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PROGRAM:

NAME


bitmap, bmtoa, atobm - bitmap editor and converter utilities for the X Window System

SYNOPSIS


bitmap [ -options ... ] [ filename ] [ basename ]

bmtoa [ -chars ... ] [ filename ]

atobm [ -chars cc ] [ -name variable ] [ -xhot number ] [ -yhot number ] [ filename ]

DESCRIPTION


The bitmap program is a rudimentary tool for creating or editing rectangular images made
up of 1's and 0's. Bitmaps are used in X for defining clipping regions, cursor shapes,
icon shapes, and tile and stipple patterns.

The bmtoa and atobm filters convert bitmap files (FILE FORMAT) to and from ASCII strings.
They are most commonly used to quickly print out bitmaps and to generate versions for
including in text.

COMMAND LINE OPTIONS


Bitmap supports the standard X Toolkit command line arguments (see X(7)). The following
additional arguments are supported as well.

-size WIDTHxHEIGHT
Specifies size of the grid in squares.

-sw dimension
Specifies the width of squares in pixels.

-sh dimension
Specifies the height of squares in pixels.

-gt dimension
Grid tolerance. If the square dimensions fall below the specified value, grid will be
automatically turned off.

-grid, +grid
Turns on or off the grid lines.

-axes, +axes
Turns on or off the major axes.

-dashed, +dashed
Turns on or off dashing for the frame and grid lines.

-stippled, +stippled
Turns on or off stippling of highlighted squares.

-proportional, +proportional
Turns proportional mode on or off. If proportional mode is on, square width is equal
to square height. If proportional mode is off, bitmap will use the smaller square
dimension, if they were initially different.

-dashes filename
Specifies the bitmap to be used as a stipple for dashing.

-stipple filename
Specifies the bitmap to be used as a stipple for highlighting.

-hl color
Specifies the color used for highlighting.

-fr color
Specifies the color used for the frame and grid lines.

filename
Specifies the bitmap to be initially loaded into the program. If the file does not
exist, bitmap will assume it is a new file.

basename
Specifies the basename to be used in the C code output file. If it is different than
the basename in the working file, bitmap will change it when saving the file.

Bmtoa accepts the following option:

-chars cc
This option specifies the pair of characters to use in the string version of the
bitmap. The first character is used for 0 bits and the second character is used for 1
bits. The default is to use dashes (-) for 0's and sharp signs (#) for 1's.

Atobm accepts the following options:

-chars cc
This option specifies the pair of characters to use when converting string bitmaps
into arrays of numbers. The first character represents a 0 bit and the second
character represents a 1 bit. The default is to use dashes (-) for 0's and sharp
signs (#) for 1's.

-name variable
This option specifies the variable name to be used when writing out the bitmap file.
The default is to use the basename of the filename command line argument or leave it
blank if the standard input is read.

-xhot number
This option specifies the X coordinate of the hotspot. Only positive values are
allowed. By default, no hotspot information is included.

-yhot number
This option specifies the Y coordinate of the hotspot. Only positive values are
allowed. By default, no hotspot information is included.

USAGE


Bitmap displays grid in which each square represents a single bit in the picture being
edited. Actual size of the bitmap image, as it would appear normally and inverted, can be
obtained by pressing Meta-I key. You are free to move the image popup out of the way to
continue editing. Pressing the left mouse button in the popup window or Meta-I again will
remove the real size bitmap image.

If the bitmap is to be used for defining a cursor, one of the squares in the images may be
designated as the hot spot. This determines where the cursor is actually pointing. For
cursors with sharp tips (such as arrows or fingers), this is usually at the end of the
tip; for symmetric cursors (such as crosses or bullseyes), this is usually at the center.

Bitmaps are stored as small C code fragments suitable for including in applications. They
provide an array of bits as well as symbolic constants giving the width, height, and hot
spot (if specified) that may be used in creating cursors, icons, and tiles.

EDITING


To edit a bitmap image simply click on one of the buttons with drawing commands (Point,
Curve, Line, Rectangle, etc.) and move the pointer into the bitmap grid window. Press one
of the buttons on your mouse and the appropriate action will take place. You can either
set, clear or invert the gird squares. Setting a grid square corresponds to setting a bit
in the bitmap image to 1. Clearing a grid square corresponds to setting a bit in the
bitmap image to 0. Inverting a grid square corresponds to changing a bit in the bitmap
image from 0 to 1 or 1 to 0, depending what its previous state was. The default behavior
of mouse buttons is as specified below.

MouseButton1 Set
MouseButton2 Invert
MouseButton3 Clear
MouseButton4 Clear
MouseButton5 Clear

This default behavior can be changed by setting the button function resources. An example
is provided below.

bitmap*button1Function: Set
bitmap*button2Function: Clear
bitmap*button3Function: Invert
etc.

The button function applies to all drawing commands, including copying, moving and
pasting, flood filling and setting the hot spot.

DRAWING COMMANDS


Here is the list of drawing commands accessible through the buttons at the left side of
the application's window. Some commands can be aborted by pressing A inside the bitmap
window, allowing the user to select different guiding points where applicable.

Clear
This command clears all bits in the bitmap image. The grid squares will be set to the
background color. Pressing C inside the bitmap window has the same effect.

Set This command sets all bits in the bitmap image. The grid squares will be set to the
foreground color. Pressing S inside the bitmap window has the same effect.

Invert
This command inverts all bits in the bitmap image. The grid squares will be inverted
appropriately. Pressing I inside the bitmap window has the same effect.

Mark
This command is used to mark an area of the grid by dragging out a rectangular shape
in the highlighting color. Once the area is marked, it can be operated on by a number
of commands (see Up, Down, Left, Right, Rotate, Flip, Cut, etc.) Only one marked area
can be present at any time. If you attempt to mark another area, the old mark will
vanish. The same effect can be achieved by pressing Shift-MouseButton1 and dragging
out a rectangle in the grid window. Pressing Shift-MouseButton2 will mark the entire
grid area.

Unmark
This command will cause the marked area to vanish. The same effect can be achieved by
pressing Shift-MouseButton3.

Copy
This command is used to copy an area of the grid from one location to another. If
there is no marked grid area displayed, Copy behaves just like Mark described above.
Once there is a marked grid area displayed in the highlighting color, this command has
two alternative behaviors. If you click a mouse button inside the marked area, you
will be able to drag the rectangle that represents the marked area to the desired
location. After you release the mouse button, the area will be copied. If you click
outside the marked area, Copy will assume that you wish to mark a different region of
the bitmap image, thus it will behave like Mark again.

Move
This command is used to move an area of the grid from one location to another. Its
behavior resembles the behavior of Copy command, except that the marked area will be
moved instead of copied.

Flip Horizontally
This command will flip the bitmap image with respect to the horizontal axes. If a
marked area of the grid is highlighted, it will operate only inside the marked area.
Pressing H inside the bitmap window has the same effect.

Up This command moves the bitmap image one pixel up. If a marked area of the grid is
highlighted, it will operate only inside the marked area. Pressing UpArrow inside the
bitmap window has the same effect.

Flip Vertically
This command will flip the bitmap image with respect to the vertical axes. If a
marked area of the grid is highlighted, it will operate only inside the marked area.
Pressing V inside the bitmap window has the same effect.

Left
This command moves the bitmap image one pixel to the left. If a marked area of the
grid is highlighted, it will operate only inside the marked area. Pressing LeftArrow
inside the bitmap window has the same effect.

Fold
This command will fold the bitmap image so that the opposite corners become adjacent.
This is useful when creating bitmap images for tiling. Pressing F inside the bitmap
window has the same effect.

Right
This command moves the bitmap image one pixel to the right. If a marked area of the
grid is highlighted, it will operate only inside the marked area. Pressing RightArrow
inside the bitmap window has the same effect.

Rotate Left
This command rotates the bitmap image 90 degrees to the left (counter clockwise.) If
a marked area of the grid is highlighted, it will operate only inside the marked area.
Pressing L inside the bitmap window has the same effect.

Down
This command moves the bitmap image one pixel down. If a marked area of the grid is
highlighted, it will operate only inside the marked area. Pressing DownArrow inside
the bitmap window has the same effect.

Rotate Right
This command rotates the bitmap image 90 degrees to the right (clockwise.) If a
marked area of the grid is highlighted, it will operate only inside the marked area.
Pressing R inside the bitmap window has the same effect.

Point
This command will change the grid squares underneath the mouse pointer if a mouse
button is being pressed down. If you drag the mouse button continuously, the line may
not be continuous, depending on the speed of your system and frequency of mouse motion
events.

Curve
This command will change the grid squares underneath the mouse pointer if a mouse
button is being pressed down. If you drag the mouse button continuously, it will make
sure that the line is continuous. If your system is slow or bitmap receives very few
mouse motion events, it might behave quite strangely.

Line
This command will change the gird squares in a line between two squares. Once you
press a mouse button in the grid window, bitmap will highlight the line from the
square where the mouse button was initially pressed to the square where the mouse
pointer is located. By releasing the mouse button you will cause the change to take
effect, and the highlighted line will disappear.

Rectangle
This command will change the gird squares in a rectangle between two squares. Once
you press a mouse button in the grid window, bitmap will highlight the rectangle from
the square where the mouse button was initially pressed to the square where the mouse
pointer is located. By releasing the mouse button you will cause the change to take
effect, and the highlighted rectangle will disappear.

Filled Rectangle
This command is identical to Rectangle, except at the end the rectangle will be filled
rather than outlined.

Circle
This command will change the gird squares in a circle between two squares. Once you
press a mouse button in the grid window, bitmap will highlight the circle from the
square where the mouse button was initially pressed to the square where the mouse
pointer is located. By releasing the mouse button you will cause the change to take
effect, and the highlighted circle will disappear.

Filled Circle
This command is identical to Circle, except at the end the circle will be filled
rather than outlined.

Flood Fill
This command will flood fill the connected area underneath the mouse pointer when you
click on the desired square. Diagonally adjacent squares are not considered to be
connected.

Set Hot Spot
This command designates one square in the grid as the hot spot if this bitmap image is
to be used for defining a cursor. Pressing a mouse button in the desired square will
cause a diamond shape to be displayed.

Clear Hot Spot
This command removes any designated hot spot from the bitmap image.

Undo
This command will undo the last executed command. It has depth one, that is, pressing
Undo after Undo will undo itself.

FILE MENU


The File menu commands can be accessed by pressing the File button and selecting the
appropriate menu entry, or by pressing Ctrl key with another key. These commands deal
with files and global bitmap parameters, such as size, basename, filename etc.

New This command will clear the editing area and prompt for the name of the new file to be
edited. It will not load in the new file.

Load
This command is used to load a new bitmap file into the bitmap editor. If the current
image has not been saved, user will be asked whether to save or ignore the changes.
The editor can edit only one file at a time. If you need interactive editing, run a
number of editors and use cut and paste mechanism as described below.

Insert
This command is used to insert a bitmap file into the image being currently edited.
After being prompted for the filename, click inside the grid window and drag the
outlined rectangle to the location where you want to insert the new file.

Save
This command will save the bitmap image. It will not prompt for the filename unless
it is said to be <none>. If you leave the filename undesignated or -, the output will
be piped to stdout.

Save As
This command will save the bitmap image after prompting for a new filename. It should
be used if you want to change the filename.

Resize
This command is used to resize the editing area to the new number of pixels. The size
should be entered in the WIDTHxHEIGHT format. The information in the image being
edited will not be lost unless the new size is smaller that the current image size.
The editor was not designed to edit huge files.

Rescale
This command is used to rescale the editing area to the new width and height. The
size should be entered in the WIDTHxHEIGHT format. It will not do antialiasing and
information will be lost if you rescale to the smaller sizes. Feel free to add you
own algorithms for better rescaling.

Filename
This command is used to change the filename without changing the basename nor saving
the file. If you specify - for a filename, the output will be piped to stdout.

Basename
This command is used to change the basename, if a different one from the specified
filename is desired.

Quit
This command will terminate the bitmap application. If the file was not saved, user
will be prompted and asked whether to save the image or not. This command is
preferred over killing the process.

EDIT MENU


The Edit menu commands can be accessed by pressing the Edit button and selecting the
appropriate menu entry, or by pressing Meta key with another key. These commands deal
with editing facilities such as grid, axes, zooming, cut and paste, etc.

Image
This command will display the image being edited and its inverse in its actual size in
a separate window. The window can be moved away to continue with editing. Pressing
the left mouse button in the image window will cause it to disappear from the screen.

Grid
This command controls the grid in the editing area. If the grid spacing is below the
value specified by gridTolerance resource (8 by default), the grid will be
automatically turned off. It can be enforced by explicitly activating this command.

Dashed
This command controls the stipple for drawing the grid lines. The stipple specified
by dashes resource can be turned on or off by activating this command.

Axes
This command controls the highlighting of the main axes of the image being edited.
The actual lines are not part of the image. They are provided to aid user when
constructing symmetrical images, or whenever having the main axes highlighted helps
your editing.

Stippled
This command controls the stippling of the highlighted areas of the bitmap image. The
stipple specified by stipple resource can be turned on or off by activating this
command.

Proportional
This command controls the proportional mode. If the proportional mode is on, width
and height of all image squares are forced to be equal, regardless of the proportions
of the bitmap window.

Zoom
This command controls the zoom mode. If there is a marked area of the image already
displayed, bitmap will automatically zoom into it. Otherwise, user will have to
highlight an area to be edited in the zoom mode and bitmap will automatically switch
into it. One can use all the editing commands and other utilities in the zoom mode.
When you zoom out, undo command will undo the whole zoom session.

Cut This commands cuts the contents of the highlighted image area into the internal cut
and paste buffer.

Copy
This command copies the contents of the highlighted image area into the internal cut
and paste buffer.

Paste
This command will check if there are any other bitmap applications with a highlighted
image area, or if there is something in the internal cut and paste buffer and copy it
to the image. To place the copied image, click in the editing window and drag the
outlined image to the position where you want to place i, and then release the button.

CUT AND PASTE


Bitmap supports two cut and paste mechanisms; the internal cut and paste and the global X
selection cut and paste. The internal cut and paste is used when executing copy and move
drawing commands and also cut and copy commands from the edit menu. The global X
selection cut and paste is used whenever there is a highlighted area of a bitmap image
displayed anywhere on the screen. To copy a part of image from another bitmap editor
simply highlight the desired area by using the Mark command or pressing the shift key and
dragging the area with the left mouse button. When the selected area becomes highlighted,
any other applications (such as xterm, etc.) that use primary selection will discard their
selection values and unhighlight the appropriate information. Now, use the Paste command
for the Edit menu or control mouse button to copy the selected part of image into another
(or the same) bitmap application. If you attempt to do this without a visible highlighted
image area, the bitmap will fall back to the internal cut and paste buffer and paste
whatever was there stored at the moment.

WIDGETS


Below is the widget structure of the bitmap application. Indentation indicates
hierarchical structure. The widget class name is given first, followed by the widget
instance name. All widgets except the bitmap widget are from the standard Athena widget
set.

Bitmap bitmap
TransientShell image
Box box
Label normalImage
Label invertedImage
TransientShell input
Dialog dialog
Command okay
Command cancel
TransientShell error
Dialog dialog
Command abort
Command retry
TransientShell qsave
Dialog dialog
Command yes
Command no
Command cancel
Paned parent
Form formy
MenuButton fileButton
SimpleMenu fileMenu
SmeBSB new
SmeBSB load
SmeBSB insert
SmeBSB save
SmeBSB saveAs
SmeBSB resize
SmeBSB rescale
SmeBSB filename
SmeBSB basename
SmeLine line
SmeBSB quit
MenuButton editButton
SimpleMenu editMenu
SmeBSB image
SmeBSB grid
SmeBSB dashed
SmeBSB axes
SmeBSB stippled
SmeBSB proportional
SmeBSB zoom
SmeLine line
SmeBSB cut
SmeBSB copy
SmeBSB paste
Label status
Pane pane
Bitmap bitmap
Form form
Command clear
Command set
Command invert
Toggle mark
Command unmark
Toggle copy
Toggle move
Command flipHoriz
Command up
Command flipVert
Command left
Command fold
Command right
Command rotateLeft
Command down
Command rotateRight
Toggle point
Toggle curve
Toggle line
Toggle rectangle
Toggle filledRectangle
Toggle circle
Toggle filledCircle
Toggle floodFill
Toggle setHotSpot
Command clearHotSpot
Command undo

COLORS


If you would like bitmap to be viewable in color, include the following in the #ifdef
COLOR section of the file you read with xrdb:

*customization: -color

This will cause bitmap to pick up the colors in the app-defaults color customization file:

/etc/X11/app-defaults/Bitmap-color

BITMAP WIDGET


Bitmap widget is a stand-alone widget for editing raster images. It is not designed to
edit large images, although it may be used in that purpose as well. It can be freely
incorporated with other applications and used as a standard editing tool. The following
are the resources provided by the bitmap widget.

Bitmap Widget

Header file Bitmap.h
Class bitmapWidgetClass
Class Name Bitmap
Superclass Bitmap

All the Simple Widget resources plus ...

Name Class Type Default Value
foreground Foreground Pixel XtDefaultForeground
highlight Highlight Pixel XtDefaultForeground
framing Framing Pixel XtDefaultForeground

gridTolerance GridTolerance Dimension 8
size Size String 32x32
dashed Dashed Boolean True
grid Grid Boolean True
stippled Stippled Boolean True
proportional Proportional Boolean True
axes Axes Boolean False
squareWidth SquareWidth Dimension 16
squareHeight SquareHeight Dimension 16
margin Margin Dimension 16
xHot XHot Position NotSet (-1)
yHot YHot Position NotSet (-1)
button1Function Button1Function DrawingFunction Set
button2Function Button2Function DrawingFunction Invert
button3Function Button3Function DrawingFunction Clear
button4Function Button4Function DrawingFunction Invert
button5Function Button5Function DrawingFunction Invert
filename Filename String None ("")
basename Basename String None ("")

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