EnglishFrenchSpanish

Ad


OnWorks favicon

git-rev-list - Online in the Cloud

Run git-rev-list in OnWorks free hosting provider over Ubuntu Online, Fedora Online, Windows online emulator or MAC OS online emulator

This is the command git-rev-list that can be run in the OnWorks free hosting provider using one of our multiple free online workstations such as Ubuntu Online, Fedora Online, Windows online emulator or MAC OS online emulator

PROGRAM:

NAME


git-rev-list - Lists commit objects in reverse chronological order

SYNOPSIS


git rev-list [ --max-count=<number> ]
[ --skip=<number> ]
[ --max-age=<timestamp> ]
[ --min-age=<timestamp> ]
[ --sparse ]
[ --merges ]
[ --no-merges ]
[ --min-parents=<number> ]
[ --no-min-parents ]
[ --max-parents=<number> ]
[ --no-max-parents ]
[ --first-parent ]
[ --remove-empty ]
[ --full-history ]
[ --not ]
[ --all ]
[ --branches[=<pattern>] ]
[ --tags[=<pattern>] ]
[ --remotes[=<pattern>] ]
[ --glob=<glob-pattern> ]
[ --ignore-missing ]
[ --stdin ]
[ --quiet ]
[ --topo-order ]
[ --parents ]
[ --timestamp ]
[ --left-right ]
[ --left-only ]
[ --right-only ]
[ --cherry-mark ]
[ --cherry-pick ]
[ --encoding=<encoding> ]
[ --(author|committer|grep)=<pattern> ]
[ --regexp-ignore-case | -i ]
[ --extended-regexp | -E ]
[ --fixed-strings | -F ]
[ --date=<format>]
[ [ --objects | --objects-edge | --objects-edge-aggressive ]
[ --unpacked ] ]
[ --pretty | --header ]
[ --bisect ]
[ --bisect-vars ]
[ --bisect-all ]
[ --merge ]
[ --reverse ]
[ --walk-reflogs ]
[ --no-walk ] [ --do-walk ]
[ --count ]
[ --use-bitmap-index ]
<commit>... [ -- <paths>... ]

DESCRIPTION


List commits that are reachable by following the parent links from the given commit(s),
but exclude commits that are reachable from the one(s) given with a ^ in front of them.
The output is given in reverse chronological order by default.

You can think of this as a set operation. Commits given on the command line form a set of
commits that are reachable from any of them, and then commits reachable from any of the
ones given with ^ in front are subtracted from that set. The remaining commits are what
comes out in the command’s output. Various other options and paths parameters can be used
to further limit the result.

Thus, the following command:

$ git rev-list foo bar ^baz

means "list all the commits which are reachable from foo or bar, but not from baz".

A special notation "<commit1>..<commit2>" can be used as a short-hand for "^'<commit1>'
<commit2>". For example, either of the following may be used interchangeably:

$ git rev-list origin..HEAD
$ git rev-list HEAD ^origin

Another special notation is "<commit1>...<commit2>" which is useful for merges. The
resulting set of commits is the symmetric difference between the two operands. The
following two commands are equivalent:

$ git rev-list A B --not $(git merge-base --all A B)
$ git rev-list A...B

rev-list is a very essential Git command, since it provides the ability to build and
traverse commit ancestry graphs. For this reason, it has a lot of different options that
enables it to be used by commands as different as git bisect and git repack.

OPTIONS


Commit Limiting
Besides specifying a range of commits that should be listed using the special notations
explained in the description, additional commit limiting may be applied.

Using more options generally further limits the output (e.g. --since=<date1> limits to
commits newer than <date1>, and using it with --grep=<pattern> further limits to commits
whose log message has a line that matches <pattern>), unless otherwise noted.

Note that these are applied before commit ordering and formatting options, such as
--reverse.

-<number>, -n <number>, --max-count=<number>
Limit the number of commits to output.

--skip=<number>
Skip number commits before starting to show the commit output.

--since=<date>, --after=<date>
Show commits more recent than a specific date.

--until=<date>, --before=<date>
Show commits older than a specific date.

--max-age=<timestamp>, --min-age=<timestamp>
Limit the commits output to specified time range.

--author=<pattern>, --committer=<pattern>
Limit the commits output to ones with author/committer header lines that match the
specified pattern (regular expression). With more than one --author=<pattern>, commits
whose author matches any of the given patterns are chosen (similarly for multiple
--committer=<pattern>).

--grep-reflog=<pattern>
Limit the commits output to ones with reflog entries that match the specified pattern
(regular expression). With more than one --grep-reflog, commits whose reflog message
matches any of the given patterns are chosen. It is an error to use this option unless
--walk-reflogs is in use.

--grep=<pattern>
Limit the commits output to ones with log message that matches the specified pattern
(regular expression). With more than one --grep=<pattern>, commits whose message
matches any of the given patterns are chosen (but see --all-match).

--all-match
Limit the commits output to ones that match all given --grep, instead of ones that
match at least one.

--invert-grep
Limit the commits output to ones with log message that do not match the pattern
specified with --grep=<pattern>.

-i, --regexp-ignore-case
Match the regular expression limiting patterns without regard to letter case.

--basic-regexp
Consider the limiting patterns to be basic regular expressions; this is the default.

-E, --extended-regexp
Consider the limiting patterns to be extended regular expressions instead of the
default basic regular expressions.

-F, --fixed-strings
Consider the limiting patterns to be fixed strings (don’t interpret pattern as a
regular expression).

--perl-regexp
Consider the limiting patterns to be Perl-compatible regular expressions. Requires
libpcre to be compiled in.

--remove-empty
Stop when a given path disappears from the tree.

--merges
Print only merge commits. This is exactly the same as --min-parents=2.

--no-merges
Do not print commits with more than one parent. This is exactly the same as
--max-parents=1.

--min-parents=<number>, --max-parents=<number>, --no-min-parents, --no-max-parents
Show only commits which have at least (or at most) that many parent commits. In
particular, --max-parents=1 is the same as --no-merges, --min-parents=2 is the same as
--merges. --max-parents=0 gives all root commits and --min-parents=3 all octopus
merges.

--no-min-parents and --no-max-parents reset these limits (to no limit) again.
Equivalent forms are --min-parents=0 (any commit has 0 or more parents) and
--max-parents=-1 (negative numbers denote no upper limit).

--first-parent
Follow only the first parent commit upon seeing a merge commit. This option can give a
better overview when viewing the evolution of a particular topic branch, because
merges into a topic branch tend to be only about adjusting to updated upstream from
time to time, and this option allows you to ignore the individual commits brought in
to your history by such a merge. Cannot be combined with --bisect.

--not
Reverses the meaning of the ^ prefix (or lack thereof) for all following revision
specifiers, up to the next --not.

--all
Pretend as if all the refs in refs/ are listed on the command line as <commit>.

--branches[=<pattern>]
Pretend as if all the refs in refs/heads are listed on the command line as <commit>.
If <pattern> is given, limit branches to ones matching given shell glob. If pattern
lacks ?, *, or [, /* at the end is implied.

--tags[=<pattern>]
Pretend as if all the refs in refs/tags are listed on the command line as <commit>. If
<pattern> is given, limit tags to ones matching given shell glob. If pattern lacks ?,
*, or [, /* at the end is implied.

--remotes[=<pattern>]
Pretend as if all the refs in refs/remotes are listed on the command line as <commit>.
If <pattern> is given, limit remote-tracking branches to ones matching given shell
glob. If pattern lacks ?, *, or [, /* at the end is implied.

--glob=<glob-pattern>
Pretend as if all the refs matching shell glob <glob-pattern> are listed on the
command line as <commit>. Leading refs/, is automatically prepended if missing. If
pattern lacks ?, *, or [, /* at the end is implied.

--exclude=<glob-pattern>
Do not include refs matching <glob-pattern> that the next --all, --branches, --tags,
--remotes, or --glob would otherwise consider. Repetitions of this option accumulate
exclusion patterns up to the next --all, --branches, --tags, --remotes, or --glob
option (other options or arguments do not clear accumulated patterns).

The patterns given should not begin with refs/heads, refs/tags, or refs/remotes when
applied to --branches, --tags, or --remotes, respectively, and they must begin with
refs/ when applied to --glob or --all. If a trailing /* is intended, it must be given
explicitly.

--reflog
Pretend as if all objects mentioned by reflogs are listed on the command line as
<commit>.

--ignore-missing
Upon seeing an invalid object name in the input, pretend as if the bad input was not
given.

--stdin
In addition to the <commit> listed on the command line, read them from the standard
input. If a -- separator is seen, stop reading commits and start reading paths to
limit the result.

--quiet
Don’t print anything to standard output. This form is primarily meant to allow the
caller to test the exit status to see if a range of objects is fully connected (or
not). It is faster than redirecting stdout to /dev/null as the output does not have to
be formatted.

--cherry-mark
Like --cherry-pick (see below) but mark equivalent commits with = rather than omitting
them, and inequivalent ones with +.

--cherry-pick
Omit any commit that introduces the same change as another commit on the “other side”
when the set of commits are limited with symmetric difference.

For example, if you have two branches, A and B, a usual way to list all commits on
only one side of them is with --left-right (see the example below in the description
of the --left-right option). However, it shows the commits that were cherry-picked
from the other branch (for example, “3rd on b” may be cherry-picked from branch A).
With this option, such pairs of commits are excluded from the output.

--left-only, --right-only
List only commits on the respective side of a symmetric range, i.e. only those which
would be marked < resp. > by --left-right.

For example, --cherry-pick --right-only A...B omits those commits from B which are in
A or are patch-equivalent to a commit in A. In other words, this lists the + commits
from git cherry A B. More precisely, --cherry-pick --right-only --no-merges gives the
exact list.

--cherry
A synonym for --right-only --cherry-mark --no-merges; useful to limit the output to
the commits on our side and mark those that have been applied to the other side of a
forked history with git log --cherry upstream...mybranch, similar to git cherry
upstream mybranch.

-g, --walk-reflogs
Instead of walking the commit ancestry chain, walk reflog entries from the most recent
one to older ones. When this option is used you cannot specify commits to exclude
(that is, ^commit, commit1..commit2, and commit1...commit2 notations cannot be used).

With --pretty format other than oneline (for obvious reasons), this causes the output
to have two extra lines of information taken from the reflog. By default, commit@{Nth}
notation is used in the output. When the starting commit is specified as commit@{now},
output also uses commit@{timestamp} notation instead. Under --pretty=oneline, the
commit message is prefixed with this information on the same line. This option cannot
be combined with --reverse. See also git-reflog(1).

--merge
After a failed merge, show refs that touch files having a conflict and don’t exist on
all heads to merge.

--boundary
Output excluded boundary commits. Boundary commits are prefixed with -.

--use-bitmap-index
Try to speed up the traversal using the pack bitmap index (if one is available). Note
that when traversing with --objects, trees and blobs will not have their associated
path printed.

History Simplification
Sometimes you are only interested in parts of the history, for example the commits
modifying a particular <path>. But there are two parts of History Simplification, one part
is selecting the commits and the other is how to do it, as there are various strategies to
simplify the history.

The following options select the commits to be shown:

<paths>
Commits modifying the given <paths> are selected.

--simplify-by-decoration
Commits that are referred by some branch or tag are selected.

Note that extra commits can be shown to give a meaningful history.

The following options affect the way the simplification is performed:

Default mode
Simplifies the history to the simplest history explaining the final state of the tree.
Simplest because it prunes some side branches if the end result is the same (i.e.
merging branches with the same content)

--full-history
Same as the default mode, but does not prune some history.

--dense
Only the selected commits are shown, plus some to have a meaningful history.

--sparse
All commits in the simplified history are shown.

--simplify-merges
Additional option to --full-history to remove some needless merges from the resulting
history, as there are no selected commits contributing to this merge.

--ancestry-path
When given a range of commits to display (e.g. commit1..commit2 or commit2 ^commit1),
only display commits that exist directly on the ancestry chain between the commit1 and
commit2, i.e. commits that are both descendants of commit1, and ancestors of commit2.

A more detailed explanation follows.

Suppose you specified foo as the <paths>. We shall call commits that modify foo !TREESAME,
and the rest TREESAME. (In a diff filtered for foo, they look different and equal,
respectively.)

In the following, we will always refer to the same example history to illustrate the
differences between simplification settings. We assume that you are filtering for a file
foo in this commit graph:

.-A---M---N---O---P---Q
/ / / / / /
I B C D E Y
\ / / / / /
`-------------' X

The horizontal line of history A---Q is taken to be the first parent of each merge. The
commits are:

· I is the initial commit, in which foo exists with contents “asdf”, and a file quux
exists with contents “quux”. Initial commits are compared to an empty tree, so I is
!TREESAME.

· In A, foo contains just “foo”.

· B contains the same change as A. Its merge M is trivial and hence TREESAME to all
parents.

· C does not change foo, but its merge N changes it to “foobar”, so it is not TREESAME
to any parent.

· D sets foo to “baz”. Its merge O combines the strings from N and D to “foobarbaz”;
i.e., it is not TREESAME to any parent.

· E changes quux to “xyzzy”, and its merge P combines the strings to “quux xyzzy”. P is
TREESAME to O, but not to E.

· X is an independent root commit that added a new file side, and Y modified it. Y is
TREESAME to X. Its merge Q added side to P, and Q is TREESAME to P, but not to Y.

rev-list walks backwards through history, including or excluding commits based on whether
--full-history and/or parent rewriting (via --parents or --children) are used. The
following settings are available.

Default mode
Commits are included if they are not TREESAME to any parent (though this can be
changed, see --sparse below). If the commit was a merge, and it was TREESAME to one
parent, follow only that parent. (Even if there are several TREESAME parents, follow
only one of them.) Otherwise, follow all parents.

This results in:

.-A---N---O
/ / /
I---------D

Note how the rule to only follow the TREESAME parent, if one is available, removed B
from consideration entirely. C was considered via N, but is TREESAME. Root commits
are compared to an empty tree, so I is !TREESAME.

Parent/child relations are only visible with --parents, but that does not affect the
commits selected in default mode, so we have shown the parent lines.

--full-history without parent rewriting
This mode differs from the default in one point: always follow all parents of a merge,
even if it is TREESAME to one of them. Even if more than one side of the merge has
commits that are included, this does not imply that the merge itself is! In the
example, we get

I A B N D O P Q

M was excluded because it is TREESAME to both parents. E, C and B were all walked,
but only B was !TREESAME, so the others do not appear.

Note that without parent rewriting, it is not really possible to talk about the
parent/child relationships between the commits, so we show them disconnected.

--full-history with parent rewriting
Ordinary commits are only included if they are !TREESAME (though this can be changed,
see --sparse below).

Merges are always included. However, their parent list is rewritten: Along each
parent, prune away commits that are not included themselves. This results in

.-A---M---N---O---P---Q
/ / / / /
I B / D /
\ / / / /
`-------------'

Compare to --full-history without rewriting above. Note that E was pruned away because
it is TREESAME, but the parent list of P was rewritten to contain E's parent I. The
same happened for C and N, and X, Y and Q.

In addition to the above settings, you can change whether TREESAME affects inclusion:

--dense
Commits that are walked are included if they are not TREESAME to any parent.

--sparse
All commits that are walked are included.

Note that without --full-history, this still simplifies merges: if one of the parents
is TREESAME, we follow only that one, so the other sides of the merge are never
walked.

--simplify-merges
First, build a history graph in the same way that --full-history with parent rewriting
does (see above).

Then simplify each commit C to its replacement C' in the final history according to
the following rules:

· Set C' to C.

· Replace each parent P of C' with its simplification P'. In the process, drop
parents that are ancestors of other parents or that are root commits TREESAME to
an empty tree, and remove duplicates, but take care to never drop all parents that
we are TREESAME to.

· If after this parent rewriting, C' is a root or merge commit (has zero or >1
parents), a boundary commit, or !TREESAME, it remains. Otherwise, it is replaced
with its only parent.

The effect of this is best shown by way of comparing to --full-history with parent
rewriting. The example turns into:

.-A---M---N---O
/ / /
I B D
\ / /
`---------'

Note the major differences in N, P, and Q over --full-history:

· N's parent list had I removed, because it is an ancestor of the other parent M.
Still, N remained because it is !TREESAME.

· P's parent list similarly had I removed. P was then removed completely, because
it had one parent and is TREESAME.

· Q's parent list had Y simplified to X. X was then removed, because it was a
TREESAME root. Q was then removed completely, because it had one parent and is
TREESAME.

Finally, there is a fifth simplification mode available:

--ancestry-path
Limit the displayed commits to those directly on the ancestry chain between the “from”
and “to” commits in the given commit range. I.e. only display commits that are
ancestor of the “to” commit and descendants of the “from” commit.

As an example use case, consider the following commit history:

D---E-------F
/ \ \
B---C---G---H---I---J
/ \
A-------K---------------L--M

A regular D..M computes the set of commits that are ancestors of M, but excludes the
ones that are ancestors of D. This is useful to see what happened to the history
leading to M since D, in the sense that “what does M have that did not exist in D”.
The result in this example would be all the commits, except A and B (and D itself, of
course).

When we want to find out what commits in M are contaminated with the bug introduced by
D and need fixing, however, we might want to view only the subset of D..M that are
actually descendants of D, i.e. excluding C and K. This is exactly what the
--ancestry-path option does. Applied to the D..M range, it results in:

E-------F
\ \
G---H---I---J
\
L--M

The --simplify-by-decoration option allows you to view only the big picture of the
topology of the history, by omitting commits that are not referenced by tags. Commits are
marked as !TREESAME (in other words, kept after history simplification rules described
above) if (1) they are referenced by tags, or (2) they change the contents of the paths
given on the command line. All other commits are marked as TREESAME (subject to be
simplified away).

Bisection Helpers
--bisect
Limit output to the one commit object which is roughly halfway between included and
excluded commits. Note that the bad bisection ref refs/bisect/bad is added to the
included commits (if it exists) and the good bisection refs refs/bisect/good-* are
added to the excluded commits (if they exist). Thus, supposing there are no refs in
refs/bisect/, if

$ git rev-list --bisect foo ^bar ^baz

outputs midpoint, the output of the two commands

$ git rev-list foo ^midpoint
$ git rev-list midpoint ^bar ^baz

would be of roughly the same length. Finding the change which introduces a regression
is thus reduced to a binary search: repeatedly generate and test new 'midpoint’s until
the commit chain is of length one. Cannot be combined with --first-parent.

--bisect-vars
This calculates the same as --bisect, except that refs in refs/bisect/ are not used,
and except that this outputs text ready to be eval’ed by the shell. These lines will
assign the name of the midpoint revision to the variable bisect_rev, and the expected
number of commits to be tested after bisect_rev is tested to bisect_nr, the expected
number of commits to be tested if bisect_rev turns out to be good to bisect_good, the
expected number of commits to be tested if bisect_rev turns out to be bad to
bisect_bad, and the number of commits we are bisecting right now to bisect_all.

--bisect-all
This outputs all the commit objects between the included and excluded commits, ordered
by their distance to the included and excluded commits. Refs in refs/bisect/ are not
used. The farthest from them is displayed first. (This is the only one displayed by
--bisect.)

This is useful because it makes it easy to choose a good commit to test when you want
to avoid to test some of them for some reason (they may not compile for example).

This option can be used along with --bisect-vars, in this case, after all the sorted
commit objects, there will be the same text as if --bisect-vars had been used alone.

Commit Ordering
By default, the commits are shown in reverse chronological order.

--date-order
Show no parents before all of its children are shown, but otherwise show commits in
the commit timestamp order.

--author-date-order
Show no parents before all of its children are shown, but otherwise show commits in
the author timestamp order.

--topo-order
Show no parents before all of its children are shown, and avoid showing commits on
multiple lines of history intermixed.

For example, in a commit history like this:

---1----2----4----7
\ \

3----5----6----8---
where the numbers denote the order of commit timestamps, git rev-list and friends with
--date-order show the commits in the timestamp order: 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1.

With --topo-order, they would show 8 6 5 3 7 4 2 1 (or 8 7 4 2 6 5 3 1); some older
commits are shown before newer ones in order to avoid showing the commits from two
parallel development track mixed together.

--reverse
Output the commits in reverse order. Cannot be combined with --walk-reflogs.

Object Traversal
These options are mostly targeted for packing of Git repositories.

--objects
Print the object IDs of any object referenced by the listed commits. --objects foo
^bar thus means “send me all object IDs which I need to download if I have the commit
object bar but not foo”.

--objects-edge
Similar to --objects, but also print the IDs of excluded commits prefixed with a “-”
character. This is used by git-pack-objects(1) to build a “thin” pack, which records
objects in deltified form based on objects contained in these excluded commits to
reduce network traffic.

--objects-edge-aggressive
Similar to --objects-edge, but it tries harder to find excluded commits at the cost of
increased time. This is used instead of --objects-edge to build “thin” packs for
shallow repositories.

--indexed-objects
Pretend as if all trees and blobs used by the index are listed on the command line.
Note that you probably want to use --objects, too.

--unpacked
Only useful with --objects; print the object IDs that are not in packs.

--no-walk[=(sorted|unsorted)]
Only show the given commits, but do not traverse their ancestors. This has no effect
if a range is specified. If the argument unsorted is given, the commits are shown in
the order they were given on the command line. Otherwise (if sorted or no argument was
given), the commits are shown in reverse chronological order by commit time. Cannot be
combined with --graph.

--do-walk
Overrides a previous --no-walk.

Commit Formatting
Using these options, git-rev-list(1) will act similar to the more specialized family of
commit log tools: git-log(1), git-show(1), and git-whatchanged(1)

--pretty[=<format>], --format=<format>
Pretty-print the contents of the commit logs in a given format, where <format> can be
one of oneline, short, medium, full, fuller, email, raw, format:<string> and
tformat:<string>. When <format> is none of the above, and has %placeholder in it, it
acts as if --pretty=tformat:<format> were given.

See the "PRETTY FORMATS" section for some additional details for each format. When
=<format> part is omitted, it defaults to medium.

Note: you can specify the default pretty format in the repository configuration (see
git-config(1)).

--abbrev-commit
Instead of showing the full 40-byte hexadecimal commit object name, show only a
partial prefix. Non default number of digits can be specified with "--abbrev=<n>"
(which also modifies diff output, if it is displayed).

This should make "--pretty=oneline" a whole lot more readable for people using
80-column terminals.

--no-abbrev-commit
Show the full 40-byte hexadecimal commit object name. This negates --abbrev-commit and
those options which imply it such as "--oneline". It also overrides the
log.abbrevCommit variable.

--oneline
This is a shorthand for "--pretty=oneline --abbrev-commit" used together.

--encoding=<encoding>
The commit objects record the encoding used for the log message in their encoding
header; this option can be used to tell the command to re-code the commit log message
in the encoding preferred by the user. For non plumbing commands this defaults to
UTF-8. Note that if an object claims to be encoded in X and we are outputting in X, we
will output the object verbatim; this means that invalid sequences in the original
commit may be copied to the output.

--show-signature
Check the validity of a signed commit object by passing the signature to gpg --verify
and show the output.

--relative-date
Synonym for --date=relative.

--date=<format>
Only takes effect for dates shown in human-readable format, such as when using
--pretty. log.date config variable sets a default value for the log command’s --date
option. By default, dates are shown in the original time zone (either committer’s or
author’s). If -local is appended to the format (e.g., iso-local), the user’s local
time zone is used instead.

--date=relative shows dates relative to the current time, e.g. “2 hours ago”. The
-local option cannot be used with --raw or --relative.

--date=local is an alias for --date=default-local.

--date=iso (or --date=iso8601) shows timestamps in a ISO 8601-like format. The
differences to the strict ISO 8601 format are:

· a space instead of the T date/time delimiter

· a space between time and time zone

· no colon between hours and minutes of the time zone

--date=iso-strict (or --date=iso8601-strict) shows timestamps in strict ISO 8601
format.

--date=rfc (or --date=rfc2822) shows timestamps in RFC 2822 format, often found in
email messages.

--date=short shows only the date, but not the time, in YYYY-MM-DD format.

--date=raw shows the date in the internal raw Git format %s %z format.

--date=format:... feeds the format ... to your system strftime. Use --date=format:%c
to show the date in your system locale’s preferred format. See the strftime manual for
a complete list of format placeholders. When using -local, the correct syntax is
--date=format-local:....

--date=default is the default format, and is similar to --date=rfc2822, with a few
exceptions:

· there is no comma after the day-of-week

· the time zone is omitted when the local time zone is used

--header
Print the contents of the commit in raw-format; each record is separated with a NUL
character.

--parents
Print also the parents of the commit (in the form "commit parent..."). Also enables
parent rewriting, see History Simplification below.

--children
Print also the children of the commit (in the form "commit child..."). Also enables
parent rewriting, see History Simplification below.

--timestamp
Print the raw commit timestamp.

--left-right
Mark which side of a symmetric diff a commit is reachable from. Commits from the left
side are prefixed with < and those from the right with >. If combined with --boundary,
those commits are prefixed with -.

For example, if you have this topology:

y---b---b branch B
/ \ /
/ .
/ / \
o---x---a---a branch A

you would get an output like this:

$ git rev-list --left-right --boundary --pretty=oneline A...B

>bbbbbbb... 3rd on b
>bbbbbbb... 2nd on b
<aaaaaaa... 3rd on a
<aaaaaaa... 2nd on a
-yyyyyyy... 1st on b
-xx... 1st on a

--graph
Draw a text-based graphical representation of the commit history on the left hand side
of the output. This may cause extra lines to be printed in between commits, in order
for the graph history to be drawn properly. Cannot be combined with --no-walk.

This enables parent rewriting, see History Simplification below.

This implies the --topo-order option by default, but the --date-order option may also
be specified.

--show-linear-break[=<barrier>]
When --graph is not used, all history branches are flattened which can make it hard to
see that the two consecutive commits do not belong to a linear branch. This option
puts a barrier in between them in that case. If <barrier> is specified, it is the
string that will be shown instead of the default one.

--count
Print a number stating how many commits would have been listed, and suppress all other
output. When used together with --left-right, instead print the counts for left and
right commits, separated by a tab. When used together with --cherry-mark, omit patch
equivalent commits from these counts and print the count for equivalent commits
separated by a tab.

PRETTY FORMATS


If the commit is a merge, and if the pretty-format is not oneline, email or raw, an
additional line is inserted before the Author: line. This line begins with "Merge: " and
the sha1s of ancestral commits are printed, separated by spaces. Note that the listed
commits may not necessarily be the list of the direct parent commits if you have limited
your view of history: for example, if you are only interested in changes related to a
certain directory or file.

There are several built-in formats, and you can define additional formats by setting a
pretty.<name> config option to either another format name, or a format: string, as
described below (see git-config(1)). Here are the details of the built-in formats:

· oneline

<sha1> <title line>

This is designed to be as compact as possible.

· short

commit <sha1>
Author: <author>

<title line>

· medium

commit <sha1>
Author: <author>
Date: <author date>

<title line>

<full commit message>

· full

commit <sha1>
Author: <author>
Commit: <committer>

<title line>

<full commit message>

· fuller

commit <sha1>
Author: <author>
AuthorDate: <author date>
Commit: <committer>
CommitDate: <committer date>

<title line>

<full commit message>

· email

From <sha1> <date>
From: <author>
Date: <author date>
Subject: [PATCH] <title line>

<full commit message>

· raw

The raw format shows the entire commit exactly as stored in the commit object.
Notably, the SHA-1s are displayed in full, regardless of whether --abbrev or
--no-abbrev are used, and parents information show the true parent commits, without
taking grafts or history simplification into account. Note that this format affects
the way commits are displayed, but not the way the diff is shown e.g. with git log
--raw. To get full object names in a raw diff format, use --no-abbrev.

· format:<string>

The format:<string> format allows you to specify which information you want to show.
It works a little bit like printf format, with the notable exception that you get a
newline with %n instead of \n.

E.g, format:"The author of %h was %an, %ar%nThe title was >>%s<<%n" would show
something like this:

The author of fe6e0ee was Junio C Hamano, 23 hours ago
The title was >>t4119: test autocomputing -p<n> for traditional diff input.<<

The placeholders are:

· %H: commit hash

· %h: abbreviated commit hash

· %T: tree hash

· %t: abbreviated tree hash

· %P: parent hashes

· %p: abbreviated parent hashes

· %an: author name

· %aN: author name (respecting .mailmap, see git-shortlog(1) or git-blame(1))

· %ae: author email

· %aE: author email (respecting .mailmap, see git-shortlog(1) or git-blame(1))

· %ad: author date (format respects --date= option)

· %aD: author date, RFC2822 style

· %ar: author date, relative

· %at: author date, UNIX timestamp

· %ai: author date, ISO 8601-like format

· %aI: author date, strict ISO 8601 format

· %cn: committer name

· %cN: committer name (respecting .mailmap, see git-shortlog(1) or git-blame(1))

· %ce: committer email

· %cE: committer email (respecting .mailmap, see git-shortlog(1) or git-blame(1))

· %cd: committer date (format respects --date= option)

· %cD: committer date, RFC2822 style

· %cr: committer date, relative

· %ct: committer date, UNIX timestamp

· %ci: committer date, ISO 8601-like format

· %cI: committer date, strict ISO 8601 format

· %d: ref names, like the --decorate option of git-log(1)

· %D: ref names without the " (", ")" wrapping.

· %e: encoding

· %s: subject

· %f: sanitized subject line, suitable for a filename

· %b: body

· %B: raw body (unwrapped subject and body)

· %GG: raw verification message from GPG for a signed commit

· %G?: show "G" for a Good signature, "B" for a Bad signature, "U" for a good,
untrusted signature and "N" for no signature

· %GS: show the name of the signer for a signed commit

· %GK: show the key used to sign a signed commit

· %gD: reflog selector, e.g., refs/stash@{1}

· %gd: shortened reflog selector, e.g., stash@{1}

· %gn: reflog identity name

· %gN: reflog identity name (respecting .mailmap, see git-shortlog(1) or git-
blame(1))

· %ge: reflog identity email

· %gE: reflog identity email (respecting .mailmap, see git-shortlog(1) or git-
blame(1))

· %gs: reflog subject

· %Cred: switch color to red

· %Cgreen: switch color to green

· %Cblue: switch color to blue

· %Creset: reset color

· %C(...): color specification, as described in color.branch.* config option; adding
auto, at the beginning will emit color only when colors are enabled for log output
(by color.diff, color.ui, or --color, and respecting the auto settings of the
former if we are going to a terminal). auto alone (i.e. %C(auto)) will turn on
auto coloring on the next placeholders until the color is switched again.

· %m: left, right or boundary mark

· %n: newline

· %%: a raw %

· %x00: print a byte from a hex code

· %w([<w>[,<i1>[,<i2>]]]): switch line wrapping, like the -w option of git-
shortlog(1).

· %<(<N>[,trunc|ltrunc|mtrunc]): make the next placeholder take at least N columns,
padding spaces on the right if necessary. Optionally truncate at the beginning
(ltrunc), the middle (mtrunc) or the end (trunc) if the output is longer than N
columns. Note that truncating only works correctly with N >= 2.

· %<|(<N>): make the next placeholder take at least until Nth columns, padding
spaces on the right if necessary

· %>(<N>), %>|(<N>): similar to %<(<N>), %<|(<N>) respectively, but padding spaces
on the left

· %>>(<N>), %>>|(<N>): similar to %>(<N>), %>|(<N>) respectively, except that if the
next placeholder takes more spaces than given and there are spaces on its left,
use those spaces

· %><(<N>), %><|(<N>): similar to % <(<N>), %<|(<N>) respectively, but padding both
sides (i.e. the text is centered)

Note
Some placeholders may depend on other options given to the revision traversal engine.
For example, the %g* reflog options will insert an empty string unless we are
traversing reflog entries (e.g., by git log -g). The %d and %D placeholders will use
the "short" decoration format if --decorate was not already provided on the command
line.

If you add a + (plus sign) after % of a placeholder, a line-feed is inserted immediately
before the expansion if and only if the placeholder expands to a non-empty string.

If you add a - (minus sign) after % of a placeholder, line-feeds that immediately precede
the expansion are deleted if and only if the placeholder expands to an empty string.

If you add a ` ` (space) after % of a placeholder, a space is inserted immediately before
the expansion if and only if the placeholder expands to a non-empty string.

· tformat:

The tformat: format works exactly like format:, except that it provides "terminator"
semantics instead of "separator" semantics. In other words, each commit has the
message terminator character (usually a newline) appended, rather than a separator
placed between entries. This means that the final entry of a single-line format will
be properly terminated with a new line, just as the "oneline" format does. For
example:

$ git log -2 --pretty=format:%h 4da45bef \
| perl -pe '$_ .= " -- NO NEWLINE\n" unless /\n/'
4da45be
7134973 -- NO NEWLINE

$ git log -2 --pretty=tformat:%h 4da45bef \
| perl -pe '$_ .= " -- NO NEWLINE\n" unless /\n/'
4da45be
7134973

In addition, any unrecognized string that has a % in it is interpreted as if it has
tformat: in front of it. For example, these two are equivalent:

$ git log -2 --pretty=tformat:%h 4da45bef
$ git log -2 --pretty=%h 4da45bef

GIT


Part of the git(1) suite

Use git-rev-list online using onworks.net services


Free Servers & Workstations

Download Windows & Linux apps

Linux commands

Ad