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PROGRAM:

NAME


chgrp — change the file group ownership

SYNOPSIS


chgrp [−h] group file...

chgrp −R [−H|−L|−P] group file...

DESCRIPTION


The chgrp utility shall set the group ID of the file named by each file operand to the
group ID specified by the group operand.

For each file operand, or, if the −R option is used, each file encountered while walking
the directory trees specified by the file operands, the chgrp utility shall perform
actions equivalent to the chown() function defined in the System Interfaces volume of
POSIX.1‐2008, called with the following arguments:

* The file operand shall be used as the path argument.

* The user ID of the file shall be used as the owner argument.

* The specified group ID shall be used as the group argument.

Unless chgrp is invoked by a process with appropriate privileges, the set-user-ID and set-
group-ID bits of a regular file shall be cleared upon successful completion; the set-user-
ID and set-group-ID bits of other file types may be cleared.

OPTIONS


The chgrp utility shall conform to the Base Definitions volume of POSIX.1‐2008, Section
12.2, Utility Syntax Guidelines.

The following options shall be supported by the implementation:

−h For each file operand that names a file of type symbolic link, chgrp shall
attempt to set the group ID of the symbolic link instead of the file referenced
by the symbolic link.

−H If the −R option is specified and a symbolic link referencing a file of type
directory is specified on the command line, chgrp shall change the group of the
directory referenced by the symbolic link and all files in the file hierarchy
below it.

−L If the −R option is specified and a symbolic link referencing a file of type
directory is specified on the command line or encountered during the traversal
of a file hierarchy, chgrp shall change the group of the directory referenced by
the symbolic link and all files in the file hierarchy below it.

−P If the −R option is specified and a symbolic link is specified on the command
line or encountered during the traversal of a file hierarchy, chgrp shall change
the group ID of the symbolic link. The chgrp utility shall not follow the
symbolic link to any other part of the file hierarchy.

−R Recursively change file group IDs. For each file operand that names a directory,
chgrp shall change the group of the directory and all files in the file
hierarchy below it. Unless a −H, −L, or −P option is specified, it is
unspecified which of these options will be used as the default.

Specifying more than one of the mutually-exclusive options −H, −L, and −P shall not be
considered an error. The last option specified shall determine the behavior of the
utility.

OPERANDS


The following operands shall be supported:

group A group name from the group database or a numeric group ID. Either specifies a
group ID to be given to each file named by one of the file operands. If a
numeric group operand exists in the group database as a group name, the group ID
number associated with that group name is used as the group ID.

file A pathname of a file whose group ID is to be modified.

STDIN


Not used.

INPUT FILES


None.

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES


The following environment variables shall affect the execution of chgrp:

LANG Provide a default value for the internationalization variables that are unset or
null. (See the Base Definitions volume of POSIX.1‐2008, Section 8.2,
Internationalization Variables for the precedence of internationalization
variables used to determine the values of locale categories.)

LC_ALL If set to a non-empty string value, override the values of all the other
internationalization variables.

LC_CTYPE Determine the locale for the interpretation of sequences of bytes of text data
as characters (for example, single-byte as opposed to multi-byte characters in
arguments).

LC_MESSAGES
Determine the locale that should be used to affect the format and contents of
diagnostic messages written to standard error.

NLSPATH Determine the location of message catalogs for the processing of LC_MESSAGES.

ASYNCHRONOUS EVENTS


Default.

STDOUT


Not used.

STDERR


The standard error shall be used only for diagnostic messages.

OUTPUT FILES


None.

EXTENDED DESCRIPTION


None.

EXIT STATUS


The following exit values shall be returned:

0 The utility executed successfully and all requested changes were made.

>0 An error occurred.

CONSEQUENCES OF ERRORS


Default.

The following sections are informative.

APPLICATION USAGE


Only the owner of a file or the user with appropriate privileges may change the owner or
group of a file.

Some implementations restrict the use of chgrp to a user with appropriate privileges when
the group specified is not the effective group ID or one of the supplementary group IDs of
the calling process.

EXAMPLES


None.

RATIONALE


The System V and BSD versions use different exit status codes. Some implementations used
the exit status as a count of the number of errors that occurred; this practice is
unworkable since it can overflow the range of valid exit status values. The standard
developers chose to mask these by specifying only 0 and >0 as exit values.

The functionality of chgrp is described substantially through references to chown(). In
this way, there is no duplication of effort required for describing the interactions of
permissions, multiple groups, and so on.

FUTURE DIRECTIONS


None.

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