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PROGRAM:

NAME


cflow — generate a C-language flowgraph (DEVELOPMENT)

SYNOPSIS


cflow [−r] [−d num] [−D name[=def]]... [−i incl] [−I dir]...
[−U dir]... file...

DESCRIPTION


The cflow utility shall analyze a collection of object files or assembler, C-language,
lex, or yacc source files, and attempt to build a graph, written to standard output,
charting the external references.

OPTIONS


The cflow utility shall conform to the Base Definitions volume of POSIX.1‐2008, Section
12.2, Utility Syntax Guidelines, except that the order of the −D, −I, and −U options
(which are identical to their interpretation by c99) is significant.

The following options shall be supported:

−d num Indicate the depth at which the flowgraph is cut off. The application shall
ensure that the argument num is a decimal integer. By default this is a very
large number (typically greater than 32000). Attempts to set the cut-off depth
to a non-positive integer shall be ignored.

−i incl Increase the number of included symbols. The incl option-argument is one of the
following characters:

x Include external and static data symbols. The default shall be to include
only functions in the flowgraph.

_ (Underscore) Include names that begin with an <underscore>. The default
shall be to exclude these functions (and data if −i x is used).

−r Reverse the caller:callee relationship, producing an inverted listing showing
the callers of each function. The listing shall also be sorted in
lexicographical order by callee.

OPERANDS


The following operand is supported:

file The pathname of a file for which a graph is to be generated. Filenames suffixed
by .l shall shall be taken to be lex input, .y as yacc input, .c as c99 input,
and .i as the output of c99 −E. Such files shall be processed as appropriate,
determined by their suffix.

Files suffixed by .s (conventionally assembler source) may have more limited
information extracted from them.

STDIN


Not used.

INPUT FILES


The input files shall be object files or assembler, C-language, lex, or yacc source files.

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES


The following environment variables shall affect the execution of cflow:

LANG Provide a default value for the internationalization variables that are unset or
null. (See the Base Definitions volume of POSIX.1‐2008, Section 8.2,
Internationalization Variables for the precedence of internationalization
variables used to determine the values of locale categories.)

LC_ALL If set to a non-empty string value, override the values of all the other
internationalization variables.

LC_COLLATE
Determine the locale for the ordering of the output when the −r option is used.

LC_CTYPE Determine the locale for the interpretation of sequences of bytes of text data
as characters (for example, single-byte as opposed to multi-byte characters in
arguments and input files).

LC_MESSAGES
Determine the locale that should be used to affect the format and contents of
diagnostic messages written to standard error.

NLSPATH Determine the location of message catalogs for the processing of LC_MESSAGES.

ASYNCHRONOUS EVENTS


Default.

STDOUT


The flowgraph written to standard output shall be formatted as follows:

"%d %s:%s\n", <reference number>, <global>, <definition>

Each line of output begins with a reference (that is, line) number, followed by
indentation of at least one column position per level. This is followed by the name of
the global, a <colon>, and its definition. Normally globals are only functions not defined
as an external or beginning with an <underscore>; see the OPTIONS section for the −i
inclusion option. For information extracted from C-language source, the definition
consists of an abstract type declaration (for example, char *) and, delimited by angle
brackets, the name of the source file and the line number where the definition was found.
Definitions extracted from object files indicate the filename and location counter under
which the symbol appeared (for example, text).

Once a definition of a name has been written, subsequent references to that name contain
only the reference number of the line where the definition can be found. For undefined
references, only "<>" shall be written.

STDERR


The standard error shall be used only for diagnostic messages.

OUTPUT FILES


None.

EXTENDED DESCRIPTION


None.

EXIT STATUS


The following exit values shall be returned:

0 Successful completion.

>0 An error occurred.

CONSEQUENCES OF ERRORS


Default.

The following sections are informative.

APPLICATION USAGE


Files produced by lex and yacc cause the reordering of line number declarations, and this
can confuse cflow. To obtain proper results, the input of yacc or lex must be directed to
cflow.

EXAMPLES


Given the following in file.c:

int i;
int f();
int g();
int h();
int
main()
{
f();
g();
f();
}
int
f()
{
i = h();
}

The command:

cflow −i x file.c

produces the output:

1 main: int(), <file.c 6>
2 f: int(), <file.c 13>
3 h: <>
4 i: int, <file.c 1>
5 g: <>

RATIONALE


None.

FUTURE DIRECTIONS


None.

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