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Part 1 – Learning The Shell‌


1 – What Is The Shell?Terminal EmulatorsYour First KeystrokesCommand HistoryCursor MovementTry Some Simple CommandsEnding A Terminal SessionSumming UpFurther Reading2 – NavigationUnderstanding The File System TreeThe Current Working DirectoryListing The Contents Of A DirectoryChanging The Current Working DirectoryAbsolute PathnamesRelative PathnamesSome Helpful ShortcutsSumming Up3 – Exploring The SystemMore Fun With lsOptions And ArgumentsA Longer Look At Long FormatDetermining A File's Type With fileViewing File Contents With lessA Guided TourSymbolic LinksHard LinksSumming UpFurther Reading4 – Manipulating Files And DirectoriesWildcardsmkdir – Create Directoriescp – Copy Files And DirectoriesUseful Options And Examplesmv – Move And Rename FilesUseful Options And Examplesrm – Remove Files And DirectoriesUseful Options And Examplesln – Create LinksHard LinksSymbolic LinksLet's Build A PlaygroundCreating DirectoriesCopying FilesMoving And Renaming FilesCreating Hard LinksCreating Symbolic LinksRemoving Files And DirectoriesSumming UpFurther Reading5 – Working With CommandsWhat Exactly Are Commands?Identifying Commandstype – Display A Command's Typewhich – Display An Executable's LocationGetting A Command's Documentationhelp – Get Help For Shell Builtins--help – Display Usage Informationman – Display A Program's Manual Pageapropos – Display Appropriate Commandswhatis – Display A Very Brief Description Of A Commandinfo – Display A Program's Info EntryREADME And Other Program Documentation FilesCreating Your Own Commands With aliasSumming UpFurther Reading6 – RedirectionStandard Input, Output, And ErrorRedirecting Standard OutputRedirecting Standard ErrorRedirecting Standard Output And Standard Error To One FileDisposing Of Unwanted OutputRedirecting Standard Inputcat – Concatenate FilesPipelinesFiltersuniq - Report Or Omit Repeated Lineswc – Print Line, Word, And Byte Countsgrep – Print Lines Matching A Patternhead / tail – Print First / Last Part Of Filestee – Read From Stdin And Output To Stdout And FilesSumming Up7 – Seeing The World As The Shell Sees ItExpansionPathname ExpansionTilde ExpansionArithmetic ExpansionBrace ExpansionParameter ExpansionCommand SubstitutionQuotingDouble QuotesSingle QuotesEscaping CharactersSumming UpFurther Reading8 – Advanced Keyboard TricksCommand Line EditingCursor MovementModifying TextCutting And Pasting (Killing And Yanking) TextCompletionUsing HistorySearching HistoryHistory ExpansionSumming UpFurther Reading9 – PermissionsOwners, Group Members, And Everybody ElseReading, Writing, And Executingchmod – Change File ModeSetting File Mode With The GUIumask – Set Default PermissionsChanging Identitiessu – Run A Shell With Substitute User And Group IDssudo – Execute A Command As Another Userchown – Change File Owner And Groupchgrp – Change Group OwnershipExercising Our PrivilegesChanging Your PasswordSumming UpFurther Reading10 – ProcessesHow A Process WorksViewing ProcessesViewing Processes Dynamically With topControlling ProcessesInterrupting A ProcessPutting A Process In The BackgroundReturning A Process To The ForegroundStopping (Pausing) A ProcessSignalsSending Signals To Processes With killSending Signals To Multiple Processes With killallShutting Down The SystemMore Process Related CommandsSumming Up

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