writing) is
2. If the first character of the file name is ‘|’, the remainder of the argument is
interpreted as a shell command. Ftp then forks a shell, using popen(3) with the
argument supplied, and reads (writes) from the stdout (stdin). If the shell command
includes spaces, the argument must be quoted; e.g. “" ls -lt"”. A particularly useful
example of this mechanism is: “dir more”.
3. Failing the above checks, if ``globbing'' is enabled, local file names are expanded
according to the rules used in the csh(1); c.f. the glob command. If the ftp command
expects a single local file (.e.g. put), only the first filename generated by the
"globbing" operation is used.
4. For mget commands and get commands with unspecified local file names, the local
filename is the remote filename, which may be altered by a case, ntrans, or nmap
setting. The resulting filename may then be altered if runique is on.
5. For mput commands and put commands with unspecified remote file names, the remote
filename is the local filename, which may be altered by a ntrans or nmap setting. The
resulting filename may then be altered by the remote server if sunique is on.
FILE TRANSFER PARAMETERS
The FTP specification specifies many parameters which may affect a file transfer. The type
may be one of “ascii”, “image” (binary), “ebcdic”, and “local byte size” (for PDP-10's and
PDP-20's mostly). Ftp supports the ascii and image types of file transfer, plus local byte
size 8 for tenex mode transfers.
Ftp supports only the default values for the remaining file transfer parameters: mode, form,
THE .netrc FILE
The .netrc file contains login and initialization information used by the auto-login
process. It resides in the user's home directory. The following tokens are recognized;
they may be separated by spaces, tabs, or new-lines:
Identify a remote machine name. The auto-login process searches the .netrc file
for a machine token that matches the remote machine specified on the ftp command
line or as an open command argument. Once a match is made, the subsequent .netrc
tokens are processed, stopping when the end of file is reached or another machine
or a default token is encountered.
default This is the same as machine name except that default matches any name. There can
be only one default token, and it must be after all machine tokens. This is
normally used as:
default login anonymous password user@site
thereby giving the user automatic anonymous ftp login to machines not specified in
.netrc. This can be overridden by using the -n flag to disable auto-login.
Identify a user on the remote machine. If this token is present, the auto-login
process will initiate a login using the specified name.
Supply a password. If this token is present, the auto-login process will supply
the specified string if the remote server requires a password as part of the login
process. Note that if this token is present in the .netrc file for any user other
than anonymous, ftp will abort the auto-login process if the .netrc is readable by
anyone besides the user.
Supply an additional account password. If this token is present, the auto-login
process will supply the specified string if the remote server requires an
additional account password, or the auto-login process will initiate an ACCT
command if it does not.
Define a macro. This token functions like the ftp macdef command functions. A
macro is defined with the specified name; its contents begin with the next .netrc
line and continue until a null line (consecutive new-line characters) is
encountered. If a macro named init is defined, it is automatically executed as
the last step in the auto-login process.
Ftp uses the following environment variables.
HOME For default location of a .netrc file, if one exists.
SHELL For default shell.
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