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bindfs - Online in the Cloud

Run bindfs in OnWorks free hosting provider over Ubuntu Online, Fedora Online, Windows online emulator or MAC OS online emulator

This is the command bindfs that can be run in the OnWorks free hosting provider using one of our multiple free online workstations such as Ubuntu Online, Fedora Online, Windows online emulator or MAC OS online emulator

PROGRAM:

NAME


bindfs ‐ mount --bind in user-space

SYNOPSIS


bindfs [options] dir mountpoint

DESCRIPTION


A FUSE filesystem for mirroring the contents of a directory to another directory.
Additionally, one can change the permissions of files in the mirrored directory.

FILE OWNERSHIP


-u, --force-user, -o force-user=...
Makes all files owned by the specified user. Also causes chown on the mounted
filesystem to always fail.

-g, --force-group=group, -o force-group=...
Makes all files owned by the specified group. Also causes chgrp on the mounted
filesystem to always fail.

-p, --perms=permissions, -o perms=...
Takes a comma- or colon-separated list of chmod-like permission specifications to
be applied to the permission bits in order. See PERMISSION SPECIFICATION below for
details.

This only affects how the permission bits of existing files are altered when shown
in the mounted directory. You can use --create-with-perms to change the permissions
that newly created files get in the source directory.

Note that, as usual, the root user isn't bound by the permissions set here. You
can get a truly read-only mount by using -r.

-m, --mirror=user1:user2:..., -o mirror=...
Takes a comma- or colon-separated list of users who will see themselves as the
owners of all files. Users who are not listed here will still be able to access the
mount if the permissions otherwise allow them to.

You can also give a group name prefixed with an '@' to mirror all members of a
group. This will not change which group the files are shown to have.

-M, --mirror-only=user1:user2:..., -o mirror-only=...
Like --mirror but disallows access for all other users (except root).

--map=user1/user2:@group1/@group2:..., -o map=...
Given a mapping user1/user2, all files owned by user1 are shown as owned by user2.
When user2 creates files, they are chowned to user1 in the underlying directory.
When files are chowned to user2, they are chowned to user1 in the underlying
directory. Works similarly for groups.

A single user or group may appear no more than once on the left and once on the
right of a slash in the list of mappings. Currently, the options --force-user,
--force-group, --mirror, --create-for-*, --chown-* and --chgrp-* override the
corresponding behavior of this option.

Requires mounting as root.

FILE CREATION POLICY


New files and directories are created so they are owned by the mounter. bindfs can let
this happen (the default for normal users), or it can try to change the owner to the
uid/gid of the process that wants to create the file (the default for root). It is also
possible to have bindfs try to change the owner to a particular user or group.

--create-as-user, -o create-as-user
Tries to change the owner and group of new files and directories to the uid and gid
of the caller. This can work only if the mounter is root. It is also the default
behavior (mimicing mount --bind) if the mounter is root.

--create-as-mounter, -o create-as-mounter
All new files and directories will be owned by the mounter. This is the default
behavior for non-root mounters.

--create-for-user=user, -o create-for-user=...
Tries to change the owner of new files and directories to the user specified here.
This can work only if the mounter is root. This option overrides the
--create-as-user and --create-as-mounter options.

--create-for-group=group, -o create-for-group=...
Tries to change the owning group of new files and directories to the group
specified here. This can work only if the mounter is root. This option overrides
the --create-as-user and --create-as-mounter options.

--create-with-perms=permissions, -o create-with-perms=...
Works like --perms but is applied to the permission bits of new files get in the
source directory. Normally the permissions of new files depend on the creating
process's preferences and umask. This option can be used to modify those
permissions or override them completely. See PERMISSION SPECIFICATION below for
details.

CHOWN/CHGRP POLICY


The behaviour on chown/chgrp calls can be changed. By default they are passed through to
the source directory even if bindfs is set to show a fake owner/group. A chown/chgrp call
will only succeed if the user has enough mirrored permissions to chmod the mirrored file
AND the mounter has enough permissions to chmod the real file.

--chown-normal, -o chown-normal
Tries to chown the underlying file. This is the default.

--chown-ignore, -o chown-ignore
Lets chown succeed (if the user has enough mirrored permissions) but actually does
nothing. A combined chown/chgrp is effectively turned into a chgrp-only request.

--chown-deny, -o chown-deny
Makes chown always fail with a 'permission denied' error. A combined chown/chgrp
request will fail as well.

--chgrp-normal, -o chgrp-normal
Tries to chgrp the underlying file. This is the default.

--chgrp-ignore, -o chgrp-ignore
Lets chgrp succeed (if the user has enough mirrored permissions) but actually does
nothing. A combined chown/chgrp is effectively turned into a chown-only request.

--chgrp-deny, -o chgrp-deny
Makes chgrp always fail with a 'permission denied' error. A combined chown/chgrp
request will fail as well.

CHMOD POLICY


Chmod calls are forwarded to the source directory by default. This may cause unexpected
behaviour if bindfs is altering permission bits.

--chmod-normal, -o chmod-normal
Tries to chmod the underlying file. This will succeed if the user has the
appropriate mirrored permissions to chmod the mirrored file AND the mounter has
enough permissions to chmod the real file. This is the default (in order to behave
like mount --bind by default).

--chmod-ignore, -o chmod-ignore
Lets chmod succeed (if the user has enough mirrored permissions) but actually does
nothing.

--chmod-deny, -o chmod-deny
Makes chmod always fail with a 'permission denied' error.

--chmod-filter=permissions,, -o chmod-filter=...
Changes the permission bits of a chmod request before it is applied to the original
file. Accepts the same permission syntax as --perms. See PERMISSION SPECIFICATION
below for details.

--chmod-allow-x, -o chmod-allow-x
Allows setting and clearing the executable attribute on files (but not
directories). When used with --chmod-ignore, chmods will only affect execute bits
on files and changes to other bits are discarded. With --chmod-deny, all chmods
that would change any bits except excecute bits on files will still fail with a
'permission denied'. This option does nothing with --chmod-normal.

XATTR POLICY


Extended attributes are mirrored by default, though not all underlying file systems
support xattrs.

--xattr-none, -o xattr-none
Disable extended attributes altogether. All operations will return 'Operation not
supported'.

--xattr-ro, -o xattr-ro
Let extended attributes be read-only.

--xattr-rw, -o xattr-rw
Let extended attributes be read-write (the default). The read/write permissions
are checked against the (possibly modified) file permissions inside the mount.

RATE LIMITS


Reads and writes through the mount point can be throttled. Throttling works by sleeping
the required amount of time on each read or write request. Throttling imposes one global
limit on all readers/writers as opposed to a per-process or per-user limit.

Currently, the implementation is not entirely fair. See BUGS below.

--read-rate=N, -o read-rate=N
Allow at most N bytes per second to be read. N may have one of the following
(1024-based) suffixes: k, M, G, T.

--write-rate=N, -o write-rate=N
Same as above, but for writes.

MISCELLANEOUS OPTIONS


-h, --help
Displays a help message and exits.

-V, --version
Displays version information and exits.

-n, --no-allow-other, -o no-allow-other
Does not add -o allow_other to FUSE options. This causes the mount to be
accessible only by the current user.

--realistic-permissions, -o realistic-permissions
Hides read/write/execute permissions for a mirrored file when the mounter doesn't
have read/write/execute access to the underlying file. Useless when mounting as
root, since root will always have full access.

(Prior to version 1.10 this option was the default behavior. I felt it violated
the principle of least surprise badly enough to warrant a small break in backwards-
compatibility.)

--ctime-from-mtime, -o ctime-from-mtime
Recall that a unix file has three standard timestamps: atime (last access i.e. read
time), mtime (last content modification time) ctime (last content or metadata
(inode) change time)

With this option, the ctime of each file and directory is read from its mtime. In
other words, only content modifications (as opposed to metadata changes) will be
reflected in a mirrored file's ctime. The underlying file's ctime will still be
updated normally.

--hide-hard-links, -o hide-hard-links
Shows the hard link count of all files as 1.

--multithreaded, -o multithreaded
Run bindfs in multithreaded mode. While bindfs is designed to be otherwise thread-
safe, there is currently a race condition that may pose a security risk for some
use cases. See BUGS below.

FUSE OPTIONS


-o options
Fuse options.

-r, -o ro
Make the mount strictly read-only. This even prevents root from writing to it. If
this is all you need, then (since Linux 2.6.26) you can get a more efficent mount
with mount --bind and then mount -o remount,ro.

-d, -o debug
Enable debug output (implies -f).

-f Foreground operation.

PERMISSION SPECIFICATION


The -p option takes a comma- or colon-separated list of either octal numeric permission
bits or symbolic representations of permission bit operations. The symbolic
representation is based on that of the chmod(1) command. setuid, setgid and sticky bits
are ignored.

This program extends the chmod symbolic representation with the following operands:

`D' (right hand side)
Works like X but applies only to directories (not to executables).

`d' and `f' (left hand side)
Makes this directive only apply to directories (d) or files (f).
e.g. gd-w would remove the group write bit from all directories.

`u', `g', `o' (right hand side)
Uses the user (u), group (g) or others (o) permission bits of
the original file.
e.g. g=u would copy the user's permission bits to the group.
ug+o would add the others' permissions to the owner and group.

Examples

o-rwx Removes all permission bits from others.

g=rD Allows group to read all files and enter all directories, but nothing else.

0644,a+X
Sets permission bits to 0644 and adds the execute bit for everyone to all
directories and executables.

og-x:og+rD:u=rwX:g+rw
Removes execute bit for others and group, adds read and directory execute for
others and group, sets user permissions to read, write and execute
directory/executable, adds read and write for group.

EXAMPLES



bindfs -u www -g nogroup -p 0000,u=rD ~/mywebsite ~/public_html/mysite

Publishes a website in public_html so that only the 'www' user can read the site.

bindfs -M foo,bar,1007,@mygroup -p 0600,u+X dir mnt

Gives access to 'foo', 'bar', the user with the UID 1007 as well as everyone in the
group 'mygroup'. Sets the permission bits to 0600, thus giving the specified users
read/write access, and adds the user execute bit for directories and executables.

bindfs -ono-allow-other,perms=a-w somedir somedir

Makes a directory read-only and accessable only by the current user.

/home/bob/shared /var/www/shared/bob fuse.bindfs perms=0000:u+rD 0 0

An example /etc/fstab entry. Note that the colon must be used to separate arguments
to perms, because the comma is an option separator in /etc/fstab.

bindfs#/home/bob/shared /var/www/shared/bob fuse perms=0000:u+rD 0 0

Older systems may require this deprecated fstab syntax.

NOTES


Setuid and setgid bits have no effect inside the mount. This is a necessary security
feature of FUSE.

MacFuse caches file contents by default. This means that changes in source files are not
always immediately visible under the mount point. -o nolocalcaches can be used to disable
the cache.

When using --mirror[-only] @somegroup, bindfs won't see changes to the group's member
list. Sending bindfs a SIGUSR1 signal will make it reread the user database.

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