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gp - The PARI calculator


gp [-s stacksize] [-p primelimit] [--emacs] [-f|--fast] [-q|--quiet] [-D|--default
key=val] [--help] [--test] [--texmacs] [--version] [--version-short] [ file1 file2 ...]


Invokes the PARI-GP calculator gp; gp is an advanced programmable calculator, specializing
in number theory, which computes symbolically as long as possible, numerically where
needed, and contains a wealth of arithmetic functions: factorizations, elliptic curves,
Galois theory, class field theory... Commands, written in the GP scripting language, are
input interactively or loaded from files.

If present at the end of the command line, files 'file1', 'file2', ... are loaded on
startup; they must be written in the GP language.


Command line options are available in both short form (-f) and POSIX-like (--fast).
Numeric arguments can be followed by a modifier k , M or G at the user's convenience; in
that case the argument is multiplied by 10^3, 10^6, or 10^9 respectively.

-f, --fast
Fast start (or factory settings). Do not read .gprc (see below) upon startup.

-p limit
[DEPRECATED] Upon startup, gp computes a table of small primes used in number-
theoretic applications. If primelimit is set, the table include primes up to that
bound instead of the default (= 500000). It is now mostly useless to change this

-q, --quiet
Quiet mode. Do not print headers or history numbers and do not say goodbye.

-D, --default key=val
performs default(key, val); on startup, overriding values from the gprc preferences
file. 'val' must be a constant value and is not allowed to involve any computation
(e.g. 1+1 is forbidden). Any number of such default-setting statements may appear
on the command line.

-s limit
Size of gp internal stack allocated on startup. When gp runs out of space, it
interrupts the current computation and raises a stack overflow exception. If this
occurs frequently, start with a bigger stack. The stack size can also be increased
from within gp, using default(parisize,limit); it may be convenient to set
stacksize from your .gprc. Note that computations with a smaller stack may be more
efficient due to better data locality. Most computations should need less than

gp can be run in an Emacs shell (see GP User's manual for details). This flag is
then required for smooth interaction with the PariEmacs package (pari.el). It is
set automatically by the pari.el package, and will produce nice display oddities if
you set it outside of an Emacs session.

--help print a summary of available command-line options.

--test run gp in test mode: suppress printing of history numbers and wrap long output
lines (to get readable diff output). For benches only.

gp can be run from a TeXmacs frontend. This flag is set by TeXmacs, to enable
special purpose communication channels. Do not set it yourself.

output version info (banner) then exit.

output version number then exit.


? to get online help.

?? to get extended online help (more precisely, to call the external help program,
gphelp by default)

quit (or \q), or EOF (Ctrl-D) to quit gp.

The following works only when gp was linked with GNU readline library:

arrow keys
for editing and viewing the input history.

for automatic completion


The following material is included in the standard distribution (originally in TeX

The User's Guide to PARI/GP

The User's Guide to the PARI library

The Developer's Guide to the PARI library

PARI/GP, a tutorial

PARI/GP reference card
(refcard.ps): 4 pages, based on an earlier version by Joseph H. Silverman.

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