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dvipdfmx, xdvipdfmx, dvipdfm - produce PDF files directly from DVI files


dvipdfmx or dvipdfm [options] file[.dvi]


The program dvipdfmx generates a PDF file from a DVI file. DVI files are the output
produced by TeX. groff can also generate DVI files using grodvi(-Tdvi).

In TeX Live, dvipdfm is another incarnation of dvipdfmx rather than a separate program.
Compatibility is attempted as best as possible.

In addition, xdvipdfmx is yet another incarnation. It is used as the back end for
xetex(1) and is not intended to be invoked directly.

dvipdfmx recognizes several commonly used \special commands, which are extensions to the
DVI format. Specifically, it understands color specials, papersize specials, tpic
specials (which allow it to be used with pic), hypertex specials, and some PostScript
specials. These extensions allow documents to contain color, figures, and hyperlinks.
The program tries to mimic the behavior of dvips where possible, so that many macro
packages produced for use with dvips will also work with dvipdfmx. In addition,
understands its own specific \special commands to allow access to PDF features such as
annotations and bookmarks.

Unrecognized specials will generate warning messages. Packages that may need a dvipdfm or
dvipdfmx driver option include geometry, hyperref, bookmark, graphicx, and xcolor.

For issues related to bounding boxes (and hence image sizes), see extractbb(1).


Unlike with many other programs, argument values must be separated from option names by a
space, not an = sign; option names cannot be abbreviated; and - and -- cannot be used

-c Ignore (or accept) color \specials. By default, color \specials are interpreted
normally (changeable in the configuration file). The -c option may be used to
produce a black and white document from a document containing color TeX \special

Enable dvipdfm emulation mode. This is the default if the executable name is

-d number
Specify the number of decimal digits in the PDF output; must be between 0 and 5,
default is 2.

-e Ignored, for (semi-)compatibility with dvipdfm.

-f map_file
Read the font map file given by map_file. The default map file in TeX Live is
pdftex.map, as defined in the configuration file. --help Show a help message and
exit successfully.

-l Select landscape mode. In other words, exchange the x and y dimensions of the paper.

-m mag
Magnify the input document by mag.

-o filename
Set the PDF output file name; use `-' for stdout. By default, the name of the output
file is derived from the input, that is, file.pdf.

-p paper
Select the papersize by name (e.g., letter, legal, ledger, tabloid, a3, a4, or a5 )

-q Quiet mode.

-r size
Set resolution of bitmapped fonts to size dots per inch. Bitmapped fonts are
generated by the Kpathsea library, which uses Metafont. Bitmapped fonts are included
as Type 3 fonts in the PDF output file. Default is 600.

-s page_specifications
Select the pages of the DVI file to be processed; default is `-', meaning all pages.
The page_specifications consists of a comma separated list of page_ranges:
page_specifications := page_specification[,page_specifications]
page_specification := single_page|page_range
page_range := [first_page]-[last_page]
An empty first_page is treated as the first page of the DVI file, and an empty
last_page is treated as the last page of the DVI file.


-s 1,3,5
includes pages 1, 3, and 5;

-s - includes all pages;

-s -,-
includes two copies of all pages in the DVI file; and

-s 1-10
includes the first ten pages of the DVI file.

-t Search for thumbnail images of each page in the directory named by the TMPDIR
environment variable. The thumbnail images must be named in a specific format: the
same base name as the DVI file and the page number as the extension to the file name.
dvipdfmx does not generate such thumbnails itself, but it is distributed with a
wrapper program named dvipdft that does so.

Show a help message and exit successfully.

-v Increase verbosity. Results of the -v option are cumulative (e.g., -vv increases the
verbosity by two increments). Maximum verbosity is four.

--kpathsea-debug number
Have Kpathsea output debugging information; `-1' for everything (voluminous).

-x x_offset
Set the left margin to x_offset. The default left margin is 1.0in. The dimension
may be specified in any units understood by TeX (e.g., bp, pt, in, cm).

-y y_offset
Set the top margin to y_offset. The default top margin is 1.0in. The dimension may
be specified in any units understood by TeX (e.g., bpt, pt, in, cm).

-z number
Set the compression level to compression_level. Compression levels range from 0 (no
compression) to 9 (maximum compression) and correspond to the values understood by
zlib; default is 9.

-C number
Miscellaneous option flags; see the --help output for details.

-D template
PostScript to PDF conversion command line template; the default is taken from the
configuration file, which also gives all the details and mentions several

-E Always try to embed fonts, ignoring licensing flags, etc.

-I number
Image cache life in hours; default is -2, meaning to not cache images at all. A
value of -1 means to erase all old images and also new images; 0 means to erase all
old images but leave new images.

-K number
Encryption key length; default 40.

-M Process MetaPost PostScript output.

-O number
Set maximum depth of open bookmark items; default 0.

-P number
Set permission flags for PDF encryption; default 0x003C.

-S Enable PDF encryption.

-V number
Set PDF minor version; default 5 (from the configuration file).


When including images with dvipdfmx, their bounding boxes should be generated by running
extractbb. The result will be in an .xbb file; the xbb information is the same as for the
PDF format.


dvipdfmx uses the kpathsea library for locating the files that it opens. Hence, the
environment variables documented in the Kpathsea library documentation influence dvipdfmx.
It also uses the value of the environment variable TMPDIR as the directory to search for
thumbnail images of each page.

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