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ledger — Command-line, double-entry account reporting tool


ledger [command] [options] [arguments]


ledger is a command-line accounting tool based on the power and completeness of double-entry
accounting. It is only a reporting tool, which means it never modifies your data files, but
it does offer a large selection of reports, and different ways to customize them to your


ledger accepts several top-level commands, each of which generates a different kind of basic
report. Most of them accept a report-query argument, in order to determine what should be
reported. To understand the syntax of a report-query, see the section on QUERIES. In its
most basic form, simply specifying one or more strings produces a report for all accounts
containing those strings.

If no command is given, ledger enters a REPL, or command loop, allowing several commands to
be executed on the same dataset without reparsing.

The following is a complete list of accepted reporting commands:

accounts [report-query]
List all accounts for postings that match the report-query.

balance [report-query]
Print a balance report showing totals for postings that match report-query, and
aggregate totals for parents of those accounts. Options most commonly used with
this command are:
--basis (-B) Report in terms of cost basis, not amount or value. This is the
only form of report which is guaranteed to always balance to zero,
when no report-query is specified. Only show totals for the top-
most accounts.
--empty (-E) Show accounts whose total is zero.
--flat Rather than display a hierarchical tree, flatten the report to
show subtotals for only accounts matching report-query.
--no-total Suppress the summary total shown at the bottom of the report.

The synonyms bal and b are also accepted.

budget [report-query]
A special balance report which includes three extra columns: the amount budgeted
during the reporting period, how spending differed from the budget, and the
percentage of budget spent (exceeds 100% if you go over budget). Note that
budgeting requires one or more “periodic transactions” to be defined in your data
file(s). See the manual for more information.

cleared [report-query]
A special balance report which adds two extra columns: the cleared balance for each
account, and the date of the most recent cleared posting in that account. For this
accounting to be meaningful, the cleared flag must be set on at least one posting.
See the manual for more information.

commodities [report-query]
List all commodities for postings matching the report-query.

convert Reads data from a CSV (comma-separated values) file and generates ledger

csv [report-query]
Report of postings matching the report-query in CSV format (comma-separated
values). Useful for exporting data to a spreadsheet for further analysis or

entry [entry-template]
Generate and display a new, properly formatted ledger transaction by comparing the
entry-template to the transactions in your data file(s). For more information on
draft templates and using this command to quickly create new transactions, see the
section ENTRIES.

The synonym xact is also accepted.

emacs [query]
Output posting and transaction data in a format readily consumed by the Emacs
editor, in a series of Lisp forms. This is used by the ledger.el Emacs mode to
process reporting data from ledger.

equity [report-query]
Print a transaction with a series of postings that balance current totals for
accounts matching the report-query in a special account called Equity:Opening
Balances. The purpose of this report is to close the books for a prior year, while
using these equity postings to carry forward those balances.

org Produce a journal file suitable for use in the Emacs org mode.

payees [report-query]
List all payees for postings matching the report-query.

Produce a file which can be used to generate a graph with graphviz showing the
relationship of commodities in the ledger file.

prices [report-query]
Report prices for all commodities in postings matching the report-query. The
prices are reported with the granularity of a single day.

pricedb [report-query]
Report prices for all commodities in postings matching the report-query. Prices
are reported down to the second, using the same format as the ~/.pricedb file.

print [report-query]
Print out the full transactions of any matching postings using the same format as
they would appear in a data file. This can be used to extract subsets from a
ledger file to transfer to other files.

push [options]
In the REPL, push a set of command-line options, so that they will apply to all
subsequent reports.

pop In the REPL, pop any option settings that have been pushed.

register [report-query]
List all postings matching the report-query. This is one of the most common
commands, and can be used to provide a variety of useful reports. Options most
commonly used with this command are:

--average (-A) Show the running average, rather than a running total.
--current (-c) Don't show postings beyond the present day.
--exchange commodity (-X)
Render all values in the given commodity, if a price conversion
rate can be determined. Rates are always displayed relative to
the date of the posting they are calculated for. This means a
register report is a historical value report. For current values,
it may be preferable to use the balance report.
--gain (-G) Show any gains (or losses) in commodity values over time.
--head number Only show the top number postings.
--historical (-H)
Value commodities at the time of their acquisition.
--invert Invert the value of amounts shown.
--market (-V) Show current market values for all amounts. This is determined in
a somewhat magical fashion. It is probably more straightforward
to use --exchange option.
--period time-period (-p)
Show postings only for the given time-period.
--related (-r) Show postings that are related to those that would have been
shown. It has the effect of displaying the "other side" of the
--sort value-expression (-S)
Sort postings by evaluating the given value-expression. Note that
a comma-separated list of expressions is allowed, in which case
each sorting term is used in order to determine the final
ordering. For example, to search by date and then amount, one
would use:
ledger reg --sort 'date, amount'
--tail number Only show the last number postings.
--uncleared (-U)
Only show uncleared (i.e., recent) postings.

There are also several grouping options that can be useful:

--by-payee (-P) Group postings by common payee names.
--daily (-D) Group postings by day.
--weekly (-W) Group postings by week (starting on Sundays).
--start-of-week day
Set the start of each report grouped by week to the given day.
--monthly (-M) Group postings by month.
--quarterly Group postings by fiscal quarter.
--yearly (-Y) Group postings by year.
--days-of-week Group postings by the day of the week on which they took place.
--subtotal (-s) Group all postings together. This is very similar to the totals
shown by the balance report.

The synonyms reg and r are also accepted.

server This command requires that Python support be active. If so, it starts up an HTTP
server listening for requests on port 9000. This provides an alternate interface
to creating and viewing reports. Note that this is very much a work-in-progress,
and will not be fully functional until a later version.

select [sql-query]
List all postings matching the sql-query. This command allows to generate SQL-like
queries, e.g.:
ledger select date,amount from posts where account=~/Income/

source Parse a journal file and checks it for errors. ledger will return success if no
errors are found.

stats [report-query]
Provide summary information about all the postings matching report-query. It
provides information such as:
· Time range of all matching postings
· Unique payees
· Unique accounts
· Postings total
· Uncleared postings
· Days since last posting
· Posts in the last 7 days
· Posts in the last 30 days
· Posts this month

xml [report-query]
Output data relating to the current report in XML format. It includes all accounts
and commodities involved in the report, plus the postings and the transactions they
are contained in. See the manual for more information.


--abbrev-len INT
Set the minimum length an account can be abbreviated to if it doesn't fit inside
the account-width. If INT is zero, then the account name will be truncated on the
right. If INT is greater than account-width then the account will be truncated on
the left, with no shortening of the account names in order to fit into the desired

--account EXPR
Prepend EXPR to all accounts reported. That is, the option --account "'Personal'"
would tack Personal: and --account "tag('VAT')" would tack the value of the VAT tag
to the beginning of every account reported in a balance or register report.

--account-width INT
Set the width of the account column in the register report to INT characters.

--actual (-L)
Report only real transactions, with no automated or virtual transactions used.

Show only un-budgeted postings.

--amount EXPR (-t)
Apply the given value expression to the posting amount. Using --amount EXPR you
can apply an arbitrary transformation to the postings.

--amount-data (-j)
On a register report print only the dates and amount of postings. Useful for
graphing and spreadsheet applications.

--amount-width INT
Set the width in characters of the amount column in the register report.

--anon Anonymize registry output, mostly for sending in bug reports.

--ansi Use color if the terminal supports it. Alias for --color

Ignore init files and environment variables for the ledger run.

When generating a ledger transaction from a CSV file using the convert command,
automatically match an account from the Ledger journal.

Show auxiliary dates for all calculations. Alias for --effective

--average (-A)
Print average values over the number of transactions instead of running totals.

--balance-format FMT
Specify the format to use for the balance report.

--base Reduce convertible commodities down the bottom of the conversion, e.g. display
time in seconds.

--basis (-B)
Report the cost basis on all posting. Alias for --cost

--begin DATE (-b)
Specify the start DATE of all calculations. Transactions before that date will be

--bold-if EXPR
Print the entire line in bold if the given value expression is true.

Only display budgeted items. In a register report this displays transaction in the
budget, in a balance report this displays accounts in the budget.

--budget-format FMT
Specify the format to use for the budget report.

--by-payee (-P)
Group postings in the register report by common payee names.

Enable strict and pedantic checking for payees as well as accounts, commodities and

--cleared (-C)
Display only cleared postings.

--cleared-format FMT
Specify the format to use for the cleared report

--collapse (-n)
Print only the top level accounts.

Collapse the account display only if it has a zero balance.

--color Use color if the terminal supports it. Alias for --ansi

--columns INT
Make the register report INT characters wide. By default ledger will use all
available columns in your terminal.

--cost Report the cost basis on all posting. Alias for --basis.

--count Direct ledger to report the number of items when appended to the commodities,
accounts or payees commands.

--csv-format FMT
Format csv report according to FMT.

--current (-c)
Shorthand for --limit 'date <= today'.

--daily (-D)
Shorthand for --period daily.

--date EXPR
Transform the date of the transaction using EXPR.

--date-format DATEFMT (-y)
Print dates using DATEFMT. Refer to strftime(3) for details on the format string

--datetime-format DATETIMEFMT
Print datetimes using DATETIMEFMT. Refer to strftime(3) for details on the format
string syntax.

--date-width INT
Specify the width, in characters, of the date column in the register report.

Break up register report of timelog entries that span multiple days by day.

Group transactions by the days of the week. Alias for --dow.

--dc Display register or balance in debit/credit format If you use --dc with either the
register or balance commands, you will now get separate columns for debits and

--debug STR
If ledger has been built with debug options this will provide extra data during the

Direct ledger to parse journals using the European standard comma as decimal
separator, vice a period.

--depth INT
Limit the depth of the account tree. In a balance report, for example, --depth 2
will print balances only for accounts with two levels, i.e. Expenses:Entertainment
but not Expenses:Entertainment:Dining. This is a display predicate, which means it
only affects display, not the total calculations.

Related to convert command. Synonym to --rich-data option.

Report each posting's deviation from the average. It is only meaningful in the
register and prices reports.

--display EXPR (-d)
Display lines that satisfy the expression EXPR.

--display-amount EXPR
Apply a transformation to the displayed amount. This occurs after calculations

--display-total EXPR
Apply a transformation to the displayed total. This occurs after calculations

--dow Group transactions by the days of the week. Alias for --days-of-week.

Cause quotes to be automagically downloaded, as needed, by running a script named
getquote and expecting that script to return a value understood by ledger. A
sample implementation of a getquote script, implemented in Perl, is provided in the
distribution. Downloaded quote price are then appended to the price database,
usually specified using the environment variable LEDGER_PRICE_DB.

Show auxiliary dates for all calculations. Alias for --aux-date.

--empty (-E)
Include empty accounts in report.

--end DATE (-e)
Constrain the report so that transactions on or after DATE are not considered.

Related to the equity command. Gives current account balances in the form of a
register report.

--exact Report beginning and ending of periods by the date of the first and last posting
occurring in that period.

--exchange COMMODITY [, COMMODITY, ...] (-X)
Display values in terms of the given COMMODITY. The latest available price is

Direct ledger to require pre-declarations for entities (such as accounts,
commodities and tags) rather than taking entities from cleared transactions as

--file FILE
Read journal data from FILE.

--first INT
Print the first INT entries. Opposite of --last INT. Alias for --head.

--flat Force the full names of accounts to be used in the balance report. The balance
report will not use an indented tree.

Output TTY color codes even if the TTY doesn't support them. Useful for TTYs that
don't advertise their capabilities correctly.

Force ledger to paginate its output.

--forecast-while EXPR
Continue forecasting while VEXPR is true. Alias for --forecast.

--forecast-years INT
Forecast at most INT years into the future.

--format FMT (-F)
Use the given format string FMT to print output.

--gain (-G)
Report net gain or loss for commodities that have a price history.

Include auto-generated postings (such as those from automated transactions) in the
report, in cases where you normally wouldn't want them.

--group-by EXPR
Group transaction together in the register report. EXPR can be anything, although
most common would be payee or commodity. The tag() function is also useful here.

--group-title-format FMT
Set the format for the headers that separate reports section of a grouped report.
Only has effect with a --group-by EXPR register report.

--head INT
Print the first INT entries. Opposite of --tail INT. Alias for --first

--help Print this man page.

Evaluate calculations immediately rather than lazily.

--import FILE
Import FILE as Python module.

--init-file FILE (-i)
Read FILE before any other ledger file. This file may not contain any postings,
but it may contain option settings. To specify options in the init file, use the
same syntax as the command-line, but put each option on its own line.

--inject STR
Use STR amounts in calculations. In case you know what amount a transaction should
be, but the actual transaction has the wrong value you can use metadata STR to
specify the expected amount.

--input-date-format DATEFMT
Specify the input date format for journal entries.

Change the sign of all reported values.

--last INT.
Report only the last INT entries. Opposite of --first INT. Only useful on a
register report. Alias for --tail.

--leeway INT (-Z)
Alias for --price-expr.

--limit EXPR (-l)
Limit postings in calculations.

Report the date on which each commodity in a balance report was purchased.

Report the tag attached to each commodity in a balance report.

Report the price at which each commodity in a balance report was purchased.

--lots Report the date and price at which each commodity was purchased in a balance

Preserve the uniqueness of commodities so they aren't merged during reporting
without printing the lot annotations.

--market (-V)
Use the latest market value for all commodities.

--master-account STR
Prepend all account names with STR

--meta STR
In the register report, prepend the transaction with the value of the given tag

--meta-width INT
Specify the width of the Meta column used for the --meta TAG options.

--monthly (-M)
Shorthand for --period monthly.

Aliases are completely ignored.

Suppress any color TTY output.

Disables the pager on TTY output.

Stop ledger from showing <Revalued> postings.

Don't output "<Adjustment>" postings. Note that this will cause the running total
to often not add up! Its main use is for --amount-data (-j) and --total-data (-J)

Suppress the output of group titles.

Suppress printing the final total line in a balance report.

--now DATE
Use DATE as the current date. This affects the output when using --period,
--begin, --end, or --current to decide which dates lie in the past or future.

--only EXPR
This is a postings predicate that applies after certain transforms have been
executed, such as periodic gathering.

Display the options in effect for this ledger invocation, along with their values
and the source of those values.

--output FILE (-o)
Redirect the output of ledger to FILE.

--pager STR
Use STR as the pager program.

--payee Sets a value expression for formatting the payee. In the register report this
prevents the second entry from having a date and payee for each transaction.

--payee-width INT
Set the number of columns dedicated to the payee in the register report to INT.

Accounts, tags or commodities not previously declared will cause errors.

Use only postings that are marked pending.

--percent (-%)
Calculate the percentage value of each account in a balance reports. Only works
for account that have a single commodity.

--period PERIOD (-p)
Define a period expression that sets the time period during which transactions are
to be accounted. For a register report only the transactions that satisfy the
period expression with be displayed. For a balance report only those transactions
will be accounted in the final balances.

Sort the posting within transactions using the given value expression.

Quiet balance assertions.

--pivot TAG
Produce a balance pivot report "around" the given TAG.

--plot-amount-format FMT
Define the output format for an amount data plot.

--plot-total-format FMT
Define the output format for a total data plot.

--prepend-format FMT
Prepend FMT to every line of the output.

--prepend-width INT
Reserve INT spaces at the beginning of each line of the output.

--price (-I)
Use the price of the commodity purchase for performing calculations.

--price-db FILE

--price-exp STR (-Z)
Set the expected freshness of price quotes, in INT minutes. That is, if the last
known quote for any commodity is older than this value, and if --download is being
used, then the Internet will be consulted again for a newer price. Otherwise, the
old price is still considered to be fresh enough. Alias for --leeway.

--prices-format FMT
Set the format for the prices report.

--pricedb-format FMT
Set the format expected for the historical price file.

Show primary dates for all calculations. Alias for --actual-dates

--quantity (-O)
Report commodity totals (this is the default).

Shorthand for --period quarterly.

--raw In the print report, show transactions using the exact same syntax as specified by
the user in their data file. Don't do any massaging or interpreting. Can be
useful for minor cleanups, like just aligning amounts.

--real (-R)
Account using only real transactions ignoring virtual and automatic transactions.

Causes ledger to try to expand aliases recursively, i.e. try to expand the result
of an earlier expansion again, until no more expansions apply.

--register-format FMT
Define the output format for the register report.

--related (-r)
In a register report show the related account. This is the other side of the

Show all postings in a transaction, similar to --related but show both sides of
each transaction.

Report discrepancy in values for manual reports by inserting <Revalued> postings.
This is implied when using the --exchange (-X) or --market (-V) option.

Show only <Revalued> postings.

Display the sum of the revalued postings as the running total, which serves to show
unrealized capital in a gain/losses report.

When generating a ledger transaction from a CSV file using the convert command, add
CSV, Imported, and UUID meta-data.

--seed INT
Set the random seed to INT for the generate command. Used as part of development

--script FILE
Execute a ledger script.

--sort EXPR (-S)
Sort the register report based on the value expression EXPR.

Sort the posting within transactions using the given value expression.

--start-of-week STR
Use STR as the particular day of the week to start when using the --weekly option.
STR can be day names, their abbreviations like "Mon", or the weekday number
starting at 0 for Sunday.

Accounts, tags or commodities not previously declared will cause warnings.

--subtotal (-s)
Report register as a single subtotal.

--tail INT
Report only the last INT entries. Only useful on a register report. Alias for
--last INT

Display the value for commodities based on seconds as hours and minutes. Thus
8100s will be displayed as 2:15h instead of 2.25h.

Add two columns to the balance report to show the earliest checkin and checkout
times for timelog entries.

--total EXPR (-T)
Define a value expression used to calculate the total in reports.

--total-data (-J)
Show only dates and totals to format the output for plots.

--total-width INT
Set the width of the total field in the register report.

--trace INT
Enable tracing. The INT specifies the level of trace desired.

--truncate STR
Indicates how truncation should happen when the contents of columns exceed their
width. Valid arguments for STR are leading, middle, and trailing. The default is
smarter than any of these three, as it considers sub-names within the account name
(that style is called "abbreviate").

Show only un-budgeted postings.

--uncleared (-U)
Use only uncleared transactions in calculations and reports.

Show generated unrealized gain and loss accounts in the balance report.

Allow the user to specify what account name should be used for unrealized gains.
Defaults to Equity:Unrealized Gains. Often set in one's ~/.ledgerrc file to change
the default.

Allow the user to specify what account name should be used for unrealized losses.
Defaults to Equity:Unrealized Losses. Often set in one's ~/.ledgerrc file to
change the default.

Perform all calculations without rounding and display results to full precision.

Show the values used by each tag when used in combination with the tags command.

--value-expr EXPR
Set a global value expression annotation.

Print detailed information on the execution of ledger.

Enable additional assertions during run-time. This causes a significant slowdown.
When combined with --debug CODE ledger will produce memory trace information.

Verify that every constructed object is properly destructed. This is for debugging
purposes only.

Print version information and exit.

--weekly (-W)
Shorthand for --period weekly.

--wide (-w)
Assume 132 columns instead of the TTY width.

--yearly (-Y)
Shorthand for --period yearly.


Pre-commands are useful when you aren't sure how a command or option will work. The
difference between a pre-command and a regular command is that pre-commands ignore the
journal data file completely, nor is the user's init file read.

args / query
Evaluate the given arguments and report how ledger interprets it against the
following model transaction:

2004/05/27 Book Store
; This note applies to all postings. :SecondTag:
Expenses:Books 20 BOOK @ $10
; Metadata: Some Value
; Typed:: $100 + $200
; :ExampleTag:
; Here follows a note describing the posting.
Liabilities:MasterCard $-200.00

eval Evaluate the given value expression against the model transaction.

format Print details of how ledger uses the given formatting description and apply it
against a model transaction.

parse / expr
Print details of how ledger uses the given value expression description and apply
it against a model transaction.

Randomly generates syntactically valid ledger data from a seed. Used by the
GenerateTests harness for development testing.

period Evaluate the given period and report how ledger interprets it.

Shows the insertion template that the xact command generates. This is a debugging


The syntax for reporting queries can get somewhat complex. It is a series of query terms
with an implicit OR operator between them. The following terms are accepted:

regex A bare string is taken as a regular expression matching the full account
name. Thus, to report the current balance for all assets and liabilities,
you would use:

ledger bal asset liab

payee regex (@regex)
Query on the payee, rather than the account.

tag regex (%regex)

note regex (=regex)
Query on anything found in an item's note.

code regex (#regex)
Query on the xact's optional code (which can be any string the user wishes).

term and term Query terms are joined by an implicit OR operator. You can change this to
AND by using the and keyword. For example, to show food expenditures
occurring at Shakee's Pizza, you could say:

ledger reg food and @Shakee

term or term When you wish to be more explicit, use the OR operator.


not term Reverse the logical meaning of the following term. This can be used with
parentheses to great effect:

ledger reg food and @Shakee and not dining

( term ) If you wish to mix OR and AND operators, it is often helpful to surround
logical units with parentheses. NOTE: Because of the way some shells
interpret parentheses, you should always escape them:

ledger bal \( assets or liab \) and not food


abs(value) Return the absolute value of the given value.

account Return the posting's account.

account_base Return the base account, i.e. everything after the last account delimiter

actual Return true if the transaction is real, i.e not a automated or virtual
transaction, false otherwise.

amount Return the amount of the posting.

amount_expr Return the calculated amount of the posting according to the --amount

ansify_if(value, color, bool)
Render the given value as a string, applying the proper ANSI escape codes
to display it in the given color if bool is true. It typically checks the
value of the option --color, for example:
ansify_if(amount, blue, options.color)

beg_line Line number where entry for posting begins.

beg_pos Character position where entry for posting begins.

ceiling(value) Return the next integer of value toward +infinity.

cleared Return true if the posting was cleared, false otherwise.

code Return the transaction code, the string between the parenthesis after the

Return the commodity of value or the posting amount when value was not

date Return the date of the posting.

end_line Line number where entry for posting ends.

end_pos Character position where entry for posting ends.

floor(value) Return the next integer of value toward -infinity.

filename The name of the ledger data file from whence the posting came.

format(string) Evaluate string as format just like the --format option.

format_date(date, format)
Return the date as a string using format. Refer to strftime(3) for format
string details.

format_datetime(datetime, format)
Return the datetime as a string using format. Refer to strftime(3) for
format string details.

get_at(seq, index)
Return value at index from seq. Used internally to construct different

has_meta() Return true if the posting has metadata named tag, false otherwise.

has_tag(tag) Return true if the posting has metadata named tag, false otherwise.

is_seq(value) Return true if value is a sequence. Used internally.

join(value) Replace all newlines in value with \n.

justify(value, first_width, latter_width, right_justify, colorize)
Right or left justify the string representing value. The width of the
field in the first line is given by first_width. For subsequent lines the
width is given by latter_width. If latter_width is -1, first_width is used
for all lines. If right_justify is true then the field is right justified
within the width of the field. If it is false, then the field is left
justified and padded to the full width of the field. If colorize is true,
then ledger will honor color settings.

market(value, datetime)
Return the price of value at datetime. Note that datetime must be
surrounded by brackets in order to be parsed correctly, e.g. [2012/03/23].

meta() Return the value of metadata named name.

note Return the note for the posting.

now Return the current datetime.

options A variable that allows access to the values of the given command-line
options using the long option names, e.g. to see whether --daily (-D) was
given use option.daily.

payee Return the payee of the posting.

percent(value_a, value_b)
Return the percentage of value_a in relation to value_b (used as 100%).

pending Return true if the posting is marked as pending, false otherwise.

percent(value_a, value_b)
Return the percentage of value_a in relation to value_b.

print(value) Print value to stdout. Used internally for debugging.

quantity(value) Return the quantity of value for values that have a per-unit cost.

Surround expression with double-quotes.

real Return true if the transaction is real, i.e not a automated or virtual
transaction, false otherwise.

roundto(value, n)
Return value rounded to n digits. Does not affect formatting.

should_bold Return true if expression given to --bold-if evaluates to true. Internal
use only!

scrub(value) Clean value using various transformations such as round, stripping value
annotations, and more.

strip(value) Strip value annotation from value.

tag(name) Return the value of tag named name.

Convert value to an amount. Internal use only!

Convert value to a balance. Internal use only!

Convert value to a boolean. Internal use only!

to_date(value) Convert value to a date. Internal use only!

Convert value to a datetime. Internal use only!

to_int(value) Return the integer value for value.

to_mask(value) Convert value to a mask. Internal use only!

Convert value to a sequence. Internal use only!

Convert value to a character string.

today Return today's date.

total Return the total of the posting.

total_expr Return the calculated total of the posting according to the --total option.

trim(value) Trim leading and trailing whitespace from value.

truncated(string, total_len, account_len)
Truncate string to total_len ensuring that each account is at least
account_len long.

virtual Return true if the transaction is virtual, e.g automated, false otherwise.


In addition to the regular reporting commands, ledger also accepts several debug commands:

args [report-query]
Display complete analysis of how ledger interpreted the given report-query. Useful
if you want to understand how report queries are translated into value expressions.

eval [value-expression]
Evaluate the given value-expression and prints the result. For more on value
expressions, see the section EXPRESSIONS.

format [format-string]
Display an analysis of how format-string was parsed, and what it would look like
applied to a sample transaction. For more on format strings, see the section

Generate 50 randomly composed yet valid ledger transactions.

parse [value-expression]
Parse the given value-expression and display an analysis of the expression tree and
its evaluated value. For more on value expressions, see the section EXPRESSIONS.

python [file]
Invoke a Python interpreter to read the given file. What is special about this is
that the ledger module is builtin, not read from disk, so it doesn't require ledger
to be installed anywhere, or the shared library variants to be built.

reload Reload all data files for the current session immediately. Can only be used in the

template [draft-template]
Display information about how draft-template was parsed. See the section on


Every option to ledger may be set using an environment variable if the option has a long
name. For example setting the environment variable LEDGER_DATE_FORMAT="%d.%m.%Y' will have
the same effect as specifying --date-format '%d.%m.%Y' on the command-line. Options on the
command-line always take precedence over environment variable settings, however.

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