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g.message - Prints a message, warning, progress info, or fatal error in the GRASS way.
This module should be used in scripts for messages served to user.


general, support, scripts


g.message --help
g.message [-wedpiv] message=string [debug=integer] [--help] [--verbose] [--quiet]

Print message as warning

Print message as fatal error

Print message as debug message

Print message as progress info

Print message in all modes except of quiet mode
Message is printed on GRASS_VERBOSE>=1

Print message only in verbose mode
Message is printed only on GRASS_VERBOSE>=3

Print usage summary

Verbose module output

Quiet module output

Force launching GUI dialog

message=string [required]
Text of the message to be printed
Message is printed on GRASS_VERBOSE>=2

Level to use for debug messages
Options: 0-5
Default: 1


This program is to be used in Shell/Perl/Python scripts, so the author does not need to
use the echo program. The advantage of g.message is that it formats messages just like
other GRASS modules do and that its functionality is influenced by the GRASS_VERBOSE and
GRASS_MESSAGE_FORMAT environment variables.

The program can be used for standard informative messages as well as warnings (-w flag)
and fatal errors (-e flag). For debugging purposes, the -d flag will cause g.message to
print a debugging message at the given level.


Messages containing "=" must use the full message= syntax so the parser doesn’t get

If you want a long message (multi-line) to be dealt with as a single paragraph, use a
single call to g.message with text split in the script using the backslash as the last
character. (In shell scripts don’t close the "quote")

A blank line may be obtained with
g.message message=""

Redundant whitespace will be stripped away.

It’s advisable to single quote the messages that are to be printed literally. It prevents
a number of characters (most notably, space and the dollar sign ’$’) from being treated
specifically by the shell.

When it is necessary to include, for example, a variable’s value as part of the message,
the double quotes may be used, which do not deprive the dollar sign of its special
variable-expansion powers.

While it is known that the interactive Bash instances may treat the exclamation mark ’!’
character specifically (making single quoting of it necessary), it shouldn’t be the case
for the non-interactive instances of Bash. Nonetheless, to avoid context-based confusion
later on you are enouraged to single-quote messages that do not require $VARIABLE

Usage in Python scripts
GRASS Python Scripting Library defines special wrappers for g.message.

· debug() for g.message -d

· error() for g.message -e

· fatal() for g.message -e + exit()

· info() for g.message -i

· message() for g.message

· verbose() for g.message -v

· warning() for g.message -w

Note: The Python shell in the wxGUI can be used for entering the following sample code:

import grass.script as gcore
gcore.warning("This is a warning")
is identical with
g.message -w message="This is a warning"

Controlled by the "GRASS_VERBOSE" environment variable. Typically this is set using the
--quiet or --verbose command line options.

· 0 - only errors and warnings are printed

· 1 - progress messages are printed

· 2 - all module messages are printed

· 3 - additional verbose messages are printed

Controlled by the "DEBUG" GRASS gisenv variable (set with g.gisenv).
Recommended levels:

· 1 - message is printed once or few times per module

· 3 - each row (raster) or line (vector)

· 5 - each cell (raster) or point (vector)

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