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**PROGRAM:**

**NAME**

proj - forward cartographic projection filter

invproj - inverse cartographic projection filter

**SYNOPSIS**

**proj**[

**-bceEfiIlmorsStTvVwW**[

__args__] ] [

**+args**] file[s]

**invproj**[

**-bceEfiIlmorsStTwW**[

__args__] ] [

**+args**] file[s]

**DESCRIPTION**

__Proj__and

__invproj__perform respective forward and inverse transformation of cartographic

data to or from cartesian data with a wide range of selectable projection functions.

The following control parameters can appear in any order:

**-b**Special option for binary coordinate data input and output through standard input

and standard output. Data is assumed to be in system type

__double__floating point

words. This option is to be used when

**proj**is a

__son__process and allows bypassing

formatting operations.

**-i**Selects binary input only (see

**-b**

**option).**

**-I**alternate method to specify inverse projection. Redundant when used with

**invproj.**

**-o**Selects binary output only (see

**-b**

**option).**

**-t**

__a__

__A__specifies a character employed as the first character to denote a control line to

be passed through without processing. This option applicable to ascii input only.

(# is the default value).

**-e**

__string__

__String__is an arbitrary string to be output if an error is detected during data

transformations. The default value is: *\t*. Note that if the

**-b,**

**-i**or

**-o**

options are employed, an error is returned as HUGE_VAL value for both return

values.

**-E**causes the input coordinates to be copied to the output line prior to printing the

converted values.

**-l**

__[p|P|=|e|u|d]__

**id**

List projection identifiers with

**-l,**

**-lp**or

**-lP**

**(expanded)**that can be selected

with

**+proj.**

**-l=**

__id__gives expanded description of projection

__id.__List ellipsoid

identifiers with

**-le,**that can be selected with

**+ellps,**

**-lu**list of cartesian to

meter conversion factors that can be selected with

**+units**or

**-ld**list of datums

that can be selected with

**+datum.**

**-r**This options reverses the order of the expected input from longitude-latitude or x-

y to latitude-longitude or y-x.

**-s**This options reverses the order of the output from x-y or longitude-latitude to y-x

or latitude-longitude.

**-S**Causes estimation of

__meridinal__and

__parallel__scale factors,

__area__scale factor and

__angular__

__distortion,__and

__maximum__and

__minimum__scale factors to be listed between <>

for each input point. For conformal projections meridinal and parallel scales

factors will be equal and angular distortion zero. Equal area projections will

have an area factor of 1.

**-m**

__mult__

The cartesian data may be scaled by the

__mult__parameter. When processing data in a

forward projection mode the cartesian output values are multiplied by

__mult__

otherwise the input cartesian values are divided by

__mult__before inverse projection.

If the first two characters of

__mult__are 1/ or 1: then the reciprocal value of

__mult__

is employed.

**-f**

__format__

__Format__is a

__printf__format string to control the form of the output values. For

inverse projections, the output will be in degrees when this option is employed.

The default format is "%.2f" for forward projection and DMS for inverse.

**-[w|W]**

__n__

__N__is the number of significant fractional digits to employ for seconds output (when

the option is not specified,

**-w3**is assumed). When

**-W**is employed the fields will

be constant width and with leading zeroes.

**-v**causes a listing of cartographic control parameters tested for and used by the

program to be printed prior to input data. Should not be used with the

**-T**option.

**-V**This option causes an expanded annotated listing of the characteristics of the

projected point.

**-v**

**is**

**implied**

**with**

**this**

**option.**

**-T**

__ulow,uhi,vlow,vhi,res[,umax,vmax]__

This option creates a set of bivariate Chebyshev polynomial coefficients that

approximate the selected cartographic projection on

__stdout.__The values

__low__and

__hi__

denote the range of the input where the

__u__or

__v__prefixes apply to respective

longitude-x or latitude-y depending upon whether a forward or inverse projection is

selected.

__Res__is an integer number specifying the power of 10 precision of the

approximation. For example, a

__res__of -3 specifies an approximation with an

accuracy better than .001.

__Umax,__and

__vmax__specify maximum degree of the

polynomials (default: 15). See also:

**fproj(1).**

The

**+args**run-line arguments are associated with cartographic parameters and usage varies

with projection and for a complete description see

__Cartographic__

__Projection__

__Procedures__

__for__

__the__

__UNIX__

__Environment—A__

__User's__

__Manual__and supplementary documentation for Release 4.

Additional projection control parameters may be contained in two auxiliary control files:

the first is optionally referenced with the

**+init=**

__file:id__and the second is always

processed after the name of the projection has been established from either the run-line

or the contents of

**+init**file. The environment parameter

**PROJ_LIB**establishes the default

directory for a file reference without an absolute path. This is also used for supporting

files like datum shift files.

One or more

__files__(processed in left to right order) specify the source of data to be

transformed. A - will specify the location of processing standard input. If no files are

specified, the input is assumed to be from

__stdin.__For ASCII input data the two data

values must be in the first two white space separated fields and when both input and

output are ASCII all trailing portions of the input line are appended to the output line.

Input geographic data (longitude and latitude) must be in DMS format and input cartesian

data must be in units consistent with the ellipsoid major axis or sphere radius units.

Output geographic coordinates will be in DMS (if the

**-w**switch is not employed) and

precise to 0.001" with trailing, zero-valued minute-second fields deleted.

**EXAMPLE**

The following script

proj +proj=utm +lon_0=112w +ellps=clrk66 -r <<EOF

45d15'33.1" 111.5W

45d15.551666667N -111d30

+45.25919444444 111d30'000w

EOF

will perform UTM forward projection with a standard UTM central meridian nearest longitude

112°W. The geographic values of this example are equivalent and meant as examples of

various forms of DMS input. The x-y output data will appear as three lines of:

460769.27 5011648.45

**OTHER** **PROGRAMS**

The

__proj__program is limited to converting between geographic and projection coordinates

within one datum.

The

__cs2cs__program operates similarly, but allows translation between any pair of definable

coordinate systems, including support for datum translation.

The

__geod__program provides the ability to compute geodesic (Great Circle) computations.

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