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join - relational database operator


join [ options ] file1 file2


Join forms, on the standard output, a join of the two relations specified by the lines of
file1 and file2. If one of the file names is the standard input is used.

File1 and file2 must be sorted in increasing ASCII collating sequence on the fields on
which they are to be joined, normally the first in each line.

There is one line in the output for each pair of lines in file1 and file2 that have
identical join fields. The output line normally consists of the common field, then the
rest of the line from file1, then the rest of the line from file2.

Input fields are normally separated spaces or tabs; output fields by space. In this case,
multiple separators count as one, and leading separators are discarded.

The following options are recognized, with POSIX syntax.

-a n In addition to the normal output, produce a line for each unpairable line in file
n, where n is 1 or 2.

-v n Like -a, omitting output for paired lines.

-e s Replace empty output fields by string s.

-1 m
-2 m Join on the mth field of file1 or file2.

-jn m Archaic equivalent for -n m.

Each output line comprises the designated fields. The comma-separated field
designators are either 0, meaning the join field, or have the form n.m, where n is
a file number and m is a field number. Archaic usage allows separate arguments for
field designators.

-tc Use character c as the only separator (tab character) on input and output. Every
appearance of c in a line is significant.


sort /etc/passwd | join -t: -1 1 -a 1 -e "" - bdays
Add birthdays to the /etc/passwd file, leaving unknown birthdays empty. The layout
of /adm/users is given in passwd(5); bdays contains sorted lines like

tr : ' ' </etc/passwd | sort -k 3 3 >temp
join -1 3 -2 3 -o 1.1,2.1 temp temp | awk '$1 < $2'
Print all pairs of users with identical userids.



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