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Introduction to Linux

A Hands on Guide

Machtelt Garrels


<tille wants no spam _at_ garrels dot be>

1.27 Edition

Copyright © 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008 Machtelt Garrels




Table of ContentsIntroduction1. Why this guide?2. Who should read this book?3. New versions and availability4. Revision History5. Contributions6. Feedback7. Copyright information8. What do you need?9. Conventions used in this document10. Organization of this documentChapter 1. What is Linux?1.1. History1.1.1. UNIX1.1.2. Linus and Linux1.1.3. Current application of Linux systems1.2. The user interface1.2.1. Is Linux difficult?1.2.2. Linux for non-experienced users1.3. Does Linux have a future?1.3.1. Open Source1.3.2. Ten years of experience at your service1.4. Properties of Linux1.4.1. Linux Pros1.4.2. Linux Cons1.5. Linux Flavors1.5.1. Linux and GNU1.5.2. GNU/Linux1.5.3. Which distribution should I install?1.6. Summary1.7. ExercisesChapter 2. Quickstart2.1. Logging in, activating the user interface and logging out2.1.1. Introduction2.1.2. Graphical mode2.1.3. Text mode2.2. Absolute basics2.2.1. The commands2.2.2. General remarks2.2.3. Using Bash features2.3. Getting help2.3.1. Be warned2.3.2. The man pages2.3.3. More info2.4. Summary2.5. Exercises2.5.1. Connecting and disconnecting2.5.2. Passwords2.5.3. Directories2.5.4. Files2.5.5. Getting helpChapter 3. About files and the file system3.1. General overview of the Linux file system3.1.1. Files3.1.2. About partitioning3.1.3. More file system layout3.2. Orientation in the file system3.2.1. The path3.2.2. Absolute and relative paths3.2.3. The most important files and directories3.2.4. The most important configuration files3.2.5. The most common devices3.2.6. The most common variable files3.3. Manipulating files3.3.1. Viewing file properties3.3.2. Creating and deleting files and directories3.3.3. Finding files3.3.4. More ways to view file content3.3.5. Linking files3.4. File security3.4.1. Access rights: Linux's first line of defense3.4.2. The tools3.5. Summary3.6. Exercises3.6.1. Partitions3.6.2. Paths3.6.3. Tour of the system3.6.4. Manipulating files3.6.5. File permissionsChapter 4. Processes4.1. Processes inside out4.1.1. Multi-user and multi-tasking4.1.2. Process types4.1.3. Process attributes4.1.4. Displaying process information4.1.5. Life and death of a process4.1.6. SUID and SGID4.2. Boot process, Init and shutdown4.2.1. Introduction4.2.2. The boot process4.2.3. GRUB features4.2.4. Init4.2.5. Init run levels4.2.6. Shutdown4.3. Managing processes4.3.1. Work for the system admin4.3.2. How long does it take?4.3.3. Performance4.3.4. Load4.3.5. Can I do anything as a user?4.4. Scheduling processes4.4.1. Use that idle time!4.4.2. The sleep command4.4.3. The at command4.4.4. Cron and crontab4.5. Summary4.6. Exercises4.6.1. General4.6.2. Booting, init etc.4.6.3. SchedulingChapter 5. I/O redirection5.1. Simple redirections5.1.1. What are standard input and standard output?5.1.2. The redirection operators5.2. Advanced redirection features5.2.1. Use of file descriptors5.2.2. Examples5.3. Filters5.3.1. More about grep5.3.2. Filtering output5.4. Summary5.5. ExercisesChapter 6. Text editors6.1. Text editors6.1.1. Why should I use an editor?6.1.2. Which editor should I use?6.2. Using the Vim editor6.2.1. Two modes6.2.2. Basic commands6.2.3. The easy way6.3. Linux in the office6.3.1. History6.3.2. Suites and programs6.3.3. Remarks6.4. Summary6.5. ExercisesChapter 7. Home sweet /home7.1. General good housekeeping7.1.1. Introduction7.1.2. Make space7.2. Your text environment7.2.1. Environment variables7.2.2. Shell setup files7.2.3. A typical set of setup files7.2.4. The Bash prompt7.2.5. Shell scripts7.3. The graphical environment7.3.1. Introduction7.3.2. The X Window System7.3.3. X server configuration7.4. Region specific settings7.4.1. Keyboard setup7.4.2. Fonts7.4.3. Date and time zone7.4.4. Language7.4.5. Country-specific Information7.5. Installing new software7.5.1. General7.5.2. Package formats7.5.3. Automating package management and updates7.5.4. Upgrading your kernel7.5.5. Installing extra packages from the installation CDs7.6. Summary7.7. Exercises7.7.1. Shell environment7.7.2. Graphical environmentChapter 8. Printers and printing8.1. Printing files8.1.1. Command line printing8.1.2. Formatting8.2. The server side8.2.1. General8.2.2. Graphical printer configuration8.2.3. Buying a printer for Linux8.3. Print problems8.3.1. Wrong file8.3.2. My print hasn't come out8.4. Summary8.5. ExercisesChapter 9. Fundamental Backup Techniques9.1. Introduction9.1.1. Preparing your data9.2. Moving your data to a backup device9.2.1. Making a copy on a floppy disk9.2.2. Making a copy with a CD-writer9.2.3. Backups on/from jazz drives, USB devices and other removables9.2.4. Backing up data using a tape device9.2.5. Tools from your distribution9.3. Using rsync9.3.1. Introduction9.3.2. An example: rsync to a USB storage device9.4. Encryption9.4.1. General remarks9.4.2. Generate a key9.4.3. About your key9.4.4. Encrypt data9.4.5. Decrypting files9.5. Summary9.6. ExercisesChapter 10. Networking10.1. Networking Overview10.1.1. The OSI Model10.1.2. Some popular networking protocols10.2. Network configuration and information10.2.1. Configuration of network interfaces10.2.2. Network configuration files10.2.3. Network configuration commands10.2.4. Network interface names10.2.5. Checking the host configuration with netstat10.2.6. Other hosts10.3. Internet/Intranet applications10.3.1. Server types10.3.2. Mail10.3.3. Web10.3.4. File Transfer Protocol10.3.5. Chatting and conferencing10.3.6. News services10.3.7. The Domain Name System10.3.8. DHCP10.3.9. Authentication services10.4. Remote execution of applications10.4.1. Introduction10.4.2. Rsh, rlogin and telnet10.4.3. The X Window System10.4.4. The SSH suite10.4.5. VNC10.4.6. The rdesktop protocol10.4.7. Cygwin10.5. Security10.5.1. Introduction10.5.2. Services10.5.3. Update regularly10.5.4. Firewalls and access policies10.5.5. Intrusion detection10.5.6. More tips10.5.7. Have I been hacked?10.5.8. Recovering from intrusion10.6. Summary10.7. Exercises10.7.1. General networking10.7.2. Remote connections10.7.3. SecurityChapter 11. Sound and Video11.1. Audio Basics11.1.1. Installation11.1.2. Drivers and Architecture11.2. Sound and video playing11.2.1. CD playing and copying11.2.2. Playing music files11.2.3. Recording11.3. Video playing, streams and television watching11.4. Internet Telephony11.4.1. What is it?11.4.2. What do you need?11.5. Summary11.6. ExercisesAppendix A. Where to go from here?A.1. Useful BooksA.1.1. General LinuxA.1.2. EditorsA.1.3. ShellsA.1.4. X WindowA.1.5. NetworkingA.2. Useful sitesA.2.1. General informationA.2.2. Architecture Specific ReferencesA.2.3. DistributionsA.2.4. SoftwareAppendix B. DOS versus Linux commandsAppendix C. Shell FeaturesC.1. Common featuresC.2. Differing featuresGlossaryABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZIndex

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