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hwloc-ls - Online in the Cloud

Run hwloc-ls in OnWorks free hosting provider over Ubuntu Online, Fedora Online, Windows online emulator or MAC OS online emulator

This is the command hwloc-ls that can be run in the OnWorks free hosting provider using one of our multiple free online workstations such as Ubuntu Online, Fedora Online, Windows online emulator or MAC OS online emulator

PROGRAM:

NAME


lstopo, lstopo-no-graphics, hwloc-ls - Show the topology of the system

SYNOPSIS


lstopo [ options ]... [ filename ]

lstopo-no-graphics [ options ]... [ filename ]

hwloc-ls [ options ]... [ filename ]

Note that hwloc(7) provides a detailed explanation of the hwloc system; it should be read
before reading this man page

OPTIONS


--of <format>, --output-format <format>
Enforce the output in the given format. See the OUTPUT FORMATS section below.

-i <file>, --input <file>
Read topology from XML file <file> (instead of discovering the topology on the
local machine). If <file> is "-", the standard input is used. XML support must
have been compiled in to hwloc for this option to be usable.

-i <directory>, --input <directory>
Read topology from the chroot specified by <directory> (instead of discovering the
topology on the local machine). This option is generally only available on Linux.
The chroot was usually created by gathering another machine topology with hwloc-
gather-topology.

-i <specification>, --input <specification>
Simulate a fake hierarchy (instead of discovering the topology on the local
machine). If <specification> is "node:2 pu:3", the topology will contain two NUMA
nodes with 3 processing units in each of them. The <specification> string must end
with a number of PUs.

--if <format>, --input-format <format>
Enforce the input in the given format, among xml, fsroot and synthetic.

--export-synthetic-flags <flags>
Enforce flags when exporting to the synthetic format. These flags are passed to
hwloc_topology_export_synthetic(). A value of 2 reverts to the format of hwloc
v1.9. A value of 3 reverts to the original minimalistic format (before v1.9).

-v --verbose
Include additional detail. The hwloc-info tool may be used to display even more
information about specific objects.

-s --silent
Reduce the amount of details to show.

-f --force
If the destination file already exists, overwrite it.

-l --logical
Display hwloc logical indexes instead of physical/OS indexes (default for console
output). These indexes are prefixed with "L#". The physical indexes of some
objects (PU and Node by default, all objects if verbose) will appear as object
attribute "P#...".

-p --physical
Display OS/physical indexes instead of hwloc logical indexes (default for graphical
output). These indexes are prefixed with "P#" instead of "L#" in the console
output.

-c --cpuset
Display the cpuset of each object.

-C --cpuset-only
Only display the cpuset of each object; do not display anything else about the
object.

--taskset
Show CPU set strings in the format recognized by the taskset command-line program
instead of hwloc-specific CPU set string format. This option should be combined
with --cpuset or --cpuset-only, otherwise it will imply --cpuset.

--only <type>
Only show objects of the given type in the textual output.

--ignore <type>
Ignore all objects of type <type> in the topology. hwloc supports ignoring any
type except PUs and I/O devices. However lstopo still offers PU ignoring by hiding
PU objects in the graphical and textual outputs. Note that PU may not be ignored
in the XML output. Note also that the top-level object type cannot be ignored
(usually Machine or System).

--no-caches
Do not show caches.

--no-useless-caches
Do not show caches which do not have a hierarchical impact. This calls
hwloc_topology_ignore_type_keep_structure() for cache objects.

--no-icaches
Do not show Instruction caches, only Data and Unified caches are displayed.

--whole-system
Do not consider administration limitations.

--merge
Do not show levels that do not have a hierarchical impact. This calls
hwloc_topology_ignore_all_keep_structure().

--no-collapse
Do not collapse identical PCI devices. By default, identical sibling PCI devices
(such as many virtual functions inside a single physical device) are collapsed.

--restrict <cpuset>
Restrict the topology to the given cpuset.

--restrict binding
Restrict the topology to the current process binding. This option requires the use
of the actual current machine topology (or any other topology with --thissystem or
with HWLOC_THISSYSTEM set to 1 in the environment).

--restrict-flags <flags>
Enforce flags when restricting the topology. The default is 0. These flags are
passed to hwloc_topology_restrict().

--no-io
Do not show any I/O device or bridge. By default, common devices (GPUs, NICs,
block devices, ...) and interesting bridges are shown.

--no-bridges
Do not show any I/O bridge except hostbridges. By default, common devices (GPUs,
NICs, block devices, ...) and interesting bridges are shown.

--whole-io
Show all I/O devices and bridges. By default, only common devices (GPUs, NICs,
block devices, ...) and interesting bridges are shown.

--thissystem
Assume that the selected backend provides the topology for the system on which we
are running. This is useful when using --restrict binding and loading a custom
topology such as an XML file.

--pid <pid>
Detect topology as seen by process <pid>, i.e. as if process <pid> did the
discovery itself. Note that this can for instance change the set of allowed
processors. Also show this process current CPU binding by marking the
corresponding PUs (in Green in the graphical output, see the COLORS section below,
or by appending (binding) to the verbose text output). If 0 is given as pid, the
current binding for the lstopo process will be shown.

--ps --top
Show existing processes as misc objects in the output. To avoid uselessly
cluttering the output, only processes that are restricted to some part of the
machine are shown. On Linux, kernel threads are not shown. If many processes
appear, the output may become hard to read anyway, making the hwloc-ps program more
practical.

--fontsize <size>
Set size of text font.

--gridsize <size>
Set size of margin between elements.

--horiz, --horiz=<type1,...>
Horizontal graphical layout instead of nearly 4/3 ratio. If a comma-separated list
of types is given, the layout only applies to the corresponding containers.

--vert, --vert=<type1,...>
Vertical graphical layout instead of nearly 4/3 ratio. If a comma-separated list
of types is given, the layout only applies to the corresponding containers.

--rect, --rect=<type1,...>
Rectangular graphical layout with nearly 4/3 ratio, including when placing NUMA
nodes. If a comma-separated list of types is given, the layout only applies to the
corresponding containers.

--no-legend
Remove the text legend at the bottom.

--append-legend <line>
Append the line of text to the bottom of the legend in graphical mode. If the line
is too long, it will be truncated in the output. If adding multiple lines, each
line should be given separately by passing this option multiple times.

--version
Report version and exit.

DESCRIPTION


lstopo and lstopo-no-graphics are capable of displaying a topological map of the system in
a variety of different output formats. The only difference between lstopo and lstopo-no-
graphics is that graphical outputs are only supported by lstopo, to reduce dependencies on
external libraries. hwloc-ls is identical to lstopo-no-graphics.

The filename specified directly implies the output format that will be used; see the
OUTPUT FORMATS section, below. Output formats that support color will indicate specific
characteristics about individual CPUs by their color; see the COLORS section, below.

OUTPUT FORMATS


By default, if no output filename is specific, the output is sent to a graphical window if
possible in the current environment (DISPLAY environment variable set on Unix, etc.).
Otherwise, a text summary is displayed in the console.

The filename on the command line usually determines the format of the output. There are a
few filenames that indicate specific output formats and devices (e.g., a filename of "-"
will output a text summary to stdout), but most filenames indicate the desired output
format by their suffix (e.g., "topo.png" loading="lazy" will output a PNG-format file).

The format of the output may also be changed with "--of". For instance, "--of pdf" will
generate a PDF-format file on the standard output, while "--of fig toto" will output a
Xfig-format file named "toto".

The list of currently supported formats is given below. Any of them may be used with
"--of" or as a filename suffix.

default
Send the output to a window or to the console depending on the environment.

console
Send a text summary to stdout. Binding, unallowed or offline processors are only
annotated in this mode if verbose; see the COLORS section, below.

ascii Output an ASCII art representation of the map (formerly called txt). If outputting
to stdout and if colors are supported on the terminal, the output will be
colorized.

fig Output a representation of the map that can be loaded in Xfig.

pdf If lstopo was compiled with the proper support, lstopo outputs a PDF representation
of the map.

ps If lstopo was compiled with the proper support, lstopo outputs a Postscript
representation of the map.

png If lstopo was compiled with the proper support, lstopo outputs a PNG representation
of the map.

svg If lstopo was compiled with the proper support, lstopo outputs an SVG
representation of the map.

synthetic
If the topology is symmetric (which requires that the root object has its
symmetric_subtree field set), lstopo outputs a synthetic description string. This
output may be reused as an input synthetic topology description later. Note that
I/O devices often cause topology asymmetry. Adding --no-io may then be useful when
the synthetic export fails. See also the Synthetic topologies section in the
documentation.

xml If lstopo was compiled with the proper support, lstopo outputs an XML
representation of the map. It may be reused later, even on another machine, with
lstopo --input, the HWLOC_XMLFILE environment variable, or the
hwloc_topology_set_xml() function.

The following special names may be used:

- Send a text summary to stdout.

/dev/stdout
Send a text summary to stdout. It is effectively the same as specifying "-".

-.<format>
If the entire filename is "-.<format>", lstopo behaves as if "--of <format> -" was
given, which means a file of the given format is sent to the standard output.

See the output of "lstopo --help" for a specific list of what graphical output formats are
supported in your hwloc installation.

COLORS


Individual CPUs are colored in the graphical output formats to indicate different
characteristics:

Green The topology is reported as seen by a specific process (see --pid), and the given
CPU is in this process CPU binding mask.

White The CPU is in the allowed set (see below). If the topology is reported as seen by
a specific process (see --pid), the given CPU is also not in this process CPU
binding mask.

Red The CPU is not in the allowed set (see below).

Black The CPU is offline (not all OS's support displaying offline CPUs).

The "allowed set" is the set of CPUs to which the current process is allowed to bind. The
allowed set is usually either inherited from the parent process or set by administrative
qpolicies on the system. Linux cpusets are one example of limiting the allowed set for a
process and its children to be less than the full set of CPUs on the system.

Different processes may therefore have different CPUs in the allowed set. Hence, invoking
lstopo in different contexts and/or as different users may display different colors for
the same individual CPUs (e.g., running lstopo in one context may show a specific CPU as
red, but running lstopo in a different context may show the same CPU as white).

Some lstopo output modes, e.g. the console mode (default non-graphical output), do not
support colors at all. The console mode displays the above characteristics by appending
text to each PU line if verbose messages are enabled.

CUSTOM COLORS


The color of each object in the graphical output may be enforced by specifying a
"lstopoStyle" info attribute in that object. Its value should be a semi-colon separated
list of "<attribute>=#rrggbb" where rr, gg and bb are the RGB components of a color, each
between 0 and 255, in hexadecimal (00 to ff). <attribute> may be

Background
Sets the background color of the main object box.

Background2
Sets the background color of the additional box for the object, for instance the
memory box inside a NUMA node box.

Text Sets the color of the text showing the object name, type, index, etc.

Text2 Sets the color of the additional text near the object, for instance the link speed
behind a PCI bridge.

The "lstopoStyle" info may be added to a temporarily-saved XML topologies with hwloc-
annotate, or with hwloc_obj_add_info(). For instance, to display all core objects in blue
(with white names):

lstopo save.xml
hwloc-annotate save.xml save.xml core:all info lstopoStyle
"Background=#0000ff;Text=#ffffff"
lstopo -i save.xml

LAYOUT


In its graphical output, lstopo uses simple rectangular heuristics to try to achieve a 4/3
ratio between width and height. However, in the particular case of NUMA nodes, the layout
is always a flat rectangle, to avoid letting the user believe any particular NUMA topology
(lstopo is not able to render that yet). The layout of a level may be changed with
--vert, --horiz, and --rect.

EXAMPLES


To display the machine topology in textual mode:

lstopo-no-graphics

To display the machine topology in ascii-art mode:

lstopo-no-graphics -.ascii

To display in graphical mode (assuming that the DISPLAY environment variable is set to a
relevant value):

lstopo

To export the topology to a PNG file:

lstopo file.png

To export an XML file on a machine and later display the corresponding graphical output on
another machine:

machine1$ lstopo file.xml
<transfer file.xml from machine1 to machine2>
machine2$ lstopo --input file.xml

To save the current machine topology to XML and later reload it faster while still
considering it as the current machine:

$ lstopo file.xml
<...>
$ lstopo --input file.xml --thissystem

To restrict an XML topology to only physical processors 0, 1, 4 and 5:

lstopo --input file.xml --restrict 0x33 newfile.xml

To restrict an XML topology to only numa node whose logical index is 1:

lstopo --input file.xml --restrict $(hwloc-calc --input file.xml node:1) newfile.xml

To display a summary of the topology:

lstopo -s

To get more details about the topology:

lstopo -v

To only show cores:

lstopo --only core

To show cpusets:

lstopo --cpuset

To only show the cpusets of package:

lstopo --only package --cpuset-only

Simulate a fake hierarchy; this example shows with 2 NUMA nodes of 2 processor units:

lstopo --input "n:2 2"

To count the number of logical processors in the system

lstopo --only pu | wc -l

To append the kernel release and version to the graphical legend:

lstopo --append-legend "Kernel release: $(uname -r)" --append-legend "Kernel version:
$(uname -v)"

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